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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647483/demands-on-response-inhibition-processes-determine-modulations-of-theta-band-activity-in-superior-frontal-areas-and-correlations-with-pupillometry-implications-for-the-norepinephrine-system-during-inhibitory-control
#1
Gabriel Dippel, Moritz Mückschel, Tjalf Ziemssen, Christian Beste
Response inhi bition processes are important for goal-directed behavior and particularly demanded when it is unlikely to inhibit automatically executed responses. It has been suggested that the norepinephrine (NE) system is important to consider for such likelihood effects. As an indirect measure of the NE system activity we used the pupil diameter and integrated this data with neurophysiological (EEG) data and beamforming analyses. The study shows that inhibitory control processes reflected by theta oscillations are strongly modulated by the likelihood to employ these processes and that these mechanisms were related to neural processes in the SMA and SFG...
June 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#2
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642729/inconsistent-effects-of-parietal-%C3%AE-tacs-on-pseudoneglect-across-two-experiments-a-failed-internal-replication
#3
Domenica Veniero, Christopher S Y Benwell, Merle M Ahrens, Gregor Thut
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two "inhibitory" tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each) with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal-left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm-7 cm × 5 cm), while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark) task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#4
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638071/emergent-stochastic-oscillations-and-signal-detection-in-tree-networks-of-excitable-elements
#5
Justus Kromer, Ali Khaledi-Nasab, Lutz Schimansky-Geier, Alexander B Neiman
We study the stochastic dynamics of strongly-coupled excitable elements on a tree network. The peripheral nodes receive independent random inputs which may induce large spiking events propagating through the branches of the tree and leading to global coherent oscillations in the network. This scenario may be relevant to action potential generation in certain sensory neurons, which possess myelinated distal dendritic tree-like arbors with excitable nodes of Ranvier at peripheral and branching nodes and exhibit noisy periodic sequences of action potentials...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620074/regulatory-bc1-rna-in-cognitive-control
#6
Anna Iacoangeli, Aderemi Dosunmu, Taesun Eom, Dimitre G Stefanov, Henri Tiedge
Dendritic regulatory BC1 RNA is a non-protein-coding (npc) RNA that operates in the translational control of gene expression. The absence of BC1 RNA in BC1 knockout (KO) animals causes translational dysregulation that entails neuronal phenotypic alterations including prolonged epileptiform discharges, audiogenic seizure activity in vivo, and excessive cortical oscillations in the γ frequency band. Here we asked whether BC1 RNA control is also required for higher brain functions such as learning, memory, or cognition...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#7
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618541/qualitative-changes-in-phase-response-curve-and-synchronization-at-the-saddle-node-loop-bifurcation
#8
Janina Hesse, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer, Susanne Schreiber
Prominent changes in neuronal dynamics have previously been attributed to a specific switch in onset bifurcation, the Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point. This study unveils another, relevant and so far underestimated transition point: the saddle-node-loop bifurcation, which can be reached by several parameters, including capacitance, leak conductance, and temperature. This bifurcation turns out to induce even more drastic changes in synchronization than the BT transition. This result arises from a direct effect of the saddle-node-loop bifurcation on the limit cycle and hence spike dynamics...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615472/neuronal-circadian-clock-protein-oscillations-are-similar-in-behaviourally-rhythmic-forager-honeybees-and-in-arrhythmic-nurses
#9
T Fuchikawa, K Beer, C Linke-Winnebeck, R Ben-David, A Kotowoy, V W K Tsang, G R Warman, E C Winnebeck, C Helfrich-Förster, G Bloch
Internal clocks driving rhythms of about a day (circadian) are ubiquitous in animals, allowing them to anticipate environmental changes. Genetic or environmental disturbances to circadian clocks or the rhythms they produce are commonly associated with illness, compromised performance or reduced survival. Nevertheless, some animals including Arctic mammals, open sea fish and social insects such as honeybees are active around-the-clock with no apparent ill effects. The mechanisms allowing this remarkable natural plasticity are unknown...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611618/potential-mechanisms-and-functions-of-intermittent-neural-synchronization
#10
Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L Rubchinsky
Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611595/mtorc1-is-a-local-postsynaptic-voltage-sensor-regulated-by-positive-and-negative-feedback-pathways
#11
Farr Niere, Kimberly F Raab-Graham
The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) serves as a regulator of mRNA translation. Recent studies suggest that mTORC1 may also serve as a local, voltage sensor in the postsynaptic region of neurons. Considering biochemical, bioinformatics and imaging data, we hypothesize that the activity state of mTORC1 dynamically regulates local membrane potential by promoting and repressing protein synthesis of select mRNAs. Our hypothesis suggests that mTORC1 uses positive and negative feedback pathways, in a branch-specific manner, to maintain neuronal excitability within an optimal range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605528/abnormal-resting-state-connectivity-in-a-substantia-nigra-related-striato-thalamo-cortical-network-in-a-large-sample-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Matteo Martino, Paola Magioncalda, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yajing Meng, Wei Deng, Yinfei Li, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Timothy Lane, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff, Tao Li
Objective: The dopamine hypothesis is one of the most influential theories of the neurobiological background of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, direct evidence for abnormal dopamine-related subcortical-cortical circuitry disconnectivity is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to test dopamine-related substantia nigra (SN)-based striato-thalamo-cortical resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in SCZ. Method: Based on our a priori hypothesis, we analyzed a large sample resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset from first-episode drug-naïve SCZ patients (n = 112) and healthy controls (n = 82) using the SN as the seed region for an investigation of striato-thalamo-cortical FC...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604771/locking-of-correlated-neural-activity-to-ongoing-oscillations
