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Jens D Rollnik
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a challenge to physicians. CFS prevalence is below 1 % in a general population. There are no convincing models that might explain etiology and pathogenesis of CFS as an independent, unique disease. No consistent diagnostic criteria are available. In the differential diagnosis of chronic fatigue, a variety of somatic (e. g. chronic infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, endocrinological disorders) and psychiatric/psychosomatic diseases should be considered...
February 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
John F Mondanaro, Peter Homel, Baron Lonner, Jennifer Shepp, Marcela Lichtensztein, Joanne V Loewy
The treatment of pain continues to gain in saliency as a component of defining best practice in medical care. Music therapy is an integrative treatment modality that impacts patient outcomes in the treatment of spinal pain. At Mount Sinai Beth Israel, we conducted a mixed-methods study addressing the effects of music therapy interventions on the recovery of patients after spine surgery. The study combined standard medical approaches and integrative music therapy. Sixty patients (35 female, 25 male) ranging in age from 40 to 55 years underwent anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior spinal fusion and were randomly assigned to either music therapy plus standard care (medical and nursing care with scheduled pharmacologic pain intervention) or standard care only...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
Luis N Gonzalez Castro, Jaideep H Mehta, Jordan B Brayanov, Gary J Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative administration of benzodiazepines can cause hypoventilation-a decrease in minute ventilation (MV)-commonly referred to as "respiratory compromise or respiratory depression." Respiratory depression can lead to hypercarbia and / or hypoxemia, and may heighten the risk of other respiratory complications. Current anesthesia practice often places patients at risk for respiratory complications even before surgery, as respiratory monitoring is generally postponed until the patient is in the operating room...
2017: PloS One
E N Zamri, F M Moy, V C W Hoe
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors...
2017: PloS One
Xiaodong Li, Han Jiang, Lianping Xiao, Shusen Wang, Jinxin Zheng
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and could contribute to cancer development and progression. MiR-200bc/429 have been found to be aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the features of miR-200bc/429 in the tumorigenesis and progress of OS remain poorly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS The miR-200bc/429 expression was firstly identified in human OS clinical samples and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
February 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Chittaranjan Andrade
In prospective and retrospective observational studies, such as those that examine the effects of antidepressant drugs for the treatment of depression during pregnancy, patients are not randomized to whatever treatments they do or do not receive. As a result, treatment groups may be unbalanced for a wide range of sociodemographic and clinical variables. In such studies, because the illness (and its correlates) for which the treatment is indicated may itself influence the study outcomes, the use of the treatment becomes indirectly linked to these outcomes (this is known as confounding by indication), and the effects of treatment and illness on the study outcomes are difficult if not impossible to separate...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jin Mizushima, Hiroyuki Uchida, Mitsuhiro Tada, Takefumi Suzuki, Masaru Mimura, Shintaro Nio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate which specific depressive items could predict subsequent durable recovery in patients with bipolar depression. METHODS: The study population was at least 18 years old and met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode associated with either bipolar I or II disorder. The data were derived from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD), in which patients with bipolar depression were randomly assigned to treatment for acute depression with a mood stabilizer plus an adjunctive antidepressant drug or placebo...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Mark Zimmerman, Emily Walsh, Michael Friedman, Daniela A Boerescu, Naureen Attiullah
OBJECTIVE: Advocates of measurement-based care approaches toward treatment recommend the use of self-report questionnaires. Many self-report scales have been developed to measure the severity of depression. Because of the significance accorded remission by experts, it is important to compare different scales in their identification of remitted patients. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared 3 self-report scales that assess the criteria for major depression in the identification of remission in patients treated in routine practice...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tingting Duan, Ning Gu, Ying Wang, Feng Wang, Jie Zhu, Yiru Fang, Yuan Shen, Jing Han, Xia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pathological anxiety is the most common type of psychiatric disorder. The current first-line anti-anxiety treatment, selective serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, produces a delayed onset of action with modest therapeutic and substantial adverse effects, and long-term use of the fast-acting anti-anxiety benzodiazepines causes severe adverse effects. Inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) degradative enzyme, produces anti-anxiety effects without substantial "unwanted effects" of cannabinoids, but its anti-anxiety mechanism is unclear...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Lily R Aleksandrova, Anthony G Phillips, Yu Tian Wang
