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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330812/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-alogliptin-on-tissue-characteristics-of-the-carotid-wall-subanalysis-of-the-spead-a-trial
#1
Yoko Irie, Naoto Katakami, Tomoya Mita, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Masahiko Gosho, Hirotaka Watada, Iichiro Shimomura
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the carotid wall using gray-scale median (GSM) reflects its composition and low-GSM plaque is considered to be unstable. The present study evaluated the effect of alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on the longitudinal change in GSM, an index of the tissue characteristics of the carotid wall, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: This is a post hoc subanalysis using data obtained from the SPEAD-A trial, a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the beneficial effect of alogliptin treatment on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with T2DM with no past history of apparent cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322167/use-of-high-risk-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-detection-for-risk-stratification-of-patients-with-stable-chest-pain-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-promise-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Maros Ferencik, Thomas Mayrhofer, Daniel O Bittner, Hamed Emami, Stefan B Puchner, Michael T Lu, Nandini M Meyersohn, Alexander V Ivanov, Elizabeth C Adami, Manesh R Patel, Daniel B Mark, James E Udelson, Kerry L Lee, Pamela S Douglas, Udo Hoffmann
Importance: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (coronary CTA) can characterize coronary artery disease, including high-risk plaque. A noninvasive method of identifying high-risk plaque before major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) could provide practice-changing optimizations in coronary artery disease care. Objective: To determine whether high-risk plaque detected by coronary CTA was associated with incident MACE independently of significant stenosis (SS) and cardiovascular risk factors...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321430/new-onset-takayasu-s-arteritis-as-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Yusuke Ishiyama, Kazuo Eguchi, Katsuaki Yokota, Tomokazu Ikemoto, Kazuomi Kario
We herein report the case of a 25-year-old Japanese woman with left-main-trunk acute myocardial infarction (LMT-AMI). She had cardiogenic shock, so emergency percutaneous intervention was performed. Intravascular ultrasound of LMT-AMI showed that the three-layered structure of the intima, tunica media, and adventitia was not clearly visible, and the vessel was concentrically thickened; unstable plaque and calcification were not seen. AMI is rarely seen in young women, but Takayasu's arteritis is one major cause...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306471/correlation-between-frequency-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-and-fractional-flow-reserve-in-angiographically-intermediate-coronary-lesions
#4
Francesco Burzotta, Roberto Nerla, Jonathan Hill, Lazzaro Paraggio, Antonio Maria Leone, Jonathan Byrne, Italo Porto, Giampaolo Niccoli, Cristina Aurigemma, Carlo Trani, Philip MacCarthy, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: The decision-making process of patients with angiographically-intermediate coronary lesions (ICL) is clinically challenging and may benefit from adjunctive invasive techniques. Fractional-flow-reserve (FFR) represents the gold standard to evaluate ICL but frequency-domain optical-coherence-tomography (OCT) is a novel, promising, high resolution coronary imaging technique, which allows physiopathologic assessment of coronary plaque. We investigated the possible relation between OCT and FFR in selected ICL patients...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304539/expression-and-cellular-localization-of-cxcr4-and-cxcl12-in-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques
#5
Sophie Merckelbach, Emiel P C van der Vorst, Michael Kallmayer, Christoph Rischpler, Rainer Burgkart, Yvonne Döring, Gert-Jan de Borst, Markus Schwaiger, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Christian Weber, Jaroslav Pelisek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  The CXCR4/CXCL12 complex has already been associated with progression of atherosclerosis; however, its exact role is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression and cellular localization of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS:  Carotid plaques (n = 58; 31 stable, 27 unstable, based on histological characterization of plaque morphology) were obtained during carotid endarterectomy, and 10 healthy vessels were used as a control...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301708/coronary-artery-calcification-and%C3%A2-its%C3%A2-progression-what-does-it-really-mean
#6
REVIEW
Hiroyoshi Mori, Sho Torii, Matthew Kutyna, Atsushi Sakamoto, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
Coronary artery calcification is concomitant with the development of advanced atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcification pathologically begins as microcalcifications (0.5 to 15.0 μm) and grows into larger calcium fragments, which eventually result in sheet-like deposits (>3 mm). This evolution is observed to occur concurrently with the progression of plaque. These fragments and sheets of calcification can be easily identified by radiography as well as by computed tomography and intravascular imaging...
