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Non-tuberculous mycobacteria

Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor P M G Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita L Michel
Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ibrahim Abubakar, Rishi K Gupta, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Marc Lipman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Laura Reisfeld, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Laura Ippolito, Bruna Silvatti, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Fernando C W Rosas, José Anselmo Neto, Vera M F da Silva
An adult male Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis under human care presented with 3 circular cutaneous lesions on the dorsal aspect of the rostrum and between the nostrils (plenum). Initially these lesions were superficial, hypopigmented, without warmth and non-painful. Microbiological cultures of skin swabs isolated Candida sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and topical treatment with antiseptic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medication was instituted. This treatment strategy did not lead to any clinical improvement, and after 6 mo, the lesions progressed to a confluent abscess (5...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Kriangkrai Chawansuntati, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Kritsadee Rattanathammethee, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
A major characteristic of immunodeficiency associated with life-threatening intracellular infection in adults is the presence of anti-interferon-γ antibodies. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying this syndrome, it is believed that the antibodies inhibit the activity of downstream signaling pathway of interferon-γ. In this study, the characteristics of these antibodies in patients who presented, or have a history of, intracellular infection and were positive to anti-interferon-γ antibodies were investigated...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ignacio Duarte
In the 19th century it was widely believed that both tuberculosis and cervical lymph node swelling, known as scrophula, affected individuals predisposed to an inherited "diathetic constitution". In 1882 Robert Koch proved that human tuberculosis and scrophulous lesions were caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the early twentieth century it was stated that Mycobacterium bovis, the bacillus of cattle tuberculosis, could also cause cervical lymphoadenitis in humans, especially in children, by the intake of milk from sick cows...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Tatjana Adzic-Vukicevic, Aleksandra Barac, Ana Blanka-Protic, Marija Laban-Lazovic, Bojana Lukovic, Vesna Skodric-Trifunovic, Salvatore Rubino
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms associated with various infections. The aim of the study was to determine the most relevant clinical characteristics of NTM during the 7-year period. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study of NTM infections was conducted between January 2009 and December 2016. The American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America criteria were used to define cases of pulmonary or an extrapulmonary site...
February 23, 2018: Infection
Jonathan D Cogen, Frankline Onchiri, Julia Emerson, Ronald L Gibson, Lucas R Hoffman, David P Nichols, Margaret Rosenfeld
RATIONALE: Azithromycin has been shown to improve lung function and reduce the number of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients. Concerns remain, however, regarding the potential emergence of treatment-related respiratory pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine if chronic azithromycin use (defined as thrice weekly administration) is associated with increased rates of detection of eight specific respiratory pathogens. METHODS: We performed a new-user, propensity-score matched retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry...
February 23, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Warinyupa Pinitpuwadol, Sucheera Sarunket, Sutasinee Boonsopon, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Pitipol Choopong
BACKGROUND: Although atypical mycobacteria had been increasingly found in various ocular infections in the past decades, a slow-growing Mycobacterium haemophilum (M. haemophilum) was scarcely reported. Similar to tuberculous infection, the presentation can masquerade as low-grade granulomatous intraocular inflammation with partial response to corticosteroids. Besides, the special requirements for culture make this pathogen difficult to diagnose. The study aims to report the clinical presentation and notify the awareness of NTM endophthalmitis among clinicians...
February 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
R Hermes, J Saragusty, I Moser, S Holtze, J Nieter, K Sachse, T Voracek, A Bernhard, T Bouts, F Göritz, T B Hildebrandt
Tuberculosis (TB) has been known to affect elephants for thousands of years. It was put into spotlight when few circus elephants were diagnosed carrying Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Because of the zoonotic risk and high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, periodic testing was enacted since, in captive breeding programmes. Presently, trunk wash is the recommended diagnostic procedure for TB. Trunk wash, however, puts the operator at risk, has low sensitivity, and is prone to contamination. Here, bronchoalveolar lavage is described for the first time for TB diagnosis in elephants...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y A M El-Wajeh, M G Watson, D Igoumenakis, P Stathopoulos
This retrospective study covered over two decades, during which an individual head and neck surgeon treated 24 patients with cervicofacial lymphadenitis that was related to both Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (n=17, made up of M tuberculosis (n=16) and M bovis (n=1)), and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The seven cases of non-tuberculous mycobacteria were caused by M avium complex (n=3), M malmoense (n=3), and M kansaii (n=1). By using a tailored management approach, at times selective combined surgical and antimycobacterial treatment, he achieved a success rate of 23/24 cases, with only one recurrence and no major complications...
