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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444419/pak1-kinase-maintains-apical-membrane-identity-in-epithelia
#1
Mario Aguilar-Aragon, Ahmed Elbediwy, Valentina Foglizzo, Georgina C Fletcher, Vivian S W Li, Barry J Thompson
Epithelial cells are polarized along their apical-basal axis by the action of the small GTPase Cdc42, which is known to activate the aPKC kinase at the apical domain. However, loss of aPKC kinase activity was reported to have only mild effects on epithelial cell polarity. Here, we show that Cdc42 also activates a second kinase, Pak1, to specify apical domain identity in Drosophila and mammalian epithelia. aPKC and Pak1 phosphorylate an overlapping set of polarity substrates in kinase assays. Inactivating both aPKC kinase activity and the Pak1 kinase leads to a complete loss of epithelial polarity and morphology, with cells losing markers of apical polarization such as Crumbs, Par3/Bazooka, or ZO-1...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444113/effects-of-protein-protein-interactions-and-ligand-binding-on-the-ion-permeation-in-kcnq1-potassium-channel
#2
Horia Jalily Hasani, Aravindhan Ganesan, Marawan Ahmed, Khaled H Barakat
The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium ion channel interacts with the type I transmembrane protein minK (KCNE1) to generate the slow delayed rectifier (IKs) current in the heart. Mutations in these transmembrane proteins have been linked with several heart-related issues, including long QT syndromes (LQTS), congenital atrial fibrillation, and short QT syndrome. Off-target interactions of several drugs with that of KCNQ1/KCNE1 ion channel complex have been known to cause fatal cardiac irregularities. Thus, KCNQ1/KCNE1 remains an important avenue for drug-design and discovery research...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444020/highly-sensitive-selectively-coated-photonic-crystal-fiber-based-plasmonic-sensor
#3
Ahmmed A Rifat, Firoz Haider, Rajib Ahmed, Ghafour Amouzad Mahdiraji, F R Mahamd Adikan, Andrey E Miroshnichenko
Highly sensitive and miniaturized sensors are highly desirable for real-time analyte/sample detection. In this Letter, we propose a highly sensitive plasmonic sensing scheme with the miniaturized photonic crystal fiber (PCF) attributes. A large cavity is introduced in the first ring of the PCFs for the efficient field excitation of the surface plasmon polariton mode and proficient infiltration of the sensing elements. Due to the irregular air-hole diameter in the first ring, the cavity exhibits the birefringence behavior which enhances the sensing performance...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443896/dexamethasone-mediated-upregulation-of-calreticulin-inhibits-primary-human-glioblastoma-dispersal-ex-vivo
#4
Mohan Nair, Juan Romero, Aria Mahtabfar, Ahmed M Meleis, Ramsey A Foty, Siobhan A Corbett
Dispersal of Glioblastoma (GBM) renders localized therapy ineffective and is a major cause of recurrence. Previous studies have demonstrated that Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to treat brain tumor-related edema, can also significantly reduce dispersal of human primary GBM cells from neurospheres. It does so by triggering α5 integrin activity, leading to restoration of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA), increased neurosphere cohesion, and reduction of neurosphere dispersal velocity (DV). How Dex specifically activates α5 integrin in these GBM lines is unknown...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443887/impact-of-mutations-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-h10n7-viruses-isolated-from-seals-on-virus-replication-in-avian-and-human-cells
#5
Anne Dittrich, David Scheibner, Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Marcel Gischke, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443539/intermittent-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-increases-lung-tumors-and-the-severity-of-emphysema-more-than-continuous-exposure
#6
Naofumi Kameyama, Shotaro Chubachi, Ahmed E Hegab, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Shizuko Kagawa, Akihiro Tsutsumi, Koichi Fukunaga, Masayuki Shimoda, Yae Kanai, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for both. The presence of emphysema, an irreversible lung disease, further raises the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. The mechanisms involved in smoke-induced tumorigenesis and emphysema are not fully understood, attributable to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we optimized a model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung cancer and emphysema in A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent carcinogen...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443430/small-scale-machines-driven-by-external-power-sources
#7
REVIEW
Xiang-Zhong Chen, Bumjin Jang, Daniel Ahmed, Chengzhi Hu, Carmela De Marco, Marcus Hoop, Fajer Mushtaq, Bradley J Nelson, Salvador Pané
Micro- and nanorobots have shown great potential for applications in various fields, including minimally invasive surgery, targeted therapy, cell manipulation, environmental monitoring, and water remediation. Recent progress in the design, fabrication, and operation of these miniaturized devices has greatly enhanced their versatility. In this report, the most recent progress on the manipulation of small-scale robots based on power sources, such as magnetic fields, light, acoustic waves, electric fields, thermal energy, or combinations of these, is surveyed...