The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder remain poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have many shortcomings. The recent discovery that a single intravenous infusion of ketamine at a subanesthetic dose had robust, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant depression inspired tremendous interest in investigating the molecular mechanisms mediating ketamine's clinical efficacy as well as increased efforts to identify new targets for antidepressant action...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Daniela Mier, Josef Bailer, Julia Ofer, Tobias Kerstner, Vera Zamoscik, Fred Rist, Michael Witthöft, Carsten Diener
BACKGROUND: An attentional bias to health-threat stimuli is assumed to represent the primary pathogenetic factor for the development and maintenance of pathological health anxiety (PHA; formerly termed "hypochondriasis"). However, little is known about the neural basis of this attentional bias in individuals with PHA. METHODS: A group of patients with PHA, a group of depressed patients and a healthy control group completed an emotional Stroop task with health-threat (body symptom and illness) words and neutral control words while undergoing functional MRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Kathryn J Holland, Verónica Caridad Rabelo, Lilia M Cortina
In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Katie Cyr, Claire Chamberland, Marie-Ève Clément, Jo-Anne Wemmers, Delphine Collin-Vézina, Geneviève Lessard, Marie-Hélène Gagné, Dominique Damant
This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most variability in scores of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anger/ aggression compared to individual victimization categories. Sexual victimization and maltreatment still made an independent contribution in predicting all trauma scores once polyvictimization was considered...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
David S Lee, Laura Marsh, Mauro A Garcia-Altieri, Louisa W Chiu, Samir S Awad
Depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse are linked to higher rates of morbidity and mortality after various surgical procedures. Comparable data in general surgery are lacking. Records from 183 consecutive patients undergoing elective general surgery procedures at a single tertiary hospital were reviewed. Patients with depression, anxiety, PTSD, and substance abuse or any combination of these at the time of surgery were classified as having "active mental illness" (AMI)...
December 1, 2016: American Surgeon
Ronald G Amedee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Lingan Kong, Yan Xie, Ling Hu, Jisheng Si, Zongshuai Wang
In this study, field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was treated with normal (Nn) and excessive (Ne) levels of fertilizer N. Results showed that Ne depressed the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was higher under Ne at anthesis and medium milk but similar at the early dough stage and significantly lower at the hard dough stage than that under Nn. The metabolomics analysis of the leaf responses to Ne during grain filling showed 99 metabolites that were different between Ne and Nn treatments, including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, amino acids, organic acids and lipids, which are primarily involved in ROS scavenging, N metabolism, heat stress adaptation and disease resistance...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yunan Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Shao, Liufeng Ouyang, Xin Wang, Kexuan Zhu, Lin Chen
The involvement of brain glycogen in the progress of chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal astrocyte structural plasticity and depression-like behavior is yet to be clarified. The present study designed three experiments to determine the role of brain glycogen in the plasticity and behavioral consequences of chronic stress. Time course studies on brain glycogen, astrocytes, and behavioral responses to stress were conducted in Experiment 1. Chronic stress decreased the hippocampal glycogen levels, reduced astrocytic size and protrusion length in the hippocampus, and induced depression-like behavior...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sophie Perinel, Jérémie Pourchez, Lara Leclerc, John Avet, Marc Durand, Nathalie Prévôt, Michèle Cottier, Jean M Vergnon
Anatomical models to study aerosol delivery impose huge limitations and extrapolation to humans remains controversial. This study aimed to develop and validate an ex vivo human-like respiratory tract model easy to use and relevant to compare to in vivo human data. A human plastinated head is connected to an ex vivo porcine pulmonary tract ventilated artificially by passive expansion. A physiological study measures "pleural" depressions, tidal volumes, and minute ventilation for the respiratory rates chosen (10, 15, and 20 per minute) with three inspiratory/expiratory ratios (1/1, 1/2, and 1/3)...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thisciane Ferreira Pinto, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales de Bruin, Francisco Ney Lemos, Fernando Henrique Azevedo Lopes, Paulo Marcos Lopes
BACKGROUND: Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake and is clinically defined by the presence of evening hyperphagia, nocturnal ingestion, morning anorexia, and sleep problems. Although most studies report an association of obesity, depressive mood, and NES, very little is known about the impact of bariatric surgery in the course of this syndrome, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bariatric surgery on night eating and depressive symptoms...
December 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Stephan Axer, Eva Szabo, Ingmar Näslund
BACKGROUND: In Sweden, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common procedure when revising a previous bariatric procedure. This study is an analysis of all revisional gastric bypass operations (rGBP) compared with a matched group of primary gastric bypass (pGBP) operated between 2007 and 2012. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether improvement of obesity-related co-morbidity and changes in weight after revisional gastric bypass surgery were comparable with those seen after primary surgery...
January 24, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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