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unstable plaque

Giovanni Cimmino, Francesco S Loffredo, Alberto Morello, Saverio D Elia, Raffaele De Palma, Plinio Cirillo, Paolo Golino
In the last twenty years, our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in formation, progression and complication of atherosclerotic plaque has advanced significantly and the main role of inflammation and immunity in this phenomenon is now largely accepted. Accumulating evidence highlight the crucial role of different inflammatory and immune cells, such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes, in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion, particularly in contributing to its complications, such as rupture or ulceration...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Aditi Makhija, Sachin Kumar
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Mark W Kennedy, Enrico Fabris, Alexander J Ijsselmuiden, Holger Nef, Sebastian Reith, Javier Escaned, Fernando Alfonso, Niels van Royen, Wojtek Wojakowski, Adam Witkowski, Ciro Indolfi, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Harry Suryapranata, Elvin Kedhi
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a widely used tool for the identification of ischaemia-generating stenoses and to guide decisions on coronary revascularisation. However, the safety of FFR-based decisions in high-risk subsets, such as patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or vulnerable stenoses presenting thin-cap fibro-atheroma (TCFA), is unknown. This study will examine the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT) plaque morphological assessment and the identification of TCFA, in combination with FFR to better predict clinical outcomes in DM patients...
October 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
İsa Öner Yüksel, Erkan Köklü, Şakir Arslan, Göksel Çağırcı, Eylem Özaydın Göksu, Pınar Koç, Serkan Çay, Filiz Kızılırmak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-calcified carotid plaques are more unstable than calcified plaques, and they are associated with a higher risk of rupture, thromboembolism, and consequently, stroke. The purpose of the present study is to compare calcified and non-calcified plaques that cause intermediate carotid artery stenosis with respect to neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total number of 139 asymptomatic patients with 50-70% stenosis of the carotid artery were included in this study...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Fatih Yılmaz, Erkan Köklü, Filiz Kizilirmak Yilmaz, Elif Sarıönder Gencer, Ahmet Şükrü Alparslan, Özlem Yıldırımtürk
BACKGROUND: Platelets play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In atherosclerotic plaques, the risk of plaque rupture is more crucial than the severity of stenosis they cause. Non-calcified carotid artery plaques are more unstable than calcified plaques, and they are associated with a higher risk of rupture, thromboembolism and consequently, stroke. AIM: Purpose of the present study is to compare calcified and non-calcified plaques that cause intermediate carotid artery stenosis with respect to mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW)...
October 7, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
Alice Morais Castro, Diana Carmona Fernandes, Ana M Rodrigues, Luis Mendes Pedro, Maria José Santos, Helena Canhão, João Eurico Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: An excess in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality has been recognized in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients when compared to the general population. Given the paucity of prospective data, our aim was to estimate the incidence of CV events and the contribution of traditional CVD risk factors and RA-related parameters to future events. METHODS: Incident fatal and non-fatal CV events (hospitalizations due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization procedures, stroke, or CV death) were assessed in a prospective cohort of RA women followed since 2007 and without CV events at cohort entry...
April 3, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Rishi Puri, Stephen J Nicholls, Julie St John, E Murat Tuzcu, Samir R Kapadia, Kiyoko Uno, Yu Kataoka, Kathy Wolski, Steven E Nissen
We explored for geographic variations in coronary atheroma progression rates in the United States compared to other world regions (Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and Central-Eastern Europe) and sought to ascertain if this associated with regional differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization). Across 7 randomized trials with a global recruitment pattern, 5,451 participants with angiographic coronary disease underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasonography during 18 or 24 months, with adjudicated MACE...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Markus Schwaiger, Karl Kunze, Christoph Rischpler, Stephan G Nekolla
After the successful introduction of PET/CT as a multimodality imaging technique, PET/MR has subsequently emerged as an attractive instrumentation for applications in neurology, oncology, and cardiology. Simultaneous data acquisition combining structural, functional, and molecular imaging provides a unique platform to link various aspects of cardiac performance for the non-invasive characterization of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Specifically, tissue characterization by MR techniques with and without contrast agents allows for functional parameters such as LGE, myocardial perfusion, and T1 maps as well as an estimate of extracellular volume...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Lei Zhao, Zhanyi Zhai, Wei Hou
OBJECTIVES: To detect the correlation between high-sensitivity-CRP, carotid plaque, neurological function and intima-media thickness, and help physicians in the diagnosis of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with the first onset of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction were included in the study from July 2013 to May 2015. The test of high-sensitivity-CRP, examination of carotid color ultrasonography and neurological function evaluation were carried out for all the participants...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Rocco Vergallo, Shiro Uemura, Tsunenari Soeda, Yoshiyasu Minami, Jin-Man Cho, Daniel S Ong, Aaron D Aguirre, Lei Gao, Luigi M Biasucci, Filippo Crea, Bo Yu, Hang Lee, Chong-Jin Kim, Ik-Kyung Jang
OBJECTIVE: Plaque rupture may be the local expression of a widespread coronary instability. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of nonculprit plaque rupture; (2) the pancoronary atherosclerotic phenotype in patients with and without nonculprit plaque rupture; and (3) the prevalence and predictors of multiple plaque ruptures. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-five nonculprit plaques from 261 patients (34 acute myocardial infarction, 73 unstable angina pectoris, and 154 stable angina pectoris) were analyzed by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Na Zhao, Lan Mi, Yaping Zhang, Na Li, Jiaojiao Xu, Dongyu Xia, Junkui Wang, Yue Wu, Xiaojun Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils enhancing atherosclerotic plaque instability have been observed in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Generally, activation of neutrophils in lesions depends on the interaction of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) with immunoglobulin G antibodies in immune complexes. However, altered FcγR expression on neutrophils of patients with ACS is unknown. We aimed to evaluate changes in FcγR expression on neutrophils of patients with ACS. METHODS: We enrolled 106 patients who were divided into four groups: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA), stable angina, and normal coronary arteries...
