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unstable plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#1
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212870/the-174-g-c-interleukin-6-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-angiographic-progression-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-4-year-period
#2
Konstantinos Toutouzas, Dimitrios Klettas, Nikolaos Anousakis-Vlachochristou, Konstantinos Melidis, Zeta Azilazian, Maria Asimomiti, Antonios Karanasos, Anastasios Spanos, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is the key process underlying the clinical course of coronary artery disease (CAD). C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) participate in the pathophysiology and act as biomarkers. We sought to examine whether known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) impact the progression of CAD, reflecting higher inflammatory activity. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated coronary angiographies of patients with already established CAD who were re-investigated for stable/unstable angina after a time interval >12 months...
February 14, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188730/involvement-of-histone-methylation-in-macrophage-apoptosis-and-unstable-plaque-formation-in-methionine-induced-hyperhomocysteinemic-apoe-mice
#3
Guangzhi Cong, Ru Yan, Hui Huang, Kai Wang, Ning Yan, Ping Jin, Na Zhang, Jianjun Hou, Dapeng Chen, Shaobin Jia
AIMS: Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis and promotes unstable plaque formation. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis induced by Hhcy. However, the exact mechanism is still undefined. Lesional apoptotic cells and necrotic core formation contribute greatly to the progression of plaque. The present study sought to determine whether modification of histone methylation is involved in macrophage apoptosis and unstable plaque formation in the condition of Hhcy...
February 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183988/molecular-imaging-of-vulnerable-coronary-plaque-a-pathophysiological-perspective
#4
Sandeep Krishnan, Yuka Otaki, Mhairi Doris, Leandro Slipczuk, Yoav Arnson, Mathieu Rubeaux, Damini Dey, Piotr Slomka, Daniel S Berman, Balaji Tamarappoo
Atherothrombotic events that occur in coronary arteries due to rupture of unstable plaque can result in myocardial infarction. Radiolabeled molecular imaging tracers directed towards cellular targets that are unique to unstable plaque can serve as a powerful tool for identification of high-risk patients and in assessing the potential of new therapeutic approaches. Two commonly available radiopharmaceuticals-(18)F-FDG (18)F-NaF have been used in clinical research for imaging coronary artery plaque, and the association of (18)F-NaF uptake with future atherothrombotic events is being tested in ongoing clinical studies...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164672/circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-were-increased-in-patients-with-thin-cap-fibroatheroma
#5
Qiang Tan, Qingsheng Wang, Shuangyue Zhang, Ximing Qi, Yang Li
BACKGROUND: We used virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). METHODS: This study included 52 patients with unstable angina who underwent coronary angiography and IVUS examination. Patients were divided into a TCFA group (n = 21) or a non-TCFA group (n = 31) based on VH-IVUS performance. Before angiography, peripheral blood levels of EPC were measured by flow cytometry...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164558/increased-number-of-mast-cells-in-atherosclerotic-lesions-correlates-with-the-presence-of-myeloid-but-not-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-as-well-as-pro-inflammatory-t-cells
#6
Ilonka Rohm, Sandra Sattler, Yevgeniya Atiskova, Daniel Kretzschmar, Rudin Pistulli, Marcus Franz, Christian Jung, Gita Mall, Thomas Kronert, Paul C Schulze, Atilla Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall promoted by different immune cells and inflammatory mediators. METHODS: In this study, 26 human plaques and 12 control vessels without atherosclerosis were immunohistochemically stained to analyze the emergence of mast cells dependent on plaque morphology and to correlate mast cell occurrence with the emergence of myeloid as well as plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Also, mast cell emergence was correlated with the number of pro-inflammatory T cells...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139353/suspected-acs-patients-presenting-with-myocardial-damage-or-a-type-2-myocardial-infarction-have-a-similar-late-mortality-to-patients-with-a-type-1-myocardial-infarction-a-report-from-the-australian-and-new-zealand-2012-snapshot-acs-study
#7
Aisha Etaher, Derek Chew, Julie Redfern, Tom Briffa, Chris Ellis, Christopher Hammett, Jeffrey Lefkovits, John Elliott, Louise Cullen, David Brieger, John K French
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin (T and I) are considered the standard markers for detection of myocardial damage and the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among patients who present to an emergency department with chest pain. However, these markers can be released in other situations and may be associated with short- and long-term clinical outcomes. In this study, we examine late mortality rates among patients presenting with a suspected ACS due to an unstable coronary plaque and those patients having a non-ACS...
