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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323894/a-generalized-phase-resetting-method-for-phase-locked-modes-prediction
#1
Sorinel A Oprisan, Dave I Austin
We derived analytically and checked numerically a set of novel conditions for the existence and the stability of phase-locked modes in a biologically relevant master-slave neural network with a dynamic feedback loop. Since neural oscillators even in the three-neuron network investigated here receive multiple inputs per cycle, we generalized the concept of phase resetting to accommodate multiple inputs per cycle. We proved that the phase resetting produced by two or more stimuli per cycle can be recursively computed from the traditional, single stimulus, phase resetting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319878/visual-stimuli-modulate-frontal-oscillatory-rhythms-in-a-cortically-blind-patient-evidence-for-top-down-visual-processing
#2
Eda Tipura, Alan J Pegna, Beatrice de Gelder, Olivier Renaud
OBJECTIVE: We investigated neuronal correlates of faces versus non-faces processing in a cortically blind patient (TN) and a group of healthy age-matched controls in order to test electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pertinent stimuli in this patient. METHODS: An EEG paradigm was used, in which intact and scrambled faces were displayed on a screen. First, time-frequency transforms were conducted on the patients' data alone. These oscillations were then compared to the frontal activity of six control participants...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314817/fef-controlled-alpha-delay-activity-precedes-stimulus-induced-gamma-band-activity-in-visual-cortex
#3
Tzvetan Popov, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Recent findings in the visual system of non-human primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma band activity (40 - 100 Hz) in the feed-forward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be dynamically established by oscillations in the alpha (8 - 13 Hz) and beta bands (13 - 18 Hz) (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos et al., 2015). It is not clear, however, how alpha oscillations are controlled and how they interact with the flow of visual information mediated by gamma band activity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300635/motor-output-oscillations-with-magnification-of-visual-feedback-in-older-adults
#4
Seoung Hoon Park, MinHyuk Kwon, Evangelos A Christou
Magnification of task visual feedback increases force variability in older adults. Although the increased force variability with magnified visual feedback in older adults relates to the amplification of oscillations in force below 0.5Hz, the related frequency modulation in muscle activity remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to characterize the oscillations in muscle activity that contribute to the amplification of force variability with magnified visual feedback in older adults. Fifteen older adults (76...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299192/respiratory-rhythm-generation-triple-oscillator-hypothesis
#5
REVIEW
Tatiana M Anderson, Jan-Marino Ramirez
Breathing is vital for survival but also interesting from the perspective of rhythm generation. This rhythmic behavior is generated within the brainstem and is thought to emerge through the interaction between independent oscillatory neuronal networks. In mammals, breathing is composed of three phases - inspiration, post-inspiration, and active expiration - and this article discusses the concept that each phase is generated by anatomically distinct rhythm-generating networks: the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the post-inspiratory complex (PiCo), and the lateral parafacial nucleus (pF L), respectively...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297946/cluster-synchronization-in-networks-of-identical-oscillators-with-%C3%AE-function-pulse-coupling
#6
Bolun Chen, Jan R Engelbrecht, Renato Mirollo
We study a network of N identical leaky integrate-and-fire model neurons coupled by α-function pulses, weighted by a coupling parameter K. Studies of the dynamics of this system have mostly focused on the stability of the fully synchronized and the fully asynchronous splay states, which naturally depends on the sign of K, i.e., excitation vs inhibition. We find that there is also a rich set of attractors consisting of clusters of fully synchronized oscillators, such as fixed (N-1,1) states, which have synchronized clusters of sizes N-1 and 1, as well as splay states of clusters with equal sizes greater than 1...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289370/energetic-constraints-produce-self-sustained-oscillatory-dynamics-in-neuronal-networks
#7
Javier Burroni, P Taylor, Cassian Corey, Tengiz Vachnadze, Hava T Siegelmann