January 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286384/synthesis-of-monocyte-targeting-peptide-amphiphile-micelles-for-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#7
Christopher Poon, Manjima Sarkar, Eun Ji Chung
Atherosclerosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide, which claims 17.3 million lives annually. Atherosclerosis is also the leading cause of sudden death and myocardial infarction, instigated by unstable plaques that rupture and occlude the blood vessel without warning. Current imaging modalities cannot differentiate between stable and unstable plaques that rupture. Peptide amphiphiles micelles (PAMs) can overcome this drawback as they can be modified with a variety of targeting moieties that bind specifically to diseased tissue...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245343/altered-expression-of-txnip-in-the-peripheral-leukocytes-of-patients-with-coronary-atherosclerotic-heart-disease
#8
Yujing Zhang, Jian Huang, Xinglin Yang, Xiaofei Sun, Qincheng Xu, Baokui Wang, Peng Zhong, Zixiu Wei
BACKGROUND: Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) is mainly caused by atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by plaque formation in arteries. Reactive oxygen species caused structural damage and dysfunction of arterial endothelial cells. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is the endogenous inhibitor and regulator of thioredoxin, a major cellular antioxidant and antiapoptotic system. In order to explore the role of TXNIP in the occurrence and development of CAD, we detected the TXNIP expression and discussed its molecular mechanisms in CAD...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239886/acute-coronary-artery-dissection-a-review-of-the-literature-and-current-evidence
#9
Syed Raza Shah, Richard Alweis
Acute coronary artery dissection is a rare, complex disease occurring particularly in young women without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology and treatment are different from acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque rupture or erosion. Its clinical presentation may vary from unstable angina to sudden cardiac death. Hence, early detection is crucial to manage the dissection and reduce the mortality and morbidity rates. Most coronary dissections will heal spontaneously, and conservative treatment is recommended for uncomplicated cases...
December 12, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225325/omentin-1-is-associated-with-carotid-plaque-instability-among-ischemic-stroke-patients
#10
Tian Xu, Peng Zuo, Lin Cao, Zhiwei Gao, Kaifu Ke
AIMS: Omentin-1 was proved to be associated with ischemic stroke clinical functional outcome. It also predicted carotid atherosclerosis among metabolic syndrome subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Our aim was to examine the association of omentin-1 levels with carotid plaque instability and stenosis degree among ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 173 acute ischemic stroke patients were included in this study. Serum omentin-1 levels were assayed. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed to evaluate the carotid plaque instability and stenosis degree...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217492/the-potential-role-of-ideal-mri-for-identification-of-lipids-and-hemorrhage-in-carotid-artery-plaques
#11
Faisal Khosa, Rachel E Clough, Xiaoen Wang, Ananth J Madhuranthakam, Robert L Greenman
Hemorrhage and lipid deposits contribute to instability in atherosclerotic plaques. Unstable carotid artery plaques can lead to cerebral ischemic events. While MRI studies have shown the ability to identify plaque components, the identification of hemorrhage and lipids has proven to be problematic. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the potential of the MRI fat/water separation method known as iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation (IDEAL) to complement and improve existing methods for the identification of hemorrhage and lipids in carotid artery plaques...
December 4, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207010/the-potential-inhibitory-effects-of-mir%C3%A2-19b-on-vulnerable-plaque-formation-via-the-suppression-of-stat3-transcriptional-activity
#12
Sufang Li, Qiang Geng, Hong Chen, Jing Zhang, Chengfu Cao, Feng Zhang, Junxian Song, Chuanfen Liu, Wenqing Liang
Atherosclerotic plaque growth requires angiogenesis, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is usually triggered by the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Previous studies have identified typically circulating microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles in patients with ACS. miRNAs serve important roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque progression. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of miR‑19b in plaque stability. miRNA array data indicated that 28 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma of patients with unstable angina (UA; n=12) compared with in control individuals (n=12), and miR‑19b exhibited the most marked upregulation...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197574/endothelial-microparticles-mediated-transfer-of-microrna-19b-promotes-atherosclerosis-via-activating-perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-apoe-mice
#13
Changlong Li, Sufang Li, Feng Zhang, Manyan Wu, Huizhu Liang, Junxian Song, Chongyou Lee, Hong Chen
Microparticles(MPs) are the major carriers of circulating microRNAs. Our previous study has shown that microRNA (miR)-19b in endothelial cell-derived microparticles (EMPs) is significantly increased in patients with unstable angina. However, little is known about the relationship between miR-19b in EMPs and the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to define the role and potential mechanism of miR-19b incorporated in EMPs in the development of atherosclerosis. Western-diet-fed apoE-/- mice were injected with phosphate buffered solution(PBS), EMP carrying microRNA control(EMPcontrol) or miR-19b mimic (EMPmiR19b) intravenously...
