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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790310/anticancer-activity-of-chlorhexidine-and-cranberry-extract-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Mahesh R Khairnar, Umesh Wadgave, Harish Jadhav, Rahul Naik
Introduction: Oral cancer is considered to be a global pandemic. The study was conducted to assess the anti-cancer activities of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Cranberry against oral cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Anticancer activity of CHX and Cranberry extract (CE) was assessed against AW13516 (poorly to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of tongue) and KB (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma) using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) Mumbai, India...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790300/aspiration-pneumonia-induces-muscle-atrophy-in-the-respiratory-skeletal-and-swallowing-systems
#2
Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788070/vt-1598-inhibits-the-in-vitro-growth-of-mucosal-candida-strains-and-protects-against-fluconazole-susceptible-and-resistant-oral-candidiasis-in-il-17-signalling-deficient-mice
#3
Timothy J Break, Jigar V Desai, Kelley R Healey, Mukil Natarajan, Elise M N Ferre, Christina Henderson, Adrian Zelazny, Ulrich Siebenlist, Christopher M Yates, Oren J Cohen, Robert J Schotzinger, David S Perlin, Edward P Garvey, Michail S Lionakis
Background: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) treatment often induces drug resistance, posing long-term challenges. A novel broad-spectrum fungal CYP51 inhibitor, VT-1598, specifically targets fungal CYP51, but not human CYP enzymes. Objectives: To determine the efficacy of VT-1598 in the treatment of oral Candida infection caused by fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates. Methods: The MICs of VT-1598 and fluconazole for 28 Candida isolates recovered from patients with inherited CMC were determined using CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 guidelines...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787680/revision-lingual-frenotomy-improves-patient-reported-breastfeeding-outcomes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Bobak A Ghaheri, Melissa Cole, Jess C Mace
BACKGROUND: Lingual frenotomy improves patient-reported outcome measures, including infant reflux and maternal nipple pain, and prolongs the nursing relationship; however, many mother-infant dyads continue to experience breastfeeding difficulty despite having had a frenotomy. Research aim: The aim of this study was to determine how incomplete release of the tethered lingual frenulum may result in persistent breastfeeding difficulties. METHODS: A one-group, observational, prospective cohort study was conducted...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#5
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784581/how-to-make-a-tongue-cellular-and-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-and-connective-tissue-formation-during-mammalian-tongue-development
#6
REVIEW
Martyn T Cobourne, Sachiko Iseki, Anahid A Birjandi, Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Guilherme M Xavier, Karen J Liu
The vertebrate tongue is a complex muscular organ situated in the oral cavity and involved in multiple functions including mastication, taste sensation, articulation and the maintenance of oral health. Although the gross embryological contributions to tongue formation have been known for many years, it is only relatively recently that the molecular pathways regulating these processes have begun to be discovered. In particular, there is now evidence that the Hedgehog, TGF-Beta, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways all play an important role in mediating appropriate signaling interactions between the epithelial, cranial neural crest and mesodermal cell populations that are required to form the tongue...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782555/langerin-dcs-regulate-innate-il-17-production-in-the-oral-mucosa-during-candida-albicans-mediated-infection
#7
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the infected tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782537/changes-in-the-vibration-sensitivity-and-pressure-pain-thresholds-in-patients-with-burning-mouth-syndrome
#8
Brenda de Souza Moura, Natália Dos Reis Ferreira, Marcos F DosSantos, Maria Elisa Rangel Janini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of changes in vibration detection and pressure pain threshold in patients with burning-mouth syndrome (BMS). DESIGN OF THE STUDY: Case-control study. The sample was composed of 30 volunteers, 15 with BMS and 15 in the control group. The pressure-pain threshold (PPT) and vibration-detection threshold (VDT) were examined. The clinical evaluation was complemented with the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI, respectively)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782331/management-challenges-in-an-infant-with-pentalogy-of-cantrell-giant-anterior-encephalocele-and-craniofacial-anomalies-a-case-report
#9
Richard Hubbard, Seth Hayes, Holly Gillis, Spencer Lindsey, Prashant Malhotra, Tariq Wani, Joseph D Tobias, Ralph Beltran
Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare syndrome consisting of midline abnormalities involving the heart, sternum, abdominal wall, and the anterior and pericardial diaphragm. This combination of defects places patients at particular perioperative risk and requires individualized management during anesthetic care. The following report documents the management of a patient with pentalogy of Cantrell, whose condition was further complicated by severe midline craniofacial abnormalities, including large anterior encephalocele, deficient mandible, tethered tongue, and cleft palate...