Overview: We model energy constraints in a network of spiking neurons, while exploring general questions of resource limitation on network function abstractly. Background: Metabolic states like dietary ketosis or hypoglycemia have a large impact on brain function and disease outcomes. Glia provide metabolic support for neurons, among other functions. Yet, in computational models of glia-neuron cooperation, there have been no previous attempts to explore the effects of direct realistic energy costs on network activity in spiking neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289282/the-schizophrenia-and-autism-associated-gene-transcription-factor-4-regulates-the-columnar-distribution-of-layer-2-3-prefrontal-pyramidal-neurons-in-an-activity-dependent-manner
#8
S C Page, G R Hamersky, R A Gallo, M D Rannals, N E Calcaterra, M N Campbell, B Mayfield, A Briley, B N Phan, A E Jaffe, B J Maher
Disruption of the laminar and columnar organization of the brain is implicated in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we show in utero gain-of-function of the psychiatric risk gene transcription factor 4 (TCF4) severely disrupts the columnar organization of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a transcription- and activity-dependent manner. This morphological phenotype was rescued by co-expression of TCF4 plus calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner and by dampening neuronal excitability through co-expression of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288386/sleep-regulation-of-the-distribution-of-cortical-firing-rates
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Levenstein, Brendon O Watson, John Rinzel, György Buzsáki
Sleep is thought to mediate both mnemonic and homeostatic functions. However, the mechanism by which this brain state can simultaneously implement the 'selective' plasticity needed to consolidate novel memory traces and the 'general' plasticity necessary to maintain a well-functioning neuronal system is unclear. Recent findings show that both of these functions differentially affect neurons based on their intrinsic firing rate, a ubiquitous neuronal heterogeneity. Furthermore, they are both implemented by the NREM slow oscillation, which also distinguishes neurons based on firing rate during sequential activity at the DOWN→UP transition...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285822/astrocytes-control-circadian-timekeeping-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-via-glutamatergic-signaling
#10
Marco Brancaccio, Andrew P Patton, Johanna E Chesham, Elizabeth S Maywood, Michael H Hastings
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus orchestrates daily rhythms of physiology and behavior in mammals. Its circadian (∼24 hr) oscillations of gene expression and electrical activity are generated intrinsically and can persist indefinitely in temporal isolation. This robust and resilient timekeeping is generally regarded as a product of the intrinsic connectivity of its neurons. Here we show that neurons constitute only one "half" of the SCN clock, the one metabolically active during circadian daytime...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279812/astrocytic-modulation-of-neuronal-excitability-through-k-spatial-buffering
#11
REVIEW
Alba Bellot-Saez, Orsolya Kékesi, John W Morley, Yossi Buskila
The human brain contains two major cell populations, neurons and glia. While neurons are electrically excitable and capable of discharging short voltage pulses known as action potentials, glial cells are not. However, astrocytes, the prevailing subtype of glia in the cortex, are highly connected and can modulate the excitability of neurons by changing the concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular environment, a process called K(+) clearance. During the past decade, astrocytes have been the focus of much research, mainly due to their close association with synapses and their modulatory impact on neuronal activity...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279355/entorhinal-ca3-dual-input-control-of-spike-timing-in-the-hippocampus-by-theta-gamma-coupling
#12
Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Azahara Oliva, Gergő A Nagy, Andrew P Maurer, Antal Berényi, György Buzsáki
Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276493/subliminal-stimuli-modulate-somatosensory-perception-rhythmically-and-provide-evidence-for-discrete-perception
#13
Thomas J Baumgarten, Sara Königs, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
Despite being experienced as continuous, there is an ongoing debate if perception is an intrinsically discrete process, with incoming sensory information treated as a succession of single perceptual cycles. Here, we provide causal evidence that somatosensory perception is composed of discrete perceptual cycles. We used in humans an electrotactile temporal discrimination task preceded by a subliminal (i.e., below perceptual threshold) stimulus. Although not consciously perceived, subliminal stimuli are known to elicit neuronal activity in early sensory areas and modulate the phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275722/differential-contribution-of-app-metabolites-to-early-cognitive-deficits-in-a-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Valentine Hamm, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Karine Herbeaux, Carole Strittmatter, Chantal Mathis, Romain Goutagny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology commonly characterized by a progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognitive functions, especially memory. Although the etiology of AD remains unknown, a consensus has emerged on the amyloid hypothesis, which posits that increased production of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) peptide induces neuronal network dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. However, the relative failures of Aβ-centric therapeutics suggest that the amyloid hypothesis is incomplete and/or that the treatments were given too late in the course of AD, when neuronal damages were already too extensive...