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neuronal oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244637/u-shaped-relation-between-prestimulus-alpha-and-poststimulus-gamma-band-power-in-temporal-tactile-perception-in-the-human-somatosensory-cortex
#1
Marc André Wittenberg, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240758/increased-gamma-band-activity-for-lateral-interactions-in-humans
#2
Alon Shapira, Anna Sterkin, Moshe Fried, Oren Yehezkel, Zeev Zalevsky, Uri Polat
Collinear facilitation of contrast sensitivity supported by lateral interactions within primary visual cortex is implicated in contour and object perception, with neural correlates in several frequency bands. Although higher component of the ERP power spectrum, the gamma-band, is postulated to reflect object representation, attention and memory, its neuronal source has been questioned, suggesting it is an artifact reflecting saccadic eye movements. Here we explored the gamma-band activity during collinear facilitation with no saccade-related confounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240694/centralized-networks-to-generate-human-body-motions
#3
Sergei Vakulenko, Ovidiu Radulescu, Ivan Morozov, Andres Weber
We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#4
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#5
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234275/insulin-modulates-neural-activity-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-anterior-piriform-cortex
#6
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#7
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230640/new-class-of-reduced-computationally-efficient-neuronal-models-for-large-scale-simulations-of-brain-dynamics
#8
Maxim Komarov, Giri Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Nikolai Rulkov, Igor Timofeev, Maxim Bazhenov
During slow-wave sleep, brain electrical activity is dominated by the slow (< 1 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations characterized by the periodic transitions between active (or Up) and silent (or Down) states in the membrane voltage of the cortical and thalamic neurons. Sleep slow oscillation is believed to play critical role in consolidation of recent memories. Past computational studies, based on the Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal models, revealed possible intracellular and network mechanisms of the neuronal activity during sleep, however, they failed to explore the large-scale cortical network dynamics depending on collective behavior in the large populations of neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229820/beta-oscillations-reflect-supramodal-information-during-perceptual-judgment
#9
Saskia Haegens, José Vergara, Román Rossi-Pool, Luis Lemus, Ranulfo Romo
Previous work on perceptual decision making in the sensorimotor system has shown population dynamics in the beta band, corresponding to the encoding of stimulus properties and the final decision outcome. Here, we asked how oscillatory dynamics in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) contribute to supramodal perceptual decision making. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes in two monkeys trained to perform a tactile-acoustic frequency discrimination task, including both unimodal and crossmodal conditions...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227103/a-robust-molecular-network-motif-for-period-doubling-devices
#10
Christian Cuba Samaniego, Elisa Franco
Life is sustained by a variety of cyclic processes such as cell division, muscle contraction, and neuron firing. The periodic signals powering these processes often direct a variety of other downstream systems, which operate at different time scales and must have the capacity to divide or multiply the period of the master clock. Period modulation is also an important challenge in synthetic molecular systems, where slow and fast components may have to be coordinated simultaneously by a single oscillator whose frequency is often difficult to tune...
December 11, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224246/circadian-peak-dopaminergic-activity-response-at-the-biological-clock-pacemaker-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-area-mediates-the-metabolic-responsiveness-to-a-high-fat-diet
#11
Shuqin Luo, Yahong Zhang, Michael Ezrokhi, Yang Li, Tsung-Huang Tsai, Anthony H Cincotta
Among vertebrate species of the major vertebrate classes in the wild, a seasonal rhythm of whole body fuel metabolism, oscillating from lean to obese condition, is a common biological phenomenon. This annual cycle is driven in part by annual changes in the circadian dopaminergic signaling at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with diminution of circadian peak dopaminergic activity at the SCN facilitating development of the seasonal obese insulin resistant condition. The present study investigated whether such an ancient circadian dopamine-SCN activity system for expression of the seasonal obese, insulin resistant phenotype may be operative in animals made obese, insulin resistant by high fat feeding and if so whether reinstatement of the circadian dopaminergic peak at the SCN would be sufficient to reverse the adverse metabolic impact of the high fat diet without alteration of caloric intake...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217687/role-of-the-axon-initial-segment-in-the-control-of-spontaneous-frequency-of-nigral-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo
#12
Rodrigo C Meza, Luciana López-Jury, Carmen C Canavier, Pablo Henny