May 17, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782042/effect-of-tongue-palate-contact-mode-on-food-transport-during-mastication
#10
Tomoko Iizumi, Mariko Yoshino, Hitoshi Kagaya, Kazuhiro Hori, Takahiro Ono
The physiological mechanisms underlying Stage II transport (STII), during which comminuted solid food is transported from the oral cavity into the meso-pharynx for aggregation into a pre-swallow bolus, have yet to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between tongue-palate contact during mastication and incidence of STII by synchronized analysis of tongue pressure production on a hard palate and video-endoscopic (VE) images during mastication. Tongue pressure at 5 measuring points with an ultra-thin sensor sheet attached to the hard palate and trans-nasal VE images while masticating corned beef was recorded for 12 healthy subjects...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782038/tongue-pressure-measurement-in-children-with-mouth-breathing-behavior
#11
Nayara D Azevedo, Josiane C Lima, Renata M M M Furlan, Andréa R Motta
BACKGROUND: The tongue plays an important role in oral functions. Reduced tongue strength is often noted among children with mouth-breathing behavior. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to measure the tongue pressure in children with mouth-breathing behavior, to compare these values to those of children with nasal-breathing behavior, and to analyze the relationship between age and tongue pressure in children with a mouth-breathing pattern and in children with a nasal-breathing pattern...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781807/word-recognition-re-thinking-prosthetic-vision-evaluation
#12
Shui'Er Han, Cheng Qiu, Kassandra R Lee, JaeHyun Jung, Eli Peli
Evaluations of vision prostheses and sensory substitution devices have frequently relied on repeated training and testing with the same small set of items. These multiple forced-choice tasks have been shown to produce above chance performance in blind patients, but it is unclear if the observed performance represents restoration of vision that transfers to novel, untrained items. Here, we tested the generalizability of the forced-choice paradigm on the discrimination of low-resolution word images. Extensive visual training was conducted with the same 10 words used in previous BrainPort tongue stimulating studies...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781570/effect-of-motor-based-speech-intervention-on-articulatory-placement-in-the-treatment-of-a-posterior-nasal-fricative-a-preliminary-mri-study-on-a-single-subject
#13
Kazlin N Mason, Eshan Pua, Jamie L Perry
BACKGROUND: Posterior nasal fricatives are a learned compensatory articulation error and commonly substituted for oral fricatives. Treatment of such articulation errors requires the modification or teaching of skilled movements. A motor-based approach is designed to teach the complex motor skill movement sequences required in the production of sounds. Although motor learning research is well established, little has been done to determine how the approach changes the underlying physiology of articulatory movements...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781118/ballistic-tongue-projection-in-a-miniaturized-salamander
#14
Stephen M Deban, Segall V Bloom
Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780060/development-of-oropharyngeal-scope-type-ii-with-integrated-tongue-depressor-for-examination-of-the-oropharynx-ntop2016-study
#15
Koichi Tsunoda, Rika Kobayashi, Akiko Kada, Akiko M Saito, Y U Hanada, Hayato Misawa, Keizo Horibe, Tonghyo Chong, Miwako Honda, Yoko Morita, Osamu Komiyama
The oropharynx is examined by focusing an electric light, penlight, or forehead mirror on a desired visual field using a tongue depressor. However, it is extremely difficult to obtain objective recorded evidence for display with these methods, and the tools for examination have remained virtually unchanged for the past century. Treatment of the pharynx/oral cavity is exceedingly difficult, particularly in elderly patients and children. Therefore, there is an increasing need to develop a method for displaying the visual field during oropharyngeal examinations which is acceptable to patients, which can easily be applied at all medical institutions, which can be displayed to third parties, and which can be used by doctors for recording data and determining treatment...
May 21, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779940/encoding-of-articulatory-kinematic-trajectories-in-human-speech-sensorimotor-cortex
#16
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779205/correction-to-morphological-reflections-of-evolutionary-adaptations-in-the-tongue-of-the-white-headed-duck
#17
Ghasem Akbari, Belal Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Madadi, Mohammad Babaei
The affiliation of the third author has been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct affiliation is provided in this erratum.
May 19, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777534/is-it-necessary-to-have-a-dentist-within-an-intensive-care-unit-team-report-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#18
Wanessa Teixeira Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti, Gilberto Gambero Gaspar, Hayala Cristina Cavenague de Souza, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins, Anibal Basile-Filho, Roberto Martinez, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of dental treatment in improving oral health in critical patients. METHODS: This randomised clinical trial was conducted in a general intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary care public facility from 1 January 2011 to 8 August 2013. Data from 254 adult patients staying in the ICU for 48 hours or more were analysed. The experimental group (n = 127) had access to dental treatment provided by a dentist four to five times a week, in addition to routine oral hygiene, whereas the control group (n = 127) had access only to routine oral hygiene, including topical application of chlorhexidine, provided by the ICU nursing staff...
May 18, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777310/mechanical-sensitivity-and-psychological-factors-in-patients-with-burning-mouth-syndrome
#19
Mika Honda, Takashi Iida, Hirona Kamiyama, Manabu Masuda, Misao Kawara, Peter Svensson, Osamu Komiyama
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare mechanical sensitivity on the tongue using quantitative sensory testing (QST) and psychological factors using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) between burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and healthy participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants comprised 20 female BMS patients (68.1 ± 7.4 years) and 20 healthy females (65.4 ± 4.6 years). Psychological factors were evaluated with GHQ. Tactile detection thresholds (TDT) and filament-prick pain detection thresholds (FPT) were used to evaluate mechanical sensitivity on the tongue in all participants...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775861/screening-methylation-of-dna-repair-genes-in-the-oral-mucosa-of-chronic-smokers
#20
Celina Faig Lima Carta, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Márcia Sampaio Campos, Jaqueline Scholz, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Fábio Daumas Nunes, Janete Dias Almeida
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epigenetic changes in the process of oral carcinogenesis by screening the methylation of repair genes in chronic smokers. DESIGN: Two groups were formed: Group 1: 16 smokers with consumption of 20 cigarettes/day for at least 10 years; and Group 2: 10 non-smoking. Exfoliative cytology of the tongue was performed, and the extracted DNA was treated by enzymes. The PCR Array System performed methylation screening to evaluate 22 DNA repair genes, and the results were validated by RT-qPCR for each gene with methylation levels ≥10%...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
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