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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471574/-type-2-diabetes-diabetes-in-older-adults-example-for-patient-centered-drug-therapy
#1
Dirk Müller-Wieland
Diabetes in older adults has a high prevalence and is frequently associated with comorbidities of the cardiovascular system, dysfunction of cognition as well as depression and impaired mobility or increased frailty. Furthermore, impaired renal function, heart failure, risk for hypoglycemia and polypharmacy has to be considered in the decision about the diabetes treatment strategy. The goal of blood glucose management is driven by patient relevant issues and patient self-esteem, quality of life defined by the patient, preservation of physical and social mobility rather than potential long-term effects on reduction of cardio- and microvascular events in the future, which is limited by patient-inherent reduced life expectancy of the aged individual...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471518/differences-between-supportive-music-and-imagery-and-music-listening-during-outpatient-chemotherapy-and-potential-moderators-of-treatment-effects
#2
Debra S Burns, Anthony N Meadows, Sandra Althouse, Susan M Perkins, Larry D Cripe
Background: Supportive music and imagery and music listening interventions have been effective in decreasing distress and improving mood in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but it is unclear whether the two interventions differ in their treatment benefits. Furthermore, previous studies have not examined moderators to determine which subgroup(s) of patients may benefit most from each intervention. Objective: To examine the effects of supportive music and imagery compared with preferred music listening on responsiveness to music therapy, distress, anxiety and depression, and benefit finding...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471487/the-lesser-antillean-iguana-iguana-delicatissima-on-st-eustatius-genetically-depauperate-and-threatened-by-ongoing-hybridization
#3
Matthijs P van den Burg, Patrick G Meirmans, Tim van Wagensveld, Bart Kluskens, Hannah Madden, Mark E Welch, Johannes A J Breeuwer
The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471427/health-and-work-in-women-and-men-in-the-welding-and-electrical-trades-how-do-they-differ
#4
Nicola Cherry, Victoria Arrandale, Jeremy Beach, Jean-Michel F Galarneau, Antonia Mannette, Laura Rodgers
Objectives: There is little information on how work tasks, demands, and exposures differ between women and men in nominally the same job. This is critical in setting workplace standards that will protect the health of both men and those women moving into less traditional work roles. Information used in setting standards is currently based almost entirely on male workers. This paper describes differences in work and health, and the relation between them, in women and men who have undergone the same trade training for the welding or electrical trades...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471423/predictive-models-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Jason A Berard, Andra M Smith, Lisa A S Walker
Objective: Cognitive fatigue (CF) can be defined as decreased performance with sustained cognitive effort. The present study examined the interrelatedness of disease severity, fatigue, depression, and sleep quality in order to evaluate their predictive roles of CF in MS. Four theoretical models examining these variables were assessed. Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with a diagnosis of MS were recruited. CF was measured by examining last third versus first third performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471400/increased-dietary-protein-or-free-amino-acids-supply-for-heat-stress-pigs-effect-on-performance-and-carcass-traits
#6
A Morales, M Chávez, N Vásquez, J K Htoo, L Buenabad, S Espinoza, M Cervantes
Heat stress (HS) pigs reduce their voluntary feed intake (VFI) and ingestion of indispensable amino acids (AA). Increasing the dietary CP content may help to correct the reduced AA intake by HS pigs, but it may further increase their body heat load. Increasing the AA intake by adding free AA to the diet does not affect the heat load of HS pigs. Two 21-d experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 30 pigs (31.1 ± 1.2 kg initial BW) were used to determine the performance depression because of HS. Treatments were: thermo neutral pigs fed a 22% CP control diet (TN-C); HS pigs fed the control diet (HS-C); HS pigs fed a 14% CP, AA supplemented diet (HS-AA)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471329/effects-of-varenicline-depressive-symptoms-and-region-of-enrollment-on-smoking-cessation-in-depressed-smokers
#7
Neal Doran, Sarah Dubrava, Robert M Anthenelli
Introduction: Despite effective treatments, relapse to smoking remains a vexing global health problem. One predictor of relapse is depressive symptoms. Medications such as varenicline reduce withdrawal-related symptoms of depression, reducing relapse. This study examined whether varenicline moderated the effect of depressive symptoms on relapse, and whether this varied by region of enrollment. Methods: Adult smokers (n=525; 37% male) with past or current, stable major depressive disorder recruited from US (n=255), and European (n=270) sites participated in a randomized, double-blind cessation treatment trial including 12 weeks of varenicline or placebo, with 40-week non-treatment follow-up...
February 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471267/the-effectiveness-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-lifestyle-interventions-on-biomedical-psychosocial-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Xingfeng Yu, Janita P C Chau, Lanting Huo
BACKGROUND: Integrative diabetes care, which combines conventional diabetes therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based interventions, has gained popularity worldwide. Numerous TCM-based lifestyle modification approaches have been proposed for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: To synthesize and present the best available evidence on the effectiveness of TCM-based lifestyle interventions in individuals with T2DM. DESIGN: We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471260/stress-underestimation-and-mental-health-literacy-of-depression-in-japanese-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Nanako Nakamura-Taira, Shuhei Izawa, Kosuke Chris Yamada
Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471247/family-functioning-and-adolescent-internalizing-symptoms-a-latent-profile-analysis
#10
Emily G Simpson, Anna Vannucci, Christine McCauley Ohannessian
This study aimed to characterize adolescent family functioning typologies using latent profile analysis (LPA). A secondary aim was to examine profile associations with adolescent internalizing symptoms at one-year follow-up. Students (N = 1029; 53% female; mean age = 16.14, SD = .75 years) completed measures of family functioning, anxiety, and depressive symptoms at two time points. LPA was conducted to characterize family functioning typologies at Time 1, revealing five profiles: 1) Low Family Functioning, 2) Only Close to Father, 3) Average Family Functioning, 4) Only Close to Mother, and 5) High Family Functioning...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471232/changes-in-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-and-late-life-depression-a-two-year-population-based-longitudinal-study
#11
Jae-Min Kim, Robert Stewart, Ju-Wan Kim, Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
Longitudinal associations of cytokine levels with depression are unclear. This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between five serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and late-life depression. 732 Korean people aged 65+ were evaluated at baseline. Of 631 without depression (Geriatric Mental State schedule) at baseline, 521 (83%) were followed over a 2 year period and incident depression was ascertained. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were assayed at both baseline and follow-up...