September 3, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
Jaroslav Pelisek, Heiko Wendorff, Carina Wendorff, Andreas Kuehnl, Hans-Henning Eckstein
Little is known about changes in carotid plaque morphology during aging and the possible impact on cardiovascular events. Only few studies addressed so far age-related modifications within atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, in this work we endeavored to summarize the current knowledge about changing of plaque composition in elderly. The data from hitherto existing studies confirm that atherosclerotic plaques undergo distinct alternations with advanced age. However, the results are often ambiguous and the changes do not seem to be as disastrous as expected...
September 5, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Przemyslaw Puz, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Tomasz Urbanek, Zofia Kazibutowska
AIM: Carotid artery stenosis can result in the brain tissue injury related to the intracranial aterial flow disturbances as well as microembolic complications. The choice of the proper therapy in patients with carotid artery stenosis, especially asymptomatic, remains still a significant clinical problem. The study aim was an assessment of the cerebral embolism and brain vascular reserve parameters in patients with carotid artery stenosis regarding the occurrence of the clinical symptoms, the degree of stenosis as well as plaque morphology...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Karolina Skagen, Mona Skjelland, Mahtab Zamani, David Russell
Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death, globally causing 14 million deaths each year. Stroke remains a massive public health problem and there is an increasing need for better strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease. At least 20% of ischemic strokes are thromboembolic in nature, caused by a thromboembolism from an atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation or the internal carotid artery. Current clinical guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaques remain reliant on general patient characteristics (traditional risk factors for stroke) and static measures of the degree of artery stenosis...
August 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
Gordon A A Ferns, Lamia Heikal
The anoxemia theory proposes that an imbalance between the demand for and supply of oxygen in the arterial wall is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. There is now substantial evidence that there are regions within the atherosclerotic plaque in which profound hypoxia exists; this may fundamentally change the function, metabolism, and responses of many of the cell types found within the developing plaque and whether the plaque will evolve into a stable or unstable phenotype. Hypoxia is characterized in molecular terms by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α, a subunit of the heterodimeric nuclear transcriptional factor HIF-1 and a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis...
August 27, 2016: Angiology
Soo-Jin Kang, Dong Hyun Yang, Hyun Jung Koo, Sung-Cheol Yun, June-Goo Lee, Joon-Won Kang, Tae-Hwan Lim, Gary S Mintz, Seong-Wook Park, Young-Hak Kim
BACKGROUND: Although ischemia-guided revascularization improves clinical outcomes, morphological determinants of clinically relevant myocardial ischemia have not been studied. To identify intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived anatomical parameters for predicting myocardial perfusion defect and its extent. METHODS: A total of 103 patients (88 stable and 15 unstable angina) with 153 lesions (angiographic diameter stenosis of 30-80%) underwent stress myocardial perfusion computed tomography (CT) and IVUS pre-procedure...
August 27, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Anxin Wang, Lingyun Wu, Xiaoxue Liu, Zhaoping Su, Yanxia Luo, Shuohua Chen, Haibin Li, Xiangtong Liu, Lixin Tao, Jin Guo, Feng Zhang, Yibin Cao, Xingquan Zhao, Shouling Wu, Xiuhua Guo
Few studies have investigated the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability in Chinese. As is well known, carotid atherosclerosis is tightly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, the data about the association between the presence of carotid plaque with different stability and MetS was limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability and its potential association with MetS in general Chinese population.The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study is a community-based study to investigate the epidemiology of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in Chinese adults...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Denuja Karunakaran, Michele Geoffrion, Lihui Wei, Wei Gan, Laura Richards, Prakriti Shangari, Ella M DeKemp, Rachelle A Beanlands, Ljubica Perisic, Lars Maegdefessel, Ulf Hedin, Subash Sad, Liang Guo, Frank D Kolodgie, Renu Virmani, Terrence Ruddy, Katey J Rayner
Atherosclerosis results from maladaptive inflammation driven primarily by macrophages, whose recruitment and proliferation drive plaque progression. In advanced plaques, macrophage death contributes centrally to the formation of plaque necrosis, which underlies the instability that promotes plaque rupture and myocardial infarction. Hence, targeting macrophage cell death pathways may offer promise for the stabilization of vulnerable plaques. Necroptosis is a recently discovered pathway of programmed cell necrosis regulated by RIP3 and MLKL kinases that, in contrast to apoptosis, induces a proinflammatory state...
July 2016: Science Advances
Marcus Vinícius Martins Cury, Calógero Presti, Suellen Stevam Timotheo Bonadiman, Ivan Benaduce Casella, Joseph Elias Benabou, Erasmo Simão da Silva, Nelson de Luccia, Pedro Puech-Leão
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the morphology of carotid plaques, as evaluated using duplex ultrasound (DUS) with computer-assisted analysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, we analyzed 148 carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic patients. Data were obtained via clinical and laboratory examinations, and DUS was performed by a single operator. All plaques were scanned in a longitudinal fashion, and the best segment was selected, recorded, and evaluated using dedicated software...
August 12, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jeehoon Kang, Ki-Hyun Jeon, Seong-Wook Kim, Jin Joo Park, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Young-Seok Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology and natural course of coronary nonculprit plaques remain unclear. We investigated whether the short-term natural course of nonculprit plaques differs between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients. METHODS: We performed serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound on nonculprit plaques in 26 STEMI and 11 CTO lesions at baseline and the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, more lesions in the STEMI group were virtual histology intravascular ultrasound-derived thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA; 76...
August 5, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
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