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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111093/biomarkers-of-cerebral-microembolic-signals
#1
REVIEW
Ruihua Yin, Aijun Ma, Xudong Pan, Shaonan Yang
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Microembolic signals (MES), as the markers of unstable atherosclerotic plaque, can predict the occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke (IS). MES can also assess the efficacy of antithrombotic agents and predict the recurrence probability of IS. Unstable plaques are the main source of MES; thus, numerous biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque instability are highly likely to predict the presence of MES. This study aims to review recent biomarker candidates for MES or microembolism...
October 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110103/ct-imaging-of-the-vulnerable-plaque
#2
REVIEW
Gary R Small, Benjamin J W Chow
Acute coronary syndromes are most often the result of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque events. Plaques events occur when intimal fibroatheroma in the coronary artery wall becomes vulnerable to erosion or rupture. Such vulnerable plaques can be distinguished from quiescent atheroma by features that have been defined through histopathology and invasive imaging. A challenge for coronary CT angiography has been to identify vulnerable plaques non-invasively. Were this possible, CT angiography could offer comprehensive vessel assessment including stenosis severity and plaque characteristics with the hope of reducing acute coronary events through timely intervention...
November 6, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096839/lipoprotein-apheresis-downregulates-il-1%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-mrna-expression-in-severe-dyslipidaemia
#3
Claudia Stefanutti, Fabio Mazza, Daniela Pasqualetti, Serafina Di Giacomo, Gerald F Watts, Maria Simona Massari, Joel de Neve, Claudia Morozzi, Moritz Fischer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidaemias are associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, driven by unstable atherosclerotic plaques with inflammatory infiltrates. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for pro-inflammatory cytokines have been positively correlated with atherosclerotic disease progression. Therapeutic lipoprotein apheresis (LA) reduces plasma lipid levels and reduces inflammation. We evaluated the effects of LA on expression of mRNA coding for key pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with dyslipidaemia, homo-/hetero-zygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH, HeFH) or hyperlipoprotein(a)aemia [hyperLp(a)] and associated coronary artery disease (CAD)...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066436/interleukin-6-and-the-risk-of-adverse-outcomes-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-observations-from-the-solid-timi-52-stabilization-of-plaque-using-darapladib-thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction-52-trial
#4
Christina L Fanola, David A Morrow, Christopher P Cannon, Petr Jarolim, Mary Ann Lukas, Christoph Bode, Judith S Hochman, Erica L Goodrich, Eugene Braunwald, Michelle L O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine implicated in plaque instability in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic implications of IL-6 post-ACS. METHODS AND RESULTS: IL-6 concentration was assessed at baseline in 4939 subjects in SOLID-TIMI 52 (Stabilization of Plaque Using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52), a randomized trial of darapladib in patients ≤30 days from ACS. Patients were followed for a median of 2...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064776/carotid-stenosis-basing-treatment-on-individual-patients-needs-optimal-medical-therapy-alone-or-accompanied-by-stenting-or-endarterectomy
#5
Ralf Langhoff
Though carotid artery stenosis is a known origin of stroke, risk assessment and treatment modality are not yet satisfactorily established. Guideline updates according to latest evidence are expected shortly. Current clinical weakness concerns in particular the identification of "at-risk" patients. Beside the symptomatic status and the degree of stenosis, further signs of unstable plaque on carotid and cerebral imaging should be considered. Moreover, medical and endovascular therapy are continuously improving...
October 24, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055637/impact-of-pre-diabetes-on-coronary-plaque-composition-and-clinical-outcome%C3%A2-in-patients-with-acute-coronary%C3%A2-syndromes-an-analysis-from-the-prospect-study
#6
Serdar Farhan, Björn Redfors, Akiko Maehara, Thomas McAndrew, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Bernard De Bruyne, Roxana Mehran, Gennaro Giustino, Ajay J Kirtane, Patrick W Serruys, Gary S Mintz, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pre-diabetes (pre-DM) on coronary plaque characteristics and ischemic outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: Pre-DM (i.e., the early stages of glucometabolic disturbance) is common among patients with ACS, but the extent to which pre-DM influences coronary plaque characteristics and the risk for adverse ischemic events is unclear. METHODS: In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in Coronary Tree) study, patients with ACS underwent quantitative coronary angiography, grayscale intravascular ultrasound, and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after successful percutaneous coronary intervention...