February 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471180/linking-financial-hardship-throughout-the-life-course-with-psychological-distress-in-old-age-sensitive-period-accumulation-of-risks-and-chain-of-risks-hypotheses
#12
Alexander Darin-Mattsson, Ross Andel, Roger Keller Celeste, Ingemar Kåreholt
The primary objective was to investigate the life course hypotheses - sensitive period, chain of risks, and accumulation of risks - in relation to financial hardship and psychological distress in old age. We used two Swedish longitudinal surveys based on nationally representative samples. The first survey includes people 18-75 years old with multiple waves, the second survey is a longitudinal continuation, including people 76 + years old. The analytical sample included 2990 people at baseline. Financial hardship was assessed in childhood (retrospectively), at the mean ages of 54, 61, 70, and 81 years...
February 17, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471082/anhedonic-behavior-and-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-during-a-sensitive-period-in-female-rats-exposed-to-early-adversity
#13
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity increases depressive behavior that emerges during adolescence. Sensitive periods have been associated with fewer GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV), brain derived growth factor, and its receptor, TrkB. Here, maternal separation (MS) and social isolation (ISO) were used to establish a sensitive period for anhedonic depression using the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for 4-h/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days 2-20; for the ISO condition, separate cohorts were individually housed between days 20-40 or served as controls (CON2)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471081/schematic-beliefs-and-problem-solving-performance-predict-depression-in-people-experiencing-persecutory-delusions
#14
Natasha Vorontsova, Philippa Garety, Daniel Freeman
Depression occurring alongside psychosis is an important treatment target, both in its own right and as a potential maintenance factor for positive psychotic symptoms. The present paper reports a prospective longitudinal analysis of depression and its predictors over six months in a group of 60 participants experiencing persecutory delusions. We hypothesised that negative schematic beliefs about the self and problem solving difficulties would predict the persistence of depression over time. The results showed, as hypothesised, that more negative schematic beliefs about the self and poorer problem solving predicted higher depression scores six months later, beyond what could be predicted by baseline depression scores...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471080/subjective-age-and-risk-of-incident-dementia-evidence-from-the-national-health-and-aging-trends-survey
#15
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Martina Luchetti, Antonio Terracciano
The present study examines the association between subjective age and risk of incident dementia in a large longitudinal sample of older adults. Participants were adults aged 65 years and older from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Subjective age, covariates, and cognitive status were assessed in 2011 and cognitive status was again assessed in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Incident dementia was determined based on answers from self and proxy respondents. The analyses included 4262 participants without dementia at baseline...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471022/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-induced-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-aging
#16
REVIEW
Vrinda M, Arun S, Srikumar B N, Bindu M Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B S
Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise evident in dementia and Alzheimer's disease among elderly people...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470833/cost-of-depression-in-japanese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-evidence-from-administrative-data
#17
Florent Guelfucci, Yuko Kaneko, Jörg Mahlich, Rosarin Sruamsiri
INTRODUCTION: To determine the cost of depression comorbidity among Japanese adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A retrospective database study of 8968 patients diagnosed with RA between 2010 and 2015 and treated with any RA medication was conducted. Health care utilization characteristics were compared between patients with and without a comorbidity of depression. Propensity score matching was applied to ensure a balanced comparison between the two cohorts...
February 22, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470761/the-rise-and-fall-of-depressive-symptoms-and-academic-stress-in-two-samples-of-university-students
#18
Erin T Barker, Andrea L Howard, Rosanne Villemaire-Krajden, Nancy L Galambos
Self-reported depressive experiences are common among university students. However, most studies assessing depression in university students are cross-sectional, limiting our understanding of when in the academic year risk for depression is greatest and when interventions may be most needed. We examined within-person change in depressive symptoms from September to April. Study 1 (N = 198; 57% female; 72% white; Mage = 18.4): Depressive symptoms rose from September, peaked in December, and fell across the second semester...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470730/sacral-nerve-stimulation-versus-percutaneous-tibial-nerve-stimulation-for-faecal-incontinence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Constantinos Simillis, Nikhil Lal, Shengyang Qiu, Christos Kontovounisios, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Emile Tan, Paris P Tekkis
AIMS: Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) are both second-line treatments for faecal incontinence (FI). To compare the clinical outcomes and effectiveness of SNS versus PTNS for treating FI in adults. METHOD: A literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and Cochrane was performed in order to identify studies comparing SNS and PTNS for treating FI. A risk of bias assessment was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470647/dopaminergic-innervation-and-modulation-of-hippocampal-networks
#20
REVIEW
Elke Edelmann, Volkmar Lessmann
The catecholamine dopamine plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent plasticity and related learning and memory processes. Dopamine secretion in the hippocampus is activated by, e.g., salient or novel stimuli, thereby helping to establish and to stabilize hippocampus-dependent memories. Disturbed dopaminergic function in the hippocampus leads to severe pathophysiological conditions. While the role and importance of dopaminergic modulation of hippocampal networks have been unequivocally proven, there is still a lack of detailed molecular and cellular mechanistic understanding of how dopamine orchestrates these hippocampal processes...
February 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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