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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054877/ontogeny-of-circadian-rhythms-and-synchrony-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#1
Vania Carmona-Alcocer, John H Abel, Tao C Sun, Linda R Petzold, Francis J Doyle, Carrie L Simms, Erik D Herzog
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates daily rhythms including sleep-wake, hormone release and gene expression. The cells of the SCN must synchronize to each other to drive these circadian rhythms in the rest of the body. The ontogeny of circadian cycling and intercellular coupling in the SCN remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies have recorded circadian rhythms from the whole embryonic SCN. Here, we tracked the onset and precision of rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2), a clock protein, within the SCN isolated from embryonic and postnatal mice of undetermined sex...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049297/functional-connectivity-structure-of-cortical-calcium-dynamics-in-anesthetized-and-awake-mice
#2
Patrick W Wright, Lindsey M Brier, Adam Q Bauer, Grant A Baxter, Andrew W Kraft, Matthew D Reisman, Annie R Bice, Abraham Z Snyder, Jin-Moo Lee, Joseph P Culver
The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037507/gamma-oscillations-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-pulvinar-in-response-to-faces-support-discrimination-performance-in-monkeys
#3
Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Nguyen Minh Nui, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to discriminate different visual stimuli (Nguyen et al., 2013, 2014). However, the contribution of SC and pulvinar neurons to the discrimination of the facial images and subsequent behavioral performance remains unknown...
October 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036430/delta-vs-gamma-auditory-steady-state-synchrony-in-schizophrenia
#4
Krishna C Puvvada, Ann Summerfelt, Xiaoming Du, Nithin Krishna, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Jonathan Z Simon, L Elliot Hong
Background: Delta band (1-4 Hz) neuronal responses support the precision and stability of auditory processing, and a deficit in delta band synchrony may be relevant to auditory domain symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Delta band synchronization elicited by a 2.5 Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR) paradigm, along with those from theta (5 Hz), alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), gamma (40 Hz), and high gamma (80 Hz) frequency ASSR, were compared in 128 patients with schizophrenia, 108 healthy controls, and 55 first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029290/nmda-receptor-mediated-ca2-influx-in-the-absence-of-mg2-block-disrupts-rest-activity-rhythms-in-drosophila
#5
Qian Song, Ge Feng, Jiaxing Zhang, Xuechun Xia, Min Ji, Lei Lv, Yong Ping
Introduction: The correlated activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons is essential for the NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx by removing Mg2+ from block site and NMDA receptors have been implicated in phase resetting of circadian clocks. So we assessed rest:activity rhythms in Mg2+ block defective animals. Methods: Using Drosophila locomotor monitoring system, we checked circadian rest:activity rhythms of different mutants under constant darkness (DD) and light:dark (LD) conditions...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987976/a-new-approach-to-optimal-control-of-conductance-based-spiking-neurons
#6
Xuyang Lou, M N S Swamy
This paper presents an algorithm for solving the minimum-energy optimal control problem of conductance-based spiking neurons. The basic procedure is (1) to construct a conductance-based spiking neuron oscillator as an affine nonlinear system, (2) to formulate the optimal control problem of the affine nonlinear system as a boundary value problem based on Pontryagin's maximum principle, and (3) to solve the boundary value problem using the homotopy perturbation method. The construction of the minimum-energy optimal control in the framework of the homotopy perturbation technique is novel and valid for a broad class of nonlinear conductance-based neuron models...
September 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985231/inferring-oscillatory-modulation-in-neural-spike-trains
#7
Kensuke Arai, Robert E Kass
Oscillations are observed at various frequency bands in continuous-valued neural recordings like the electroencephalogram (EEG) and local field potential (LFP) in bulk brain matter, and analysis of spike-field coherence reveals that spiking of single neurons often occurs at certain phases of the global oscillation. Oscillatory modulation has been examined in relation to continuous-valued oscillatory signals, and independently from the spike train alone, but behavior or stimulus triggered firing-rate modulation, spiking sparseness, presence of slow modulation not locked to stimuli and irregular oscillations with large variability in oscillatory periods, present challenges to searching for temporal structures present in the spike train...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983770/permutation-mutual-information-a-novel-approach-for-measuring-neuronal-phase-amplitude-coupling
#8
Ning Cheng, Qun Li, Sitong Wang, Rubin Wang, Tao Zhang
Cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in neuronal oscillations network plays an important functional role in large scale neuronal communication and neuronal encoding. In the present study, a novel approach named permutation mutual information (PMI) was applied in measuring PAC. It is derived from the permutation entropy based on the mutual information theory, by which the mutual information of permutations of two time series can be evaluated. In order to verify the ability of PMI, a numerical test was performed by using both simulation data and experimental data...