December 31, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121918/intracranial-dermoid-cyst-rupture-related-brain-ischemia-case-report-and-hemodynamic-study
#8
Hang Jin, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yun Luo, Ren Zhao, Ming-Shuo Sun, Yi Yang
RATIONALE: Spontaneous rupture of intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare but serious clinical event that can result in cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm and vasculitis are considered as potential mechanisms of dermoid cyst rupture-related cerebral ischemia. However, the hemodynamic mechanisms between cerebral ischemia and dermoid cyst rupture are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with sudden receptive aphasia and right-sided hypoalgesia...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089144/essential-role-of-icam-1-in-aldosterone-induced-atherosclerosis
#9
Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Mary E Moss, Vittoria Pagliarini, Laura Pontecorvo, Antonella Antelmi, Andrea Fabbri, Giuseppe Rosano, Iris Z Jaffe, Massimiliano Caprio
OBJECTIVE: Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis complications, whereas treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists decreases the rate of cardiovascular events. Here we test the hypothesis that aldosterone promotes early atherosclerosis by modulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and investigate the molecular mechanisms by which aldosterone regulates ICAM-1 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE)(-/-) mice fed an atherogenic diet and treated with aldosterone for 4weeks showed increased vascular expression of ICAM-1, paralleled by enhanced atherosclerotic plaque size in the aortic root...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087177/lymphocytic-myocarditis-occurs-with-myocardial-infarction-and-coincides-with-increased-inflammation-hemorrhage-and-instability-in-coronary-artery-atherosclerotic-plaques
#10
Linde Woudstra, P Stefan Biesbroek, Reindert W Emmens, Stephane Heymans, Lynda J Juffermans, Albert C van Rossum, Hans W M Niessen, Paul A J Krijnen
OBJECTIVE: Although lymphocytic myocarditis (LM) clinically can mimic myocardial infarction (MI), they are regarded as distinct clinical entities. However, we observed a high prevalence (32%) of recent MI in patients diagnosed post-mortem with LM. To investigate if LM changes coronary atherosclerotic plaque, we analyzed in autopsied hearts the inflammatory infiltrate and stability in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in patients with LM and/or MI. METHODS: The three main coronary arteries were isolated at autopsy of patients with LM, with MI of 3-6h old, with LM and MI of 3-6h old (LM+MI) and controls...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035135/complete-revascularization-of-simultaneous-multiple-culprit-lesions-in-a-septuagenarian-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#11
Ikechukwu A Ifedili, Tamunoinemi Bob-Manuel, Oluwaseyi Bolorunduro, Raza Askari, Uzoma N Ibebuogu
BACKGROUND ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually caused by rupture of unstable plaque with thrombus formation and abrupt cessation of blood flow through a single coronary artery that is deemed the culprit. The simultaneous thrombotic occlusions of multiple coronary arteries in the setting of STEMI is a rare occurrence with implications for patient management and outcome not fully addressed in the current STEMI guidelines, although more recent studies suggest a benefit of complete revascularization compared to culprit vessel-only treatment in the setting of STEMI...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030624/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-microcolonies-in-coronary-thrombi-from-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#12
Gorm Mørk Hansen, Daniel Belstrøm, Martin Nilsson, Steffen Helqvist, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Palle Holmstrup, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Michael Givskov, Peter Riis Hansen
Chronic infection is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic disease and direct bacterial infection of arteries has been suggested to contribute to the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we examined coronary thrombi obtained in vivo from patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) for the presence of bacterial DNA and bacteria. Aspirated coronary thrombi from 22 patients with STEMI were collected during primary percutaneous coronary intervention and arterial blood control samples were drawn from radial or femoral artery sheaths...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013562/deciphering-acute-coronary-syndrome-biomarkers-high-resolution-proteomics-in-platelets-thrombi-and-microparticles
#13
Diana Navas-Carrillo, Francisco Marín, Mariano Valdés, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) encompass unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. They are commonly associated with the presence of vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries and occur when a thrombus formed from a ruptured atheromatous plaque causes a prolonged occlusion of a coronary artery. The erosion of the vulnerable plaques results in the formation of luminal thrombi secondary to platelet activation and the release of thrombogenic elements within the atherosclerotic lesions...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012050/comparative-assessment-of-plaque-media-change-on-three-modalities-of-ivus-immediately-after-implantation-of-either-everolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-or-everolimus-eluting-metallic-stent-in-absorb-ii-study
#14
Yaping Zeng, Rafael Cavalcante, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Pannipa Suwannasom, Yohei Sotomi, Carlos Collet, Mahammad Abdelghani, Hans Jonker, Franck Digne, Dieter Horstkotte, Manfred Zehender, Ciro Indolfi, Francesco Saia, Rosario Fiorilli, Bernard Chevalier, Leonardo Bolognese, Javier Goicolea, Shaoping Nie, Yoshinobu Onuma, Patrick W Serruys
The purpose of the study to assess the comparability of immediate changes in plaque/media volume (PV) on three modalities of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after implantation of either bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in Absorb II Study. The two devices have different device volume and ultrasound backscattering that may interfere with the "plaque/media" assessed by three modalities on IVUS: grayscale, backscattering of radiofrequency and brightness function. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 501 patients with stable or unstable angina underwent documentary IVUS pre- and post- implantation...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011257/cellular-subtype-expression-and-activation-of-camkii-regulate-the-fate-of-atherosclerotic-plaque
#15
Angela Serena Maione, Ersilia Cipolletta, Daniela Sorriento, Francesco Borriello, Maria Soprano, Maria Rosaria Rusciano, Vittoria D'Esposito, Abdul Karim Markabaoui, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Giovanni Martino, Lucio Maresca, Giuseppe Nobile, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Formisano, Michele Ciccarelli, Gianni Marone, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino, Maddalena Illario
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a degenerative process of the arterial wall implicating activation of macrophages and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase type II (CaMKII) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) regulates proliferation, while in macrophages, this kinase governs diapedesis, infiltration and release of extracellular matrix enzymes. We aimed at understanding the possible role of CaMKII in atherosclerosis plaques to regulate plaque evolution towards stability or instability...
