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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550176/mechanical-behavior-and-matrisome-gene-expression-in-aneurysm-prone-thoracic-aorta-of-newborn-lysyl-oxidase-knockout-mice
#1
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Robert P Mecham, Jessica Wagenseil
Mutations in lysyl oxidase (LOX) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Mice that do not express Lox (Lox(-/-)) die soon after birth and have 60% and 40% reductions in elastin- and collagen-specific crosslinks, respectively. LOX inactivation could also change the expression of secreted factors, structural matrix, and matrix-associated proteins that constitute the aortic matrisome. We hypothesize that the absence of Lox will change the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall due to reduced elastin and collagen crosslinking and alter the expression levels of matrisome and smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in a vascular location-specific manner...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549565/transient-leg-deformations-during-eclosion-out-of-a-tight-confinement-a-comparative-study-on-seven-species-of-flies-moths-ants-and-bees
#2
Leonid Frantsevich, Iryna Kozeretska, Yuriy Dubrovsky, Tetyana Markina, Iryna Shumakova, Stanislav Stukalyuk
Legs in dipteran pupae are tightly packed in a zigzag configuration. Changes in the shape or configuration of long podomeres during eclosion have been overlooked because they occur rapidly (in a few minutes) and the legs are hidden inside a tight opaque confinement: the puparium in the Cyclorrhapha, the obtect pupa in mosquitoes. We fixed insects at different times during eclosion and obtained a temporal description of changes in leg shape. At the start of eclosion in Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster, femora are buckled in between the joints...
May 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549188/eif5a-facilitates-translation-termination-globally-and-promotes-the-elongation-of-many-non-polyproline-specific-tripeptide-sequences
#3
Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548859/separation-of-oil-in-water-emulsions-using-hydrophilic-electrospun-membranes-with-anisotropic-pores
#4
Weerapha Panatdasirisuk, Zhiwei Liao, Thammasit Vongsetskul, Shu Yang
It has been challenging to separate oil from oil/water emulsions with droplet size less than 1 μm using conventional porous membranes. Membranes with small pores are preferred, but the trade-off is a dramatic reduction of volumetric flux. Here, we prepared membranes from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with high porosity (∼88%). When the membranes were stretched uniaxially at different strain levels, the pores became anisotropic with an aspect ratio (pore length/width) up to 5.3 ± 3.0. To improve their wettability, we added Tween 80, a hydrophilic surfactant, to PCL solutions for electrospinning...
May 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548498/fluorescence-and-phosphorescence-anisotropy-from-oriented-films-of-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-emitters
#5
Heather Fay Higginbotham, Marc Kenneth Etherington, Andrew P Monkman
Anisotropy within three TADF materials has been observed using steady-state fluorescence polarisation. This technique has allowed for the observation of differences in polarisation within dilute solution, and both un-stretched and stretched films; the latter producing highly aligned molecules within the sample. Using these aligned films differences in anisotropy can be observed between the emission from the 1LE and 1CT states and upon exciting different absorption bands. Furthermore, polarisation observed from time-resolved measurements, highlights the strong vibronic coupling between charge-transfer and local triplet states...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546987/current-progress-in-understanding-the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-burn-scar-contracture
#6
REVIEW
Jianglin Tan, Jun Wu
Abnormal wound healing is likely to induce scar formation, leading to dysfunction, deformity, and psychological trauma in burn patients. Despite the advancement of medical care treatment, scar contracture in burn patients remains a challenge. Myofibroblasts play a key role in scar contracture. It has been demonstrated that myofibroblasts, as well as inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells, secrete transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other cytokines, which can promote persistent myofibroblast activation via a positive regulation loop...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#7
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546113/stretch-activated-trpv2-channels-role-in-mediating-cardiopathies
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth Aguettaz, Patrick Bois, Christian Cognard, Stéphane Sebille
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2, TRPV2, is a calcium-permeable cation channel belonging to the TRPV channel family. Although this channel has been first characterized as a noxious heat sensor, its mechanosensor property recently gained importance in various physiological functions. TRPV2 has been described as a stretch-mediated channel and a regulator of calcium homeostasis in several cell types and has been shown to be involved in the stretch-dependent responses in cardiomyocytes. Hence, several studies in the last years support the idea that TRPV2 play a key role in the function and structure of the heart, being involved in the cardiac compensatory mechanisms in response to pathologic or exercise-induced stress...
