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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792988/towards-quantitative-prediction-of-the-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalers-by-multi-scale-simulations-and-experiments
#1
Duy Nguyen, Johan Remmelgas, Ingela Niklasson Björn, Berend van Wachem, Kyrre Thalberg
This work demonstrates the use of multi-scale simulations coupled with experiments to build a quantitative prediction tool for the performance of adhesive mixtures in a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Using discrete element model (DEM), the behaviour of fine-carrier particle assemblies upon different mechanisms encountered during dose entrainment and dispersion can be described at the individual particle level. Combining these results with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the complete dosing event from a DPI can be captured and key performance measures can be extracted...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792306/predicting-the-viscosity-of-digesta-from-the-physical-characteristics-of-particle-suspensions-using-existing-rheological-models
#2
Allan K Hardacre, Roger G Lentle, Sia-Yen Yap, John A Monro
The measurement of the viscosity of digesta is complicated by settling and compositional changes that accompany digestion. The current work determined whether the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) of digesta could be accurately determined from the actual and maximum solid volume fractions ( ϕ and ϕ max , respectively) using the Maron-Pierce equation. The rheological properties of digesta from the small intestine of six pigs were determined at a shear rate of 1 s-1 at 37°C. A series of suspensions of plant fibre in a Newtonian liquid (70% aqueous fructose) were made at viscosities similar to pig digesta by adjusting ϕ The relationships between the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) and the plant fibre properties; aspect ratio (AR) and ϕ and ϕ max were then determined for digesta and the suspensions...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790478/validation-of-a-novel-non-hyperaemic-index-of-coronary-artery-stenosis-severity-the-resting-full-cycle-ratio-validate-rfr-study
#3
Johan Svanerud, Jung-Min Ahn, Allen Jeremias, Marcel van 't Veer, Ankita Gore, Akiko Maehara, Aaron Crowley, Nico H J Pijls, Bernard De Bruyne, Nils P Johnson, Barry Hennigan, Stuart Watkins, Colin Berry, Keith G Oldroyd, Seung-Jung Park, Ziad A Ali
AIMS: Randomised controlled trials have reported instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) to be non-inferior to fractional flow reserve (FFR) for major adverse cardiovascular events at one year; however, iFR is limited by sensitive landmarking of the pressure waveform, and the assumption that maximal flow and minimal resistance occur during a fixed period of diastole. We sought to validate the resting full-cycle ratio (RFR), a novel non-hyperaemic index of coronary stenosis severity based on unbiased identification of the lowest distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa), independent of the ECG, landmark identification, and timing within the cardiac cycle...
May 23, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790424/the-fate-of-autologous-endometrial-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-application-in-the-healthy-equine-uterus
#4
Elisabeth Rink, Teresa Beyer, Hilari French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, Xavier Donadeu
Because of their distinct differentiation, immunomodulatory and migratory capacities, endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may provide an optimum source of therapeutic cells not only in relation to the uterus but also for regeneration of other tissues. This study reports the fate of endometrial MSCs following intrauterine application in mares. Stromal cell fractions were isolated from endometrial biopsies taken from seven reproductively healthy mares, expanded and fluorescence-labeled in culture. MSCs (15 x 106) or PBS were autologously infused into each uterine horn during early diestrus and subsequently tracked by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry of endometrial biopsies and blood samples taken periodically after infusion...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790256/platelet-characteristics-in-patients-with-essential-thrombocytosis
#5
Oliver Heidmann Pedersen, Mads Lamm Larsen, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Peter Buur van Kooten Niekerk, Søren Bønløkke, Peter H Nissen, Steen Dalby Kristensen, Anne-Mette Hvas
BACKGROUND: Essential thrombocytosis (ET) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by an increased platelet count. ET is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, and procoagulant features of the disease may include an increased number of reactive reticulated platelets and an increased aggregation potential. We aimed to explore the association between platelet count, platelet turnover and platelet aggregation in patients with ET. METHODS: We included 24 ET patients who discontinued antiplatelet therapy prior to blood sampling...