January 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009484/hsp90-inhibition-suppresses-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-apoe-mice
#16
Hongmei Mu, Liyong Wang, Lei Zhao
AIM: Emerging evidences indicate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is associated with atherogenesis. However, the effect of HSP90 on plaque stability is largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the role of HSP90 in plaque development and its regulatory mechanisms on vasculature. METHODS: HSP90-overexpression lentivirus (Lenti-HSP90) was used to transfect apoE(-/-) mice after constrictive collars were planted at the right common carotid arteries. RESULTS: As a result, HSP90 gene overexpression led to reduction in en face plaque area, and increase in unstable plaque with heavier accumulation of lipids...
December 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999688/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-for-the-anomalous-left-coronary-artery-originating-from-the-noncoronary-cusp
#17
Toshiki Kuno, Yohei Numasawa, Toshiyuki Takahsashi
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for anomalous left coronary artery (LCA) originating from the noncoronary cusp (NCC) is challenging, as it poses difficulties with the engagement of the guiding catheter and the establishment of backup support. This report examines the case of a 69-year-old woman with unstable angina of anomalous LCA origin. The computed tomography showed a diffuse plaque in the middle of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and an anomalous LCA originating from the NCC. After successful engagement of a straightened Judkins-Left diagnostic catheter, the angiography revealed a diffuse plaque in the middle of the LAD artery...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998841/automated-characterisation-of-lipid-core-plaques-in-vivo-by-quantitative-optical-coherence-tomography-tissue-type-imaging
#18
Muthukaruppan Gnanadesigan, Takeyoshi Kameyama, Antonios Karanasos, Nienke S van Ditzhuijzen, Johannes N van der Sijde, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Jurgen Ligthart, Karen Witberg, Giovanni J Ughi, Antonius F van der Steen, Evelyn Regar, Gijs van Soest
AIMS: Qualitative criteria for plaque tissue characterisation by OCT are well established, but quantitative methods lack systematic validation in vivo. High optical attenuation coefficient µt has been associated with unstable plaque features, such as lipid core. The purpose of this study was to validate optical coherence tomography (OCT) attenuation imaging for tissue characterisation in vivo, specifically to detect lipid core in coronary atherosclerotic plaques, and to evaluate quantitatively the ability of OCT attenuation imaging to differentiate thin-cap (TCFA) and thick-cap fibroatheroma (FA)...
December 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979856/2016-russell-ross-memorial-lecture-in-vascular-biology-molecular-cellular-mechanisms-in-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Ira Tabas
Atherosclerosis is initiated by the subendothelial accumulation of apoB-lipoproteins, which initiates a sterile inflammatory response dominated by monocyte-macrophages but including all classes of innate and adaptive immune cells. These inflammatory cells, together with proliferating smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix, promote the formation of subendothelial lesions or plaques. In the vast majority of cases, these lesions do not cause serious clinical symptoms, which is due in part to a resolution-repair response that limits tissue damage...
February 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964792/cardiovascular-disease-in-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Santos Castañeda, Michael T Nurmohamed, Miguel A González-Gay
Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD), including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis, are prevalent conditions worldwide, with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. They are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology, traditional CV risk factors, genetics, and the link between chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and CV disease. Remarkably, patients with IRD have higher vulnerability to atheromatous plaques...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
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