May 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545899/multiple-brain-abscesses-due-to-enterobacter-cloacae-in-an-immune-competent-child
#9
Arushi Gahlot Saini, Vinay Rathore, Chirag Kumar Ahuja, Rajesh Chhabra, Pankaj C Vaidya, Pratibha Singhi
Brain abscesses due to Enterobacteriaceae in immune-competent children are rare, and those due to Enterobacter cloacae are even rarer. We report an interesting case of community-acquired E. cloacae neuroinfection resulting in multiple brain abscesses in a young child with no underlying risk-factors. A 10 year-old-boy presented with low-grade fever, headache, neck pain and progressive deterioration of sensorium. On examination, he was conscious but drowsy with photophobia, normal fundii, meningeal signs, mild hypertonia, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and extensor plantar responses...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544949/the-influence-of-shoe-aging-on-children-running-biomechanics
#10
Alexis Herbaut, Pascale Chavet, Maxime Roux, Nils Guéguen, Franck Barbier, Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger
Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first...
May 17, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544895/vibrational-spectroscopy-of-the-mass-selected-tetrahydrofurfuryl-alcohol-monomers-and-its-dimers-in-gas-phase-using-ir-depletion-and-vuv-single-photon-ionization
#11
Pengchao Wang, Yongjun Hu, Huaqi Zhan, Jiaxin Chen, Shan Jin, Wentao Song, Yujian Li
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA, C5H10O2) is a close chemical analog of the sugar rings present in the phosphate-deoxyribose backbone structure of the nucleic acids. In present report, the infrared (IR) spectra of the size-selected THFA monomer and its dimer have been investigated in a pulsed supersonic jet using infrared-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization. Herein, the laser light at 118nm wavelength served as the source of "soft" ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The IR features for the monomers located at 3622cm(-1) can be assigned to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding stretch vibrations mainly referring to A and C conformers...
May 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544835/leaflet-mechanical-properties-of-carpentier-edwards-perimount-magna-pericardial-aortic-bioprostheses
#12
Heide Kuang, Yue Xuan, Michelle Lu, Aart Mookhoek, Andrew D Wisneski, Julius M Guccione, Liang Ge, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has recently been shown to be equivalent to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk patients. As TAVR expands towards the traditionally SAVR population, TAVR versus SAVR durability becomes increasingly important. While the durability of TAVR is unknown, valve design - particularly with regards to leaflet stress - impacts on valve durability. Although leaflet stress cannot be measured directly, it can be determined using finite element modeling, with such models requiring the mechanical properties of the leaflets...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544748/carbon-monoxide-dehydrogenase-reduces-cyanate-to-cyanide
#13
Alexandre Ciaccafava, Daria Tombolelli, Lilith Domnik, Jae-Hun Jeoung, Holger Dobbek, Maria-Andrea Mroginski, Ingo Zebger, Peter Hildebrandt
The biocatalytic function of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) has a high environmental relevance owing to its ability to reduce CO2 . Despite numerous studies on CODH over the past decades, its catalytic mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present combined spectroscopic and theoretical study, we report first evidences for a cyanate (NCO(-) ) to cyanide (CN(-) ) reduction at the C-cluster. The adduct remains bound to the catalytic center to form the so-called CN(-) -inhibited state. Notably, this conversion does not occur in crystals of the Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans CODH enzyme (CODHIICh ), as indicated by the lack of the corresponding CN(-) stretching mode...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544454/flexible-nanowire-cluster-as-a-wearable-colorimetric-humidity-sensor
#14
Zhiqiang Wei, Zhang-Kai Zhou, Qiuyu Li, Jiancai Xue, Andrea Di Falco, Zhongjian Yang, Jianhua Zhou, Xuehua Wang
Wearable plasmonic devices combine the advantages of high flexibility, ultrathinness, light weight, and excellent integration with the optical benefits mediated by plasmon-enhanced electric fields. However, two obstacles severely hinder further developments and applications of a wearable plasmonic device. One is the lack of efficient approach to obtaining devices with robust antimotion-interference property, i.e., the devices can work independently on the morphology changes of their working structures caused by arbitrary wearing conditions...