October 5, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981616/spreading-depression-promotes-astrocytic-calcium-oscillations-and-enhances-gliotransmission-to-hippocampal-neurons
#9
Dong Chuan Wu, Rita Yu-Tzu Chen, Ting-Chun Cheng, Yao-Chang Chiang, Mei-Lin Shen, Li-Ling Hsu, Ning Zhou
Spreading depression (SD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon characterized by propagating waves of profound neuronal and glial depolarization in central nervous system gray matter. Although SD is primarily mediated by neurons with a subsequent astrocytic response, it remains unclear how astrocytic activity is modulated after SD and how altered astrocyte signaling contribute to neuronal excitability. Here, we report that after the concurrent Ca2+ wave, SD enhanced astrocytic activity by promoting a secondary period of Ca2+ oscillations...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979196/speed-and-oscillations-medial-septum-integration-of-attention-and-navigation
#10
REVIEW
Marian Tsanov
Several cortical and diencephalic limbic brain regions incorporate neurons that fire in correlation with the speed of whole-body motion, also known as linear velocity. Besides the field mapping and head-directional information, the linear velocity is among the major signals that guide animal's spatial navigation. Large neuronal populations in the same limbic regions oscillate with theta rhythm during spatial navigation or attention episodes; and the frequency of theta also correlates with linear velocity. A functional similarity between these brain areas is that their inactivation impairs the ability to form new spatial memories; whereas an anatomical similarity is that they all receive projections from medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976306/astrocytes-release-prostaglandin-e2-to-modify-respiratory-network-activity
#11
David Forsberg, Thomas Ringstedt, Eric Herlenius
Previously (Forsberg et al., 2016), we revealed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), released during hypercapnic challenge, increases calcium oscillations in the chemosensitive parafacial respiratory group (pFRG/RTN). Here, we demonstrate that pFRG/RTN astrocytes are the PGE2 source. Two distinct astrocyte subtypes were found using transgenic mice expressing GFP and MrgA1 receptors in astrocytes. Although most astrocytes appeared dormant during time-lapse calcium imaging, a subgroup displayed persistent, rhythmic oscillating calcium activity...
October 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974452/long-term-optical-imaging-of-neurovascular-coupling-in-mouse-cortex-using-gcamp6f-and-intrinsic-hemodynamic-signals
#12
Xiaochun Gu, Wei Chen, Jiang You, Alan P Koretsky, N D Volkow, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Cerebral hemodynamics is modulated in response to changes in neuronal activity, a process termed neurovascular coupling (NVC), which can be disrupted by neuropsychiatric diseases (e.g., stroke, Alzheimer's disease). Thus, there is growing interest to image long-term NVC dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolutions. Here, by combining the use of a genetically-encoded calcium indicator with optical techniques, we develop a longitudinal multimodal optical imaging platform (MIP) that enabled time-lapse tracking of NVC over a relatively large field of view in the mouse somatosensory cortex at single cell and single vessel resolutions...
September 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971403/spontaneous-neuronal-network-persistent-activity-in-the-neocortex-a-n-endo-phenotype-of-brain-patho-physiology
#13
Pavlos Rigas, Leonidas J Leontiadis, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Irini Skaliora
Abnormal synaptic homeostasis in the cerebral cortex represents a risk factor for both psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, from autism and schizophrenia to Alzheimer's disease. Neurons via synapses form recurrent networks that are intrinsically active in the form of oscillating activity, visible at increasingly macroscopic neurophysiological levels: from single cell recordings to the local field potentials (LFPs) to the clinically relevant electroencephalography (EEG). Understanding in animal models the defects at the level of neural circuits is important in order to link molecular and cellular phenotypes with behavioral phenotypes of neurodevelopmental and/or neurodegenerative brain disorders...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970502/distance-dependent-inhibition-facilitates-focality-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#14
Michael Strüber, Jonas-Frederic Sauer, Peter Jonas, Marlene Bartos
Gamma oscillations (30-150 Hz) in neuronal networks are associated with the processing and recall of information. We measured local field potentials in the dentate gyrus of freely moving mice and found that gamma activity occurs in bursts, which are highly heterogeneous in their spatial extensions, ranging from focal to global coherent events. Synaptic communication among perisomatic-inhibitory interneurons (PIIs) is thought to play an important role in the generation of hippocampal gamma patterns. However, how neuronal circuits can generate synchronous oscillations at different spatial scales is unknown...