November 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190653/novel-molecular-imaging-ligands-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-for-imaging-of-unstable-atherosclerotic-plaques
#14
Nazanin Hakimzadeh, Victorine A Pinas, Ger Molenaar, Vivian de Waard, Esther Lutgens, Berthe L F van Eck-Smit, Kora de Bruin, Jan J Piek, Jos L H Eersels, Jan Booij, Hein J Verberne, Albert D Windhorst
Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9) with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates) were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111093/biomarkers-of-cerebral-microembolic-signals
#15
REVIEW
Ruihua Yin, Aijun Ma, Xudong Pan, Shaonan Yang
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Microembolic signals (MES), as the markers of unstable atherosclerotic plaque, can predict the occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke (IS). MES can also assess the efficacy of antithrombotic agents and predict the recurrence probability of IS. Unstable plaques are the main source of MES; thus, numerous biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque instability are highly likely to predict the presence of MES. This study aims to review recent biomarker candidates for MES or microembolism...
October 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110103/ct-imaging-of-the-vulnerable-plaque
#16
REVIEW
Gary R Small, Benjamin J W Chow
Acute coronary syndromes are most often the result of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque events. Plaques events occur when intimal fibroatheroma in the coronary artery wall becomes vulnerable to erosion or rupture. Such vulnerable plaques can be distinguished from quiescent atheroma by features that have been defined through histopathology and invasive imaging. A challenge for coronary CT angiography has been to identify vulnerable plaques non-invasively. Were this possible, CT angiography could offer comprehensive vessel assessment including stenosis severity and plaque characteristics with the hope of reducing acute coronary events through timely intervention...
November 6, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096839/lipoprotein-apheresis-downregulates-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-mrna-expression-in-severe-dyslipidaemia
#17
Claudia Stefanutti, Fabio Mazza, Daniela Pasqualetti, Serafina Di Giacomo, Gerald F Watts, Maria Simona Massari, Joel de Neve, Claudia Morozzi, Moritz Fischer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidaemias are associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, driven by unstable atherosclerotic plaques with inflammatory infiltrates. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for pro-inflammatory cytokines have been positively correlated with atherosclerotic disease progression. Therapeutic lipoprotein apheresis (LA) reduces plasma lipid levels and reduces inflammation. We evaluated the effects of LA on expression of mRNA coding for key pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with dyslipidaemia, homo-/hetero-zygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH, HeFH) or hyperlipoprotein(a)aemia [hyperLp(a)] and associated coronary artery disease (CAD)...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066436/interleukin-6-and-the-risk-of-adverse-outcomes-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-observations-from-the-solid-timi-52-stabilization-of-plaque-using-darapladib-thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction-52-trial
#18
Christina L Fanola, David A Morrow, Christopher P Cannon, Petr Jarolim, Mary Ann Lukas, Christoph Bode, Judith S Hochman, Erica L Goodrich, Eugene Braunwald, Michelle L O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in plaque instability in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of IL-6 post-ACS. METHODS AND RESULTS: IL-6 concentration was assessed at baseline in 4939 subjects in SOLID-TIMI 52 (Stabilization of Plaque Using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52), a randomized trial of darapladib in patients ≤30 days from ACS. Patients were followed for a median of 2...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064776/carotid-stenosis-basing-treatment-on-individual-patients-needs-optimal-medical-therapy-alone-or-accompanied-by-stenting-or-endarterectomy
#19
Ralf Langhoff
Though carotid artery stenosis is a known origin of stroke, risk assessment and treatment modality are not yet satisfactorily established. Guideline updates according to latest evidence are expected shortly. Current clinical weakness concerns in particular the identification of "at-risk" patients. Beside the symptomatic status and the degree of stenosis, further signs of unstable plaque on carotid and cerebral imaging should be considered. Moreover, medical and endovascular therapy are continuously improving...
October 24, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055637/impact-of-pre-diabetes-on-coronary-plaque-composition-and-clinical-outcome%C3%A2-in-patients-with-acute-coronary%C3%A2-syndromes-an-analysis-from-the-prospect-study
#20
Serdar Farhan, Björn Redfors, Akiko Maehara, Thomas McAndrew, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Bernard De Bruyne, Roxana Mehran, Gennaro Giustino, Ajay J Kirtane, Patrick W Serruys, Gary S Mintz, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pre-diabetes (pre-DM) on coronary plaque characteristics and ischemic outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: Pre-DM (i.e., the early stages of glucometabolic disturbance) is common among patients with ACS, but the extent to which pre-DM influences coronary plaque characteristics and the risk for adverse ischemic events is unclear. METHODS: In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in Coronary Tree) study, patients with ACS underwent quantitative coronary angiography, grayscale intravascular ultrasound, and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after successful percutaneous coronary intervention...
October 14, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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