May 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543968/elastography-in-endobronchial-ultrasound-stretching-the-boundary-of-minimally-invasive-staging-further
#15
EDITORIAL
Daniel P Steinfort
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543879/vglut1-synapses-and-p-boutons-on-regenerating-motoneurons-after-nerve-crush
#16
Adam J Schultz, Travis M Rotterman, Anirudh Dwarakanath, Francisco J Alvarez
Stretch-sensitive Ia afferent monosynaptic connections with motoneurons form the stretch reflex circuit. After nerve transection, Ia afferent synapses and stretch reflexes are permanently lost, even after regeneration and efficient re-innervation of muscle by motor and sensory afferents is completed in the periphery. This loss greatly affects full recovery of motor function. However, after nerve crush, reflex muscle forces during stretch do recover after muscle reinnervation and reportedly exceed 140% baseline values...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543394/bullous-morphoea-a-retrospective-study
#17
M Venturi, A L Pinna, L Pilloni, L Atzori, C Ferreli, F Rongioletti
Bullous morphoea is a rare variant of localized scleroderma whose pathogenesis has been widely discussed. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all histopathologically confirmed cases of morphoea followed from 2005 to 2015 at the Dermatology Clinic and Pathology Institute of the University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Among 137 patients with morphoea, 2 cases of the bullous variant were identified, which were successfully treated with methotrexate. Thus, the bullous form comprised 1.4% of all cases of morphoea, which is much lower than the 7...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543271/characterization-of-cellular-adhesion-reinforcement-by-multiple-bond-force-spectroscopy-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#18
Nguyen Ngoc-Minh, Angely Christelle, Andre Dias Sofia, Planus Emmanuelle, Filoche Marcel, Pelle Gabriel, Louis Bruno, Isabey Daniel
BACKGROUND: Integrin-mediated adhesion is a key process by which cells physically connect their environment, express sensitivity and adaptation through mechanotransduction. A critical step of cell adhesion is the formation of the first bonds which individually generate weak contacts (∼tens pN) but can sustain thousand times higher forces (∼tens nN) when associated. RESULTS: We propose an experimental validation by multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) of a stochastic model predicting adhesion reinforcement permitted by non cooperative, multiple bonds on which force is homogeneously distributed (called parallel bond configuration)...
May 24, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542831/machine-learning-reveals-a-non-canonical-mode-of-peptide-binding-to-mhc-class-ii-molecules
#19
Massimo Andreatta, Vanessa Isabell Jurtz, Thomas Kaever, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters, Morten Nielsen
MHC class II molecules play a fundamental role in the cellular immune system: they load short peptide fragments derived from extracellular proteins and present them on the cell surface. It is currently thought that the peptide binds lying more or less flat in the MHC groove, with a fixed distance of nine amino acids between the first and last residue in contact with the MHCII. While confirming that the great majority of peptides bind to the MHC using this canonical mode, we report evidence for an alternative, less common mode of interaction...
May 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542785/tap-tap-who-s-there-it-s-localized-muscle-activity-elicited-by-the-human-stretch-reflex
#20
Martin E Héroux
Skeletal muscles are the motors that make us move. Discharge of α-motoneurones causes muscle fibres they innervate to contract and generate force. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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