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275720/hetereogeneity-in-neuronal-intrinsic-properties-a-possible-mechanism-for-hub-like-properties-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-network-activity
#15
Natalie E Adams, Jason S Sherfey, Nancy J Kopell, Miles A Whittington, Fiona E N LeBeau
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is vital for a range of brain functions requiring cognitive control and has highly divergent inputs and outputs, thus manifesting as a hub in connectomic analyses. Studies show diverse functional interactions within the ACC are associated with network oscillations in the β (20-30 Hz) and γ (30-80 Hz) frequency range. Oscillations permit dynamic routing of information within cortex, a function that depends on bandpass filter-like behavior to selectively respond to specific inputs...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#16
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275058/eeg-oscillations-how-are-they-modulated-during-different-phases-of-repetitive-movements
#17
Antonella Macerollo, Matt J N Brown
Voluntary movements are planned through the relative timing between sub-movements of movement sequences as part of the motor program. Different movement phases are characterized by specific amplitude modulation of cortical oscillations. The latter represent neurophysiological correlates of specific synchronization or desynchronization of different neuronal groups. In this NeuroForum, we review recent evidence regarding the temporal relation between neurophysiological correlates of different phases of a repetitive motor task using electroencephalography and source localization using individualized MRI...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270635/-molecular-mechanisms-of-circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-homeostasis
#18
Kazuhiro Kon, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
Sleep-wake cycle is controlled by the interplay between circadian rhythm and sleep homeostasis. Genetic studies, through the discovery of mutants with altered sleep-wake behaviors, have explored the molecular components that regulate our daily rhythms. In mammalian circadian clocks, negative-feedback loops composed of a set of transcription activators and inhibitors generate a cell-autonomous oscillation of transcriptional activity. Recent studies further discovered that such transcriptional feedback is controlled through post-translational modifications for the fine-tuning of the oscillation period...
March 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268682/the-long-range-temporal-correlations-of-broadband-eeg-oscillations-in-poststroke-depression-subjects-with-basal-ganglia-infarction
#19
Chunfang Wang, Jingang Du, Ying Zhang, Peng Zhou, Dong Ming
Recent studies have found long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of neuronal oscillation under different physiological and pathological state. In this paper we aimed to explore the temporal correlations of broadband neuronal oscillation in poststroke depression. Resting state EEGs of 16 electrodes in 16 poststroke depression (PSD), 18 poststroke non-depression (PSND) and 18 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), a quantitative measurement of LRTC. The results indicated that LRTC of broadband oscillation in PSD subjects was still preserved and had similar spatial distribution to non-depression subjects, but attenuated especially in left hemisphere and frontal and posterior temporal regions of right hemisphere...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268496/computational-modeling-of-high-frequency-oscillations-recorded-with-clinical-intracranial-macroelectrodes
#20
M Shamas, P Benquet, I Merlet, W El Falou, M Khalil, F Wendling
High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) are a potential biomarker of epileptogenic regions. They have been extensively investigated in terms of automatic detection, classification and feature extraction. However, the mechanisms governing the generation of HFOs as well as the observability conditions on clinical intracranial macroelectrodes remain elusive. In this paper, we propose a novel physiologically-relevant macroscopic model for accurate simulation of HFOs as invasively recorded in epileptic patients. This model accounts for both the temporal and spatial properties of the cortical patch at the origin of epileptiform activity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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