#13
Tobias Kühn, Moritz Helias
Population-wide oscillations are ubiquitously observed in mesoscopic signals of cortical activity. In these network states a global oscillatory cycle modulates the propensity of neurons to fire. Synchronous activation of neurons has been hypothesized to be a separate channel of signal processing information in the brain. A salient question is therefore if and how oscillations interact with spike synchrony and in how far these channels can be considered separate. Experiments indeed showed that correlated spiking co-modulates with the static firing rate and is also tightly locked to the phase of beta-oscillations...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595056/shaping-the-default-activity-pattern-of-the-cortical-network
#14
REVIEW
Maria V Sanchez-Vives, Marcello Massimini, Maurizio Mattia
Slow oscillations have been suggested as the default emergent activity of the cortical network. This is a low complexity state that integrates neuronal, synaptic, and connectivity properties of the cortex. Shaped by variations of physiological parameters, slow oscillations provide information about the underlying healthy or pathological network. We review how this default activity is shaped, how it acts as a powerful attractor, and how getting out of it is necessary for the brain to recover the levels of complexity associated with conscious states...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593191/at-what-latency-does-the-phase-of-brain-oscillations-influence-perception
#15
Sasskia Brüers, Rufin VanRullen
Recent evidence has shown a rhythmic modulation of perception: prestimulus ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) phase in the θ (4-8 Hz) and α (8-13 Hz) bands has been directly linked with fluctuations in target detection. In fact, the ongoing EEG phase directly reflects cortical excitability: it acts as a gating mechanism for information flow at the neuronal level. Consequently, the key phase modulating perception should be the one present in the brain when the stimulus is actually being processed. Most previous studies, however, reported phase modulation peaking 100 ms or more before target onset...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592699/lower-affinity-of-isradipine-for-l-type-ca-2-channels-during-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neuron-like-activity-implications-for-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Nadine J Ortner, Gabriella Bock, Antonios Dougalis, Maria Kharitonova, Johanna Duda, Simon Hess, Petronel Tuluc, Thomas Pomberger, Nadia Stefanova, Florian Pitterl, Thomas Ciossek, Herbert Oberacher, Henning J Draheim, Peter Kloppenburg, Birgit Liss, Jörg Striessnig
Ca(2+)-influx through L-type Ca(2+)-channels (LTCCs) is associated with activity-related stressful oscillations of Ca(2+)-levels within dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which may contribute to their selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). LTCC blockers were neuroprotective in mouse neurotoxin models of PD and isradipine is currently undergoing testing in a phase-III clinical trial in early PD. We report no evidence for neuroprotection by in vivo pretreatment with therapeutically relevant isradipine plasma levels, or Cav1...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592698/a-screening-of-unf-targets-identifies-rnb-a-novel-regulator-of-drosophila-circadian-rhythms
#17
Anatoly Kozlov, Edouard Jaumouillé, Pedro Machado Almeida, Rafael Koch, Joseph Rodriguez, Katherine C Abruzzi, Emi Nagoshi
Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multi-oscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled (unf) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral Lateral Neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592690/dynamics-of-human-subthalamic-neuron-phase-locking-to-motor-and-sensory-cortical-oscillations-during-movement
#18
Witold J Lipski, Thomas A Wozny, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios Kondylis, Robert S Turner, Donald J Crammond, Robert Mark Richardson
Coupled oscillatory activity recorded between sensorimotor regions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop is thought to reflect information transfer relevant to movement. A neuronal firing-rate model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, however, has dominated thinking about basal ganglia function for the past three decades, without knowledge of the relationship between basal ganglia single neuron firing and cortical population activity during movement itself. We recorded activity from 34 subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons, simultaneously with cortical local field potentials and motor output, in eleven subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulator lead placement...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592282/the-role-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-motor-performance-as-revealed-by-eeg-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Gianluca La Rosa, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of repetitive task practice by using robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) devices, including Lokomat, for the treatment of lower limb paresis. Virtual reality (VR) has proved to be a valuable tool to improve neurorehabilitation training. The aim of our pilot randomized clinical trial was to understand the neurophysiological basis of motor function recovery induced by the association between RAGT (by using Lokomat device) and VR (an animated avatar in a 2D VR) by studying electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591796/histamine-enhances-theta-coupled-spiking-and-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-consistent-with-successful-spatial-recognition
#20
Quanhui Chen, Fenlan Luo, Faguo Yue, Jianxia Xia, Qin Xiao, Xiang Liao, Jun Jiang, Jun Zhang, Bo Hu, Dong Gao, Chao He, Zhian Hu
Encoding of spatial information in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (sMEC) involves theta-modulated spiking and gamma oscillations, as well as spatially tuned grid cells and border cells. Little is known about the role of the arousal-promoting histaminergic system in the modification of information encoded in the sMEC in vivo, and how such histamine-regulated information correlates with behavioral functions. Here, we show that histamine upregulates the neural excitability of a significant proportion of neurons (16...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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