January 27, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Ajoy Kumar Verma, Rohit Sarin, Vijay Kumar Arora, Gavish Kumar, Jyoti Arora, Paras Singh, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
BACKGROUND: The rapid grower mycobacteria have emerged as significant group of human pathogen amongst the Runyon group IV organisms that are capable of causing infection in both the healthy and immunocompromised hosts. Study aimed to identification of species amongst rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacterial isolates by polymerase chain reaction - restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Analysis and comparison of results with standard biochemical tests. METHODS: Rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacteria had been collected from liquid culture section during the study period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Lymaries Velez, Jennifer Harb, Stephanie Anuszewski, Stanton Wesson
Tattoo popularity continues to rise, with 3 in 10 Americans bearing at least one. Among tattoo complications, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has emerged as a global public health concern. NTM infections associated with tattooing of immunocompetent individuals have occurred as sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Water sources are considered the major pathogenic reservoirs. Tattoo-related inoculation has been linked to contamination of ink, either during the manufacturing process or during dilution of black ink using non-sterile water...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kathan Mehta, Annie Im, Farah Rahman, Hong Wang, Peter Veldkamp
Background: Prior studies have shown that outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in HIV (+) patients are similar to HIV (-) patients since effective implementation of HAART by 1998; but they are limited by small sample size or non-inclusion of recent data. Methods: We queried National Inpatient Sample, a large inpatient dataset in the US, from 1998 to 2012 for HSCT using ICD9 procedure code 41.0. HIV patients were identified by ICD9 diagnostic code of 042, 043, 044, V08 and 079...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ngula Monde, Musso Munyeme, Adrian Muwonge, John Bwalya Muma, Sydney Malama
BACKGROUND: The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation of these organisms for better patient management, consequently reducing the burden of these infections...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Victor O Akinseye, Muideen D Adebayo, Oghenekaro O Genesis, Olubukola D Adelakun, Simeon I B Cadmus
We evaluated the prevalence of mycobacterial infections (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) and their associated risk factors among cattle herds and trade cattle in southwestern Nigeria. Through cross-sectional study design, cattle herds from three locations were screened using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test based on two diagnostic standards; more than 4 mm (˃ 4 mm) and more than 2 mm (˃ 2 mm) cut-off points. Abattoir study involved screening trade cattle for tuberculous lesions...
December 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
G Ghielmetti, U Friedel, S Scherrer, E Sarno, P Landolt, O Dietz, M Hilbe, C Zweifel, R Stephan
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are reported as emerging disease in many countries worldwide. The occurrence of NTM in different hosts and their implication as obligate or opportunistic pathogen remain largely unclear. Lymph nodes and faecal samples of clinically healthy Swiss cattle at slaughter were analysed for the presence of NTM. Based on the examined lymph nodes, NTM were detected in 20% of 108 cattle originating from different premises. The 22 isolates belonged to five different species of Mycobacteria (M...
December 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Bharti Chogtu, Daliparty Vasudev Malik, Rahul Magazine, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy
Non Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of rapidly growing mycobacteria and are generally considered to be of low virulence. Of late, there has been an increase in incidence of infections due to these organisms. Among them, Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M. abscessus are the common species which have been identified. Though they are occasionally implicated in pulmonary infections, NTM are very commonly associated with cutaneous infections, especially surgical site infections. Identification of NTM infection at such sites should be suspected when there is delayed healing of the wound...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
F Alcaide, J Amlerová, G Bou, P J Ceyssens, P Coll, D Corcoran, M-S Fangous, I González-Álvarez, R Gorton, G Greub, G Hery-Arnaud, J Hrábak, A Ingebretsen, B Lucey, I Marekoviċ, C Mediavilla-Gradolph, M R Monté, J O'Connor, J O'Mahony, O Opota, B O'Reilly, D Orth-Höller, M Oviaño, J J Palacios, B Palop, A B Pranada, L Quiroga, D Rodríguez-Temporal, M J Ruiz-Serrano, G Tudó, A Van den Bossche, J van Ingen, B Rodriguez-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: The implementation of MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification has changed the routine of the microbiology laboratories as we knew it. Most microorganisms can now be reliably identified within minutes using this inexpensive, user-friendly methodology. However, its application in the identification of mycobacteria isolates has been hampered by the structure of their cell wall. Improvements in the sample processing method and in the available database have proved key factors for the rapid and reliable identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolates using MALDI-TOF MS...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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