February 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443386/technical-note-error-metrics-for-estimating-the-accuracy-of-needle-instrument-placement-during-transperineal-mr-us-guided-prostate-interventions
#8
Ester Bonmati, Yipeng Hu, Barbara Villarini, Rachael Rodell, Paul Martin, Lianghao Han, Ian Donaldson, Hashim U Ahmed, Caroline M Moore, Mark Emberton, Dean C Barratt
PURPOSE: Image-guided systems that fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) images for performing targeted prostate needle biopsy and minimally-invasive treatments for prostate cancer are of increasing clinical interest. To date, a wide range of different accuracy estimation procedures and error metrics have been reported, which makes comparing the performance of different systems difficult. METHODS: A set of 9 measures are presented to assess the accuracy of MRI-US image registration, needle positioning, needle guidance, and overall system error, with the aim of providing a methodology for estimating the accuracy of instrument placement using a MR/US-guided transperineal approach...
February 14, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443028/microinjection-of-crispr-cas9-protein-into-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-embryos-for-gene-editing
#9
Ahmed Elaswad, Karim Khalil, David Cline, Patrick Page-McCaw, Wenbiao Chen, Maximilian Michel, Roger Cone, Rex Dunham
The complete genome of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, has been sequenced, leading to greater opportunities for studying channel catfish gene function. Gene knockout has been used to study these gene functions in vivo. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a powerful tool used to edit genomic DNA sequences to alter gene function. While the traditional approach has been to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 mRNA into the single cell embryos through microinjection, this can be a slow and inefficient process in catfish...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442977/low-temperature-synthesis-of-cobalt-chromium-carbide-nanoparticles-doped-carbon-nanofibers
#10
Ayman Yousef, Robert M Brooks, Ahmed Abutaleb, Salem S Al-Deyab, Mohamed H El-Newehy
Electrospinning has been used to synthesize cobalt-chromium carbide nanoparticles (NPs)-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (Composite). Electrospun mat comprising of cobalt acetate, chromium acetate and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been carbonized at low temperature (850 °C) for 3 h under argon atmosphere to produce the introduced composite. The process was achieved at low temperature due to the presence of cobalt as an activator. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with EDX techniques were used to determine the products characteristics...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442886/fabrication-and-characterization-of-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-based-on-flower-shaped-zno-nanostructures
#11
Ahmad Umar, Ahmed A Ibrahim
Herein, we report a facile synthesis, characterization and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application of flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures. The flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by low-temperature hydrothermal process and characterized in detail by several techniques. The detailed morphological studies confirmed that the flower-shaped structures are formed by the accumulation of several nanoneedles which are axially arranged through their bases in a special fashion that they made flower-like morphologies...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442810/one-pot-facile-synthesis-of-pt-nanoparticles-using-cultural-filtrate-of-microgravity-simulated-grown-p-chrysogenum-and-their-activity-on-bacteria-and-cancer-cells
#12
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Sunirmal Sheet, Mohanraj Vinothkannan, Dong Jin Yoo, Yang Soo Lee, Shah Ahmed Belal, Kwan Seob Shim
Platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) was synthesized via a facile and cost competitive ont-pot green mediated synthesis using cell free cultural filtrate (microgravity simulated grown Penicillium chrysogenum) as a reducing agent. The toxicity effect of synthesized Pt NPs toward myoblast C2C12 carcinoma cells was then investigated. The particle size analyzer (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results demonstrates that both NG-Pt NPs and MG-Pt NPS are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm and 8...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442305/antioxidant-capacity-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-e-against-imidacloprid-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-japanese-quails
#13
Hazem Emam, Eman Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Daim
Imidacloprid (IM) is a neonicotinoid insecticide, used in a wide range of agricultural activities worldwide. However, it results in ecosystem disturbances and signs of toxicity in human and animals. The current study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of omega-3-fatty acids (OFAs) and vitamin E (Vit E) against IM hepatotoxicity in Japanese quails. Seventy male quails (30 days old) were divided into seven groups (n = 10); G1-ve control; G2received IM (+ve control); G3received OFA; G4received Vit E; and G5, G6, and G7received OFA and/or Vit E with IM for 30 days, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442200/seasonal-occurrence-source-evaluation-and-ecological-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-industrial-and-agricultural-effluents-discharged-in-wadi-el-bey-tunisia