October 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969381/distinct-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-neuronal-functional-connectivity-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-variants
#15
Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Leighton B Hinkley, Alexander J Beagle, Danielle Mizuiri, Susanne M Honma, Ariane E Welch, Isabel Hubbard, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Zachary A Miller, Coleman Garrett, Alice La, Adam L Boxer, John F Houde, Bruce L Miller, Keith A Vossel, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Primary progressive aphasia is a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of language abilities with three main phenotypic clinical presentations, including logopenic, non-fluent/agrammatic, and semantic variants. Previous imaging studies have shown unique anatomic impacts within language networks in each variant. However, direct measures of spontaneous neuronal activity and functional integrity of these impacted neural networks in primary progressive aphasia are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of resting state neuronal synchronizations in primary progressive aphasia syndromes...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968898/loss-of-trkb-signaling-in-parvalbumin-expressing-basket-cells-results-in-network-activity-disruption-and-abnormal-behavior
#16
Dionysios Xenos, Marija Kamceva, Simone Tomasi, Jessica A Cardin, Michael L Schwartz, Flora M Vaccarino
The GABAergic system is regulated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway, but the cell-intrinsic role of TrkB signaling in parvalbumin cortical interneuron development and function is unclear. We performed conditional ablation of the TrkB receptor in parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons to study whether postnatal loss of TrkB in parvalbumin cells affects their survival, connectivity, spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity and behavior. Using in vivo recordings of local field potentials, we found reduced gamma oscillations in the sensory cortex of PVcre+; TrkBF/F conditional knockout mice (TrkB cKO), along with increased firing of putative excitatory neurons...
August 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968469/effects-of-glutamate-and-ivermectin-on-single-glutamate-gated-chloride-channels-of-the-parasitic-nematode-h-contortus
#17
Mohammed Atif, Argel Estrada-Mondragon, Bindi Nguyen, Joseph W Lynch, Angelo Keramidas
Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely-used anthelmintic that works by binding to and activating glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors (GluClRs) in nematodes. The resulting chloride flux inhibits the pharyngeal muscle cells and motor neurons of nematodes, causing death by paralysis or starvation. IVM resistance is an emerging problem in many pest species, necessitating the development of novel drugs. However, drug optimisation requires a quantitative understanding of GluClR activation and modulation mechanisms. Here we investigated the biophysical properties of homomeric α (avr-14b) GluClRs from the parasitic nematode, H...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967909/cellular-and-oscillatory-substrates-of-fear-extinction-learning
#18
Patrick Davis, Yosif Zaki, Jamie Maguire, Leon G Reijmers
The mammalian brain contains dedicated circuits for both the learned expression and suppression of fear. These circuits require precise coordination to facilitate the appropriate expression of fear behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this coordination remain unclear. Using a combination of chemogenetics, activity-based neuronal-ensemble labeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we found that fear extinction learning confers on parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) a dedicated role in the selective suppression of a previously encoded fear memory and BLA fear-encoding neurons...
October 2, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966971/local-or-not-local-investigating-the-nature-of-striatal-theta-oscillations-in-behaving-rats
#19
Laetitia Lalla, Pavel E Rueda Orozco, Maria-Teresa Jurado-Parras, Andrea Brovelli, David Robbe
In the cortex and hippocampus, neuronal oscillations of different frequencies can be observed in local field potentials (LFPs). LFPs oscillations in the theta band (6-10 Hz) have also been observed in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of rodents, mostly during locomotion, and have been proposed to mediate behaviorally-relevant interactions between striatum and cortex (or between striatum and hippocampus). However, it is unclear if these theta oscillations are generated in the striatum. To address this issue, we recorded LFPs and spiking activity in the DLS of rats performing a running sequence on a motorized treadmill...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964140/differences-in-intrinsic-amplitudes-of-neuronal-oscillators-improve-synchronization-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#20
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang
In mammals, a main clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates the ∼24 h rhythms of behavioral and physiological activities exposed to a natural 24 light-dark cycle or even under constant darkness. The rhythms originate from self-sustained oscillations of the SCN neurons, which differ in both intrinsic periods and intrinsic amplitudes. The intrinsic periods and the intrinsic amplitudes were found to be bound to specific regions in the previous experiments. In particular, neurons of smaller amplitudes and larger periods are located in a ventrolateral part, and neurons of larger amplitudes and smaller periods are in a dorsomedial part...
September 2017: Chaos
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