October 14, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047360/comparison-of-circulating-dendritic-cell-and-monocyte-subsets-at-different-stages-of-atherosclerosis-insights-from-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Jianhui Zhuang, Yang Han, Dachun Xu, Guofu Zhu, Shekhar Singh, Luoman Chen, Mengyun Zhu, Wei Chen, Yawei Xu, Xiankai Li
BACKGROUND: While specific patterns of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes are associated with the incidence of coronary artery disease, the characterization of circulating DC and monocyte subsets in patients with different stages of atherosclerosis remains unclear. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) diagnosed by angiography were enrolled. Likewise, 31 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were enrolled and confirmed with the presence of thrombosis by angiography...
October 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044936/mmp1-and-mmp3-gene-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes
#8
Andrzej Pawlik, Marzenna Plucinska, Mikołaj Kopec, Daniel Głabowski, Michał Czerewaty, Krzysztof Safranow
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the group of proteolytic enzymes that break down the components of the connective tissue matrix leading to unstable atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to examine the association between MMP1-1607dupG (rs1799750) and MMP3-1171dupA (rs3025058) gene polymorphisms and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the form of unstable angina. This study included 197 patients with ACS in the form of unstable angina confirmed by coronary angiography (defined by >70% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery) and 144 healthy controls...
November 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042935/decreased-cathepsin-k-levels-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques-are-associated-with-plaque-instability
#9
Huiying Zhao, Xiujiao Qin, Shuai Wang, Xiwei Sun, Bin Dong
Investigating the determinants and dynamics of atherosclerotic plaque instability is a key area of current cardiovascular research. Extracellular matrix degradation from excessive proteolysis induced by enzymes such as cathepsin K (Cat K) is implicated in the pathogenesis of unstable plaques. The current study assessed the expression of Cat K in human unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Specimens of popliteal arteries with atherosclerotic plaques were classified as stable (<40% lipid core plaque area; n=6) or unstable (≥40% lipid core plaque area; n=14) based on histopathological examinations of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032752/association-between-apolipoproteins-ai-and-b-and-ultrasound-indicators-of-carotid-atherosclerosis
#10
Zeljko Zivanovic, Ivana Divjak, Mirjana Jovicevic, Tamara Rabi-Zikic, Biljana Radovanovic, Svetlana Ruzicka-Kaloci, Djordje Stevan Popovic, Edita Stokic, Ksenija Gebauer-Bukurov, Katarina Zivanovic-Vujcic, Petar Slankamenac
BACKGROUND: Apolipoproteins A-I and B (apoA-I and apoB) may be better indicators of the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases than conventional risk factors (RFs). The onset of ischemic stroke (IS) may be preceded by the development of atherosclerotic changes in carotid arteries, which can be detected by ultrasound. Only a certain % of patients with IS have an (underlying) carotid etiology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the association between ultrasound indicators of carotid atherosclerosis and the presence of apolipoproteins and other biomarkers in patients with IS...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992985/apoa1-and-apob-polymorphisms-and-apolipoprotein-concentrations-as-biomarkers-of-risk-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-relationship-with-lipid-lowering-therapy-effectiveness
#11
Fidel Casillas-Muñoz, Yeminia Valle, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Diana Emilia Martínez-Fernández, Gabriela Lizet Reynoso-Villalpando, Héctor Enrique Flores-Salinas, Mara Anaís Llamas-Covarrubias, Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lipid metabolism alterations contribute to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). rs670, rs5070 and rs693 polymorphisms have shown to modify the risk of cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein B (ApoB) contributes to accumulation of cholesterol in the plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs670 and rs5070 polymorphisms of APOA1 and rs693 polymorphism of APOB with ACS and circulating levels of its proteins and find if ApoB/ApoA-I could be implemented as an independent parameter of risk for cardiovascular disease and as a biomarker of lipid-lowering therapy effectiveness in Mexican population...
October 6, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990744/phosphoprotein-1-osteopontin-gene-rs4754-affects-markers-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Aleš Pleskovič, Marija Šantl Letonja, Andreja Cokan Vujkovac, Jana Makuc, Jovana Nikolajević Starčević, Danijel Petrovič
BACKGROUND: Our study was designed to test a possible association between polymorphisms of the SPP1 gene (rs4754, rs28357094) and markers of carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT, number of affected segments of carotid arteries, sum of plaque thickness, presence of carotid plaques, and presence of unstable carotid plaques) in subjects with T2DM. The second aim was to test the possible association between polymorphisms of the SPP1 gene (rs4754, rs28357094) and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT progression, change in total plaque thickness, change in the number of sites with plaques) in subjects with T2DM...