#14
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. The occurrence, source and ecological risk assessment of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural effluents affecting the Wadi El Bey watershed were investigated by means of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS). Total PAHs (∑ 26 PAH) ranged from 1.21 to 91.7 µg/L. The 4- and 5-ring compounds were the principal PAHs detected in most of 5 sites examined...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442181/do-functional-outcomes-and-cuff-integrity-correlate-after-single-versus-double-row-rotator-cuff-repair-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-study
#15
Mohamed H Sobhy, Ahmed Hany Khater, Medhat Ragab Hassan, Ossama El Shazly
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available level I prospective randomized controlled trials comparing arthroscopic single-row (SR) with double-row (DR) rotator cuff repairs by both clinical outcomes and radiological re-tear rates. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases search was done for level I RCTs comparing clinical and radiological outcomes after SR versus DR rotator cuff repair...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442049/solidification-of-cinnarizine-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-by-fluid-bed-coating-optimization-of-the-process-and-formulation-variables
#16
A Abdul-Wahhab Shahba, A Riaz Ahmed, K Mohsin, S Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman, F Kaed Alanazi
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) offer an efficient choice to improve the poor dissolution and erratic bioavailability of poorly-water soluble drugs. However, liquid SNEDDS experience some manufacturing and stability limitations. To overcome these limitations, the current study aims to investigate and optimize the solidification of cinnarizine (CN) liquid SNEDDS onto pellets by fluid bed coating. The study involved optimization of process and formulation variables. The coated self-nanoemulsifying pellets (SNEP) were characterized, their droplet size and dissolution profiles were compared to the corresponding liquid SNEDDS...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441610/a-cross-sectional-single-institution-study-of-quality-of-life-in-adult-patients-with-spina-bifida
#17
Caitlin T Coco, Bhalaajee Meenakshi-Sundaram, Ahmed Eldefrawy, Millard L Henry, Tanya Watts, Christopher E Aston, Jennifer Lewis, Dominic C Frimberger, Gennady Slobodov
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare differences in perception of independence, urinary continence, and quality of life in an adult spina bifida (SB) population. METHODS: We collected data on adult neurogenic bladder patients which included demographics, relevant procedures, and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. QoL and functional outcomes were assessed using spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) and SF-8 health questionnaire. International consultation of incontinence questionnaire (ICIQ) was used to assess incontinence...
February 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441594/influence-of-extended-incubation-time-on-human-sperm-chromatin-condensation-sperm-dna-strand-breaks-and-their-effect-on-fertilisation-rate
#18
I Ahmed, S Abdelateef, M Laqqan, H Amor, M A Abdel-Lah, M E Hammadeh
The purpose of this study was to determine influence of extended incubation time on sperm chromatin condensation and DNA strand breaks and their effect on fertilisation rate. Forty couples undergoing ICSI therapy were included. Semen was prepared by PureSperm gradient centrifugation and divided into two parts. The first part (G1) was used immediately for ICSI, whereas the second part (G2) was kept in the incubator at 37°C, 5% and 90% Humidity for 5 hr, and thereafter, the capacitated spermatozoa were used for ICSI...
February 14, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441304/relationship-between-disease-activity-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-patients-with-vitiligo
#19
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Mohamed Basha, Sally El Hefnawy, Shaimaa Mekkawy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441158/computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-is-overused-to-diagnose-pulmonary-embolism-in-the-emergency-department-of-academic-community-hospital
#20
Mohammed Osman, Suresh Kumar Subedi, Azza Ahmed, Jahangir Khan, Thair Dawood, Carlos F Ríos-Bedoya, Ghassan Bachuwa
Background : Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease in the USA responsible for up to 10% of hospital mortality. Modified wells score (MWS) and D-dimer assay are used to categorize patients into high or low probability of PE. Patient with high probability need Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), while patients with low probability and low D-dimer can safely forgo the CTPA. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of inappropriate CTPA use in the emergency department of a community teaching hospital...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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