May 23, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789856/impact-of-a-laser-service-line-for-burn-scar-on-a-dedicated-burn-or-s-flow-and-productivity
#6
Tarik D Madni, John E Hoopman, Xingchen Li, Jonathan B Imran, Audra T Clark, Holly B Cunningham, Steven E Wolf, Jeffrey M Kenkel, Herb A Phelan
Our group began performing erbium-YAG 2940 wavelength fractional resurfacing of burn scar in our burn center's dedicated burn operating room (OR) in January 2016. The impact of these procedures on the performance of a mature, dedicated burn OR is unknown. All burn OR cases performed between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 served as a pre-laser (PRE-LSR) historical control. A postintervention cohort of laser-only cases (LSR) performed between January 1, 2016 and August 17, 2016 was then identified. PRE-LSR and LSR cases were retrospectively reviewed for OR component times, and work relative value units (wRVU) billed...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789650/use-of-dna-flow-cytometry-in-the-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management-of-gastric-epithelial-dysplasia
#7
Kwun Wah Wen, Peter S Rabinovitch, Danning Huang, Aras N Mattis, Gregory Y Lauwers, Won-Tak Choi
The natural history of gastric epithelial dysplasia and the consequential surveillance strategies are not well defined in the West. To date, the diagnosis relies on morphology, and no reliable adjunct methods, either immunohistochemical or molecular, have reproducibly been able to confirm the diagnosis and/or risk stratify gastric epithelial dysplasia. Yet, such a tool would be useful in confirming the diagnosis, and developing objective and rational surveillance guidelines. DNA flow cytometry was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric tissue from 23 cases of high-grade dysplasia and 38 cases of low-grade dysplasia...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789302/fractional-flow-reserve-and-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-as-predictors-of-the-placebo-controlled-response-to-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-stable-single-vessel-coronary-artery-disease-physiology-stratified-analysis-of-orbita
#8
Rasha Al-Lamee, James P Howard, Matthew J Shun-Shin, David Thompson, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Sayan Sen, Sukhjinder Nijjer, Ricardo Petraco, John Davies, Thomas Keeble, Kare Tang, Iqbal S Malik, Christopher Cook, Yousif Ahmad, Andrew S P Sharp, Robert Gerber, Christopher Baker, Raffi Kaprielian, Suneel Talwar, Ravi Assomull, Graham Cole, Niall G Keenan, Gajen Kanaganayagam, Joban Sehmi, Roland Wensel, Frank E Harrell, Jamil Mayet, Simon A Thom, Justin E Davies, Darrel P Francis
BACKGROUND : There are no data on how fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) are associated with the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable single-vessel coronary artery disease. METHODS : We report the association between prerandomization invasive physiology within ORBITA (Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina), a placebo-controlled trial of patients who have stable angina with angiographically severe single-vessel coronary disease clinically eligible for PCI...
May 22, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786727/rational-design-of-multi-functional-gold-nanoparticles-with-controlled-biomolecule-adsorption-a-multi-method-approach-for-in-depth-characterization
#9
Isaac Ojea-Jiménez, Robin Capomaccio, Inês Osório, Dora Mehn, Giacomo Ceccone, Rohanah Hussain, Giuliano Siligardi, Pascal Colpo, François Rossi, Douglas Gilliland, Luigi Calzolai
Multi-functionalized nanoparticles are of great interest in biotechnology and biomedicine, especially for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, at the moment the characterization of complex, multi-functional nanoparticles is still challenging and this hampers the development of advanced nanomaterials for biological applications. In this work, we have designed a model system consisting of gold nanoparticles functionalized with two differentially-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) ligands, providing both "stealth" properties and protein-binding capabilities to the nanoparticles...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785878/five-year-outcomes-with-pci-guided-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#10
Panagiotis Xaplanteris, Stephane Fournier, Nico H J Pijls, William F Fearon, Emanuele Barbato, Pim A L Tonino, Thomas Engstrøm, Stefan Kääb, Jan-Henk Dambrink, Gilles Rioufol, Gabor G Toth, Zsolt Piroth, Nils Witt, Ole Fröbert, Petr Kala, Axel Linke, Nicola Jagic, Martin Mates, Kreton Mavromatis, Habib Samady, Anand Irimpen, Keith Oldroyd, Gianluca Campo, Martina Rothenbühler, Peter Jüni, Bernard De Bruyne
Background We hypothesized that fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) would be superior to medical therapy as initial treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods Among 1220 patients with angiographically significant stenoses, those in whom at least one stenosis was hemodynamically significant (FFR, ≤0.80) were randomly assigned to FFR-guided PCI plus medical therapy or to medical therapy alone. Patients in whom all stenoses had an FFR of more than 0...