The spontaneous tonic discharge activity of nigral dopamine neurons plays a fundamental role in dopaminergic signaling. To investigate the role of neuronal morphology and architecture with respect to spontaneous activity in this population, we visualized the 3D structure of the axon initial segment (AIS) along with the entire somatodendritic domain of adult male mouse dopaminergic neurons, previously recorded in vivo We observed a positive correlation of the firing rate with both proximity and size of the AIS...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#13
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213231/the-roles-of-cortical-slow-waves-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-consolidation
#14
Daisuke Miyamoto, Daichi Hirai, Masanori Murayama
Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206302/network-analysis-of-hippocampal-neurons-by-microelectrode-array-in-the-presence-of-hiv-1-tat-and-cocaine
#15
Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Masoud Shekarabi, Emilie A Decoppet, T Dianne Langford, Kamel Khalili
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders affecting greater than 30% of patients are caused by HIV-1 infection of the CNS, and in part, include neurotoxic effects of the viral transactivator of transcription, Tat protein. In addition to increasing the risk for becoming HIV infected, cocaine abuse enhances the neuropathogenic impacts of HIV-1. To investigate the outcome of Tat and cocaine interference in the hippocampal neuronal network, microelectrode arrays were employed to develop a systematic framework to assess the rank-cross-correlation coefficient in cultured hippocampal neurons...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206101/serotonin-enhances-excitability-and-gamma-frequency-temporal-integration-in-mouse-prefrontal-fast-spiking-interneurons
#16
Jegath C Athilingam, Roy Ben-Shalom, Caroline M Keeshen, Vikaas Sohal, Kevin Bender
The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in higher order cognitive functions like decision making and social cognition. These complex behaviors emerge from the coordinated firing of prefrontal neurons. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) control the timing of excitatory neuron firing via somatic inhibition and generate gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations. Therefore, factors that regulate how FSIs respond to gamma-frequency input could affect both prefrontal circuit activity and behavior. Here, we show that serotonin (5HT), which is known to regulate gamma power, acts via 5HT2A receptors to suppress an inward-rectifying potassium conductance in FSIs...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204315/pathogenesis-of-primary-orthostatic-tremor-current-concepts-and-controversies
#17
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Pramod Kumar Pal, Danish Ejaz Bhatti, Elan D Louis
Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT), a rare and complex movement disorder, is characterized by rapid tremor of both legs and the trunk while standing. These disappear while the patient is either lying down or walking. OT may be idiopathic/primary or it may coexist with several neurological conditions (secondary OT/OT plus). Primary OT remains an enigmatic movement disorder and its pathogenesis and neural correlates are not fully understood. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in July 2017 to identify articles for this review...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203867/sensory-stream-adaptation-in-chaotic-networks
#18
Adam Ponzi
Implicit expectations induced by predictable stimuli sequences affect neuronal response to upcoming stimuli at both single cell and neural population levels. Temporally regular sensory streams also phase entrain ongoing low frequency brain oscillations but how and why this happens is unknown. Here we investigate how random recurrent neural networks without plasticity respond to stimuli streams containing oddballs. We found the neuronal correlates of sensory stream adaptation emerge if networks generate chaotic oscillations which can be phase entrained by stimulus streams...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203815/role-of-ventral-medullary-catecholaminergic-neurons-for-respiratory-modulation-of-sympathetic-outflow-in-rats
#19
Davi J A Moraes, Leni G H Bonagamba, Melina P da Silva, Julian F R Paton, Benedito H Machado
Sympathetic activity displays rhythmic oscillations generated by brainstem inspiratory and expiratory neurons. Amplification of these rhythmic respiratory-related oscillations is observed in rats under enhanced central respiratory drive or during development of neurogenic hypertension. Herein, we evaluated the involvement of ventral medullary sympatho-excitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurons, using inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptors, for the enhanced expiratory-related oscillations in sympathetic activity in rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and following activation of both peripheral (hypoxia) and central chemoreceptors (hypercapnia)...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201062/comparative-analysis-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-evoked-calcium-transients-in-proliferating-and-differentiating-human-midbrain-derived-stem-cells
#20
Torben Johansen, Christina Krabbe, Sissel Ida Schmidt, Alberto Martínez Serrano, Morten Meyer
Spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients and oscillations have been reported in various tissues of nonhuman and human origin but not in human midbrain-derived stem cells. Using confocal microfluorimetry, we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line undergoing proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Spontaneous calcium transients were detected in a large fraction of both proliferating (>50%) and differentiating (>55%) cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
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