October 9, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990089/kinin-b1-receptor-as-a-novel-prognostic-progression-biomarker-for-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques
#13
Tiantian Liu, Hengfang Liu, Li Feng, Bo Xiao
Stroke caused by atherosclerosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, associated with carotid plaque rupture and inflammation progression. However, the inflammatory biomarkers which aid in predicting the future course of plaques are less detailed. The present study investigated the association between plaque vulnerable and inflammatory biomarkers using blood and plaque specimens. Carotid plaque specimens were obtained from 80 patients following stroke, 14 patients suffering from transient ischaemic attack and 17 asymptomatic patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986773/feasibility-of-combined-risk-stratification-with-coronary-ct-angiography-and-stress-myocardial-spect-in-patients-with-chronic-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Tomonari Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Hiromitsu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takano, Shin-Ichiro Kumita
OBJECTIVE: To examine the additional prognostic value of coronary CT angiography (CTA) over myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. METHODS: A series of 157 patients (mean age 69 ± 9 years; 76% male; median follow-up 49 months; range 12-82 months) underwent stress MPI with SPECT and coronary CTA within a 6-month interval. Summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS) of stress MPI, number of vessels with stenosis, and presence of left main trunk stenosis and high-risk plaques on coronary CTA were examined...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#15
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929697/-effects-of-berberine-on-serum-inflammatory-factors-and-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-patients-with-acute-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#16
Ying Li, Pei Wang, Mei-Jing Chai, Fan Yang, Hong-Shan Li, Jing Zhao, Huan Wang, Dan-Dan Lu
This study aims to analyze the effect of berberine on serum inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaques in ppatients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke(AIS). In the study, 120 patients with AIS were randomly divided into berberine group(n=60) and general group (n=60). The 60 cases in the general group were provided with general therapy according to the latest guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of AIS. The berberine group received berberine 300 mg(tid) in addition to the therapy of the general group...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920704/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-a-potential-mechanism-for-atherosclerosis-plaque-progression-and-destabilization
#17
Afang Li, Wenxi Peng, Xiaodan Xia, Rongqing Li, Yu Wang, Dangheng Wei
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a cellular reprogramming mechanism by which endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. EndMT is associated with fibroproliferative diseases, such as cancer progression and metastasis and cardiac and kidney fibrosis, and this condition has been extensively investigated over the past decade. Recently, studies showed that EndMT contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion and plaque destabilization. Unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis are the main pathological causes of acute cardiovascular events...
November 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916789/whole-body-and-hematopoietic-adam8-deficiency-does-not-influence-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesion-development-despite-its-association-with-human-plaque-progression
#18
Kosta Theodorou, Emiel P C van der Vorst, Marion J Gijbels, Ine M J Wolfs, Mike Jeurissen, Thomas L Theelen, Judith C Sluimer, Erwin Wijnands, Jack P Cleutjens, Yu Li, Yvonne Jansen, Christian Weber, Andreas Ludwig, Jacob F Bentzon, Jörg W Bartsch, Erik A L Biessen, Marjo M P C Donners
Although A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) is not crucial for tissue development and homeostasis, it has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases by regulating processes like immune cell recruitment and activation. ADAM8 expression has been associated with human atherosclerosis development and myocardial infarction, however a causal role of ADAM8 in atherosclerosis has not been investigated thus far. In this study, we examined the expression of ADAM8 in early and progressed human atherosclerotic lesions, in which ADAM8 was significantly upregulated in vulnerable lesions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861889/red-yeast-rice-prevents-atherosclerosis-through-regulating-inflammatory-signaling-pathways
#19
Min Wu, Wen-Gao Zhang, Long-Tao Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of red yeast rice (RYR) on blood lipid levels, aortic atherosclerosis (AS), and plaque stability in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. METHODS: Twenty-four ApoE-/- mice were fed with a high-fat diet starting from 6 weeks of age. Mice were randomized into three groups (n = 8 in each group): model group (ApoE-/- group), RYR group (ApoE-/- + RYR group), and simvastatin group (ApoE-/- + simvastatin group). Eight 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned as the control group and fed with a basic diet...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843802/a-recurrent-case-of-ischemic-stroke-caused-by-vasospasm-due-to-giant-cell-arteritis
#20
Reina Kawamura, Atsushi Mizuma, Maiko Kouchi, Eiichiro Nagata, Wakoh Takahashi, Shunya Takizawa
A 73-year-old man was admitted with sudden right upper-limb weakness. He had a temporal headache on the left side and had a 4-month history of fever. Meandering of the left temporal artery (TA) with induration and high inflammatory responses (white blood cell count 22,500 per microliter, C-reactive protein 35.0 mg/dL, and elevated sedimentation rate [ESR] 80 mm/h) were observed. Glycometabolism and lipid metabolism were normal, and autoimmune antibodies were negative. Cultivation tests revealed no bacteria in either blood culture or cerebrospinal fluid...
November 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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