May 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785606/where-did-roman-masons-get-their-material-from-a-preliminary-drifts-pca-investigation-on-mortar-aggregates-from-x-regio-buildings-in-the-veneto-area-ne-italy-and-their-potential-sources
#11
Alessandra De Lorenzi Pezzolo, Michela Colombi, Gian Antonio Mazzocchin
In this work, preliminary results are presented of an ongoing investigation aiming to identify the possible material sources employed by ancient Romans in their building activity in the X Regio, the European region corresponding to present north-eastern Italy and Istria (Croatia and Slovenia). The 63-420 μm fraction of the aggregate component recovered from eleven mortar fragments of buildings located in the Veneto area (in or close to Lio Piccolo, Vicenza, and Padua) is studied by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and compared through principal component analysis to samples collected from local potential sources of raw materials...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784630/what-are-the-causes-of-a-suboptimal-ffr-after-coronary-stent-deployment-insights-from-a-consecutive-series-using-oct-imaging
#12
Mathias Wolfrum, Giovanni Luigi De Maria, Stefano Benenati, Jeremy Langrish, Andrew J Lucking, Keith M Channon, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Adrian P Banning
AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be used to detect a suboptimal result after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A lower post procedure FFR (< 0.90) has been shown to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes at follow-up. This pilot study aimed to understand the mechanisms resulting in a suboptimal FFR and whether Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) guided optimisation could improve final FFR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty five patients undergoing complex PCI were prospectively enrolled...
May 21, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784622/non-invasive-fractional-flow-reserve-in-vessels-without-severe-obstructive-stenosis-is-associated-with-coronary-plaque-burden
#13
Mhairi K Doris, Yuka Otaki, Yoav Arnson, Balaji Tamarappoo, Markus Goeller, Heidi Gransar, Frances Wang, Sean Hayes, John Friedman, Louise Thomson, Piotr Slomka, Damini Dey, Daniel Berman
AIMS: Non-invasive fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CT angiography (FFRCT ) has been shown to be predictive of lesion-specific ischemia as assessed by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, in practice, clinicians are often faced with an abnormal distal FFRCT in the absence of a discrete obstructive lesion. Using quantitative plaque analysis, we sought to determine the relationship between an abnormal whole vessel FFRCT (V-FFRCT ) and quantitative measures of whole vessel atherosclerosis in coronary arteries without obstructive stenosis...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784052/the-effect-of-heart-failure-and-left-ventricular-assist-device-treatment-on-right-ventricular-mechanics-a-computational-study
#14
Jun I K Park, Aulia Khamas Heikhmakhtiar, Chang Hyun Kim, Yoo Seok Kim, Seong Wook Choi, Kwang Soup Song, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although it is important to analyze the hemodynamic factors related to the right ventricle (RV) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, previous studies have focused only on the alteration of the ventricular shape and lack quantitative analysis of the various hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed various hemodynamic parameters related to the RV under normal, heart failure (HF), and HF incorporated with continuous flow LVAD therapy by using a computational model...
May 22, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784026/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-viability-and-proliferative-behavior-of-the-human-glioblastoma-t98g-cell-line
#15
Hossam Murad, Yaman Alghamian, Abdulmunim Aljapawe, Ammar Madania
OBJECTIVE: Radiotherapy is the traditional therapy for glioma patients. Glioma has poor response to ionizing radiation (IR). Studying radiation-induced cell death can help in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying its radioresistance. T98G cell line was irradiated with Co60 source by 2 or 10 Gy. MTT assay was used to calculate the surviving fraction. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays were conducted by flow cytometry for irradiated and control cells for the 10 Gy dose...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783631/melatonin-analogue-antiproliferative-and-cytotoxic-effects-on-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Angela Calastretti, Giuliana Gatti, Valeria Lucini, Silvana Dugnani, Gianfranco Canti, Francesco Scaglione, Annamaria Bevilacqua
Melatonin has been indicated as a possible oncostatic agent in different types of cancer, its antiproliferative role being demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tumors. Specifically, melatonin was proven to inhibit cell growth of both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, through various mechanisms. A number of melatonin derivatives have been developed and tested for their role in the prevention and treatment of neoplastic diseases. We recently proved the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of UCM 1037, a newly-synthetized melatonin analogue, on melanoma and breast cancer cells...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782258/-contractile-function-of-isolated-hearts-with-preserved-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-vivo
#17
V L Lakomkin, A A Abramov, V V Gramovich, O N Vyborov, I M Studneva, O I Pisarenko, V I Kapelko
The aim of the study was comparison of contractile function of isolated hearts of rats with doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury which were tentatively divided according to the level of ejection fraction determined by echocardiography in vivo. After 4 weeks of doxorubicin administration (2 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week) about half of animals had normal (86±1 %) and the other half reduced (61±4 %) ejection fraction. The first group was defined as diastolic heart failure (DHF) and the other as systolic (SHF)...
April 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781993/murine-salivary-functional-assessment-via-pilocarpine-stimulation-following-fractionated-radiation
#18
Jomy J Varghese, Isaac L Schmale, Mollie Eva Hansen, Shawn D Newlands, Danielle S W Benoit, Catherine E Ovitt
Hyposalivation is commonly observed in the autoimmune reaction of Sjögren's syndrome or following radiation injury to the major salivary glands. In these cases, questions remain regarding disease pathogenesis and effective interventions. An optimized technique that allows functional assessment of the salivary glands is invaluable for investigating exocrine gland biology, dysfunction, and therapeutics. Here, we present a step by step approach to performing pilocarpine stimulated saliva secretion, including tracheostomy and the dissection of the three major murine salivary glands...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781122/protective-effects-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-derived-extracellular-mitochondria-in-brain-endothelium
#19
Kazuhide Hayakawa, Su Jing Chan, Emiri T Mandeville, Ji Hyun Park, Morgan Bruzzese, Joan Montaner, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell, Eng H Lo
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been pursued as a potential cellular therapy for stroke and central nervous system injury. However, their underlying mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Recent experimental studies suggest that mitochondria may be released and transferred between cells. In this proof-of-concept study, we asked whether beneficial effects of EPCs may partly involve a mitochondrial phenomenon as well. First, EPC-derived conditioned medium was collected and divided into supernatant and particle fractions after centrifugation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781019/complex-strain-induced-structural-changes-observed-in-fibrin-assembled-in-human-plasma
#20
G Portale, J Torbet
The structure of the core scaffold of blood clots, the interlinked 3-dimensional network of fibrin fibers, is modified by mechanical forces generated by platelet driven clot retraction, wound repair and shear stress through blood flow. Here X-ray diffraction is used to investigate how uniaxial strain, ε (ε = extension/original length), alters fiber structure in highly aligned human plasma clots covalently cross-linked by Factor XIIIa. Three stretch sensitive axially repeating structures are identified. Firstly, the foundation structure with an initial ≈22 nm axial repeat stretches, fades then disappears at ε ≈ 0...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
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