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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212264/correlated-emg-oscillations-between-antagonists-during-cocontraction-in-men
#1
Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Minoru Shinohara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the modulation of common low-frequency oscillations in pools of motor units across antagonistic muscles because of the difference in the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and the presence of neuromuscular fatigue during intended cocontraction. METHODS: Ten healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.5 yr) performed intended steady cocontractions of elbow flexors and extensors at maximal and a submaximal (10% of maximal EMG) effort...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#2
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#3
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202437/oscillation-patterns-are-enhanced-and-firing-threshold-is-lowered-in-medullary-respiratory-neuron-discharges-by-threshold-doses-of-a-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist
#4
Peter M Lalley, Steve W Mifflin
μ-Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the brainstem respiratory network, and opioids with selectivity for μ-type receptors slow in-vivo respiratory rhythm in lowest effective doses. Several studies have reported μ-opioid receptor effects on the three-phase rhythm of respiratory neurons, but there are until now no reports of opioid effects on oscillatory activity within respiratory discharges. In this study, effects of the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl on spike train discharge properties of several different types of rhythm-modulating medullary respiratory neuron discharges were analyzed...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193862/differential-modulation-of-global-and-local-neural-oscillations-in-rem-sleep-by-homeostatic-sleep-regulation
#5
Bowon Kim, Bernat Kocsis, Eunjin Hwang, Youngsoo Kim, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192429/co-emergence-of-multi-scale-cortical-activities-of-irregular-firing-oscillations-and-avalanches-achieves-cost-efficient-information-capacity
#6
Dong-Ping Yang, Hai-Jun Zhou, Changsong Zhou
The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192082/endocannabinoid-dependent-protection-against-kainic-acid-induced-long-term-alteration-of-brain-oscillations-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Liubov Shubina, Rubin Aliev, Valentina Kitchigina
Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300 Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction...
February 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188912/characterization-of-neural-entrainment-to-speech-with-and-without-slow-spectral-energy-fluctuations-in-laminar-recordings-in-monkey-a1
#8
Benedikt Zoefel, Jordi Costa-Faidella, Peter Lakatos, Charles E Schroeder, Rufin VanRullen
Neural entrainment, the alignment between neural oscillations and rhythmic stimulation, is omnipresent in current theories of speech processing - nevertheless, the underlying neural mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we hypothesized that laminar recordings in non-human primates provide us with important insight into these mechanisms, in particular with respect to processing in cortical layers. We presented one monkey with human everyday speech sounds and recorded neural (as current-source density, CSD) oscillations in primary auditory cortex (A1)...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188217/hebbian-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-at-the-cerebellar-input-stage
#9
M Sgritta, F Locatelli, T Soda, F Prestori, E D'Angelo
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a form of long-term synaptic plasticity exploiting the time relationship between postsynaptic action potentials (AP) and EPSPs. Surprisingly enough, very little was known about STDP in the cerebellum, although it is thought to play a critical role for learning appropriate timing of actions. We speculated that low-frequency oscillations observed in the granular layer may provide a reference for repetitive EPSP/AP phase coupling. Here we show that EPSP-spike pairing at 6Hz can optimally induce STDP at the mossy fiber - granule cell synapse in rats...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184188/stimulus-phase-locking-of-cortical-oscillations-for-rhythmic-tone-sequences-in-rats
#10
Takahiro Noda, Tomoki Amemiya, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Hirokazu Takahashi
Humans can rapidly detect regular patterns (i.e., within few cycles) without any special attention to the acoustic environment. This suggests that human sensory systems are equipped with a powerful mechanism for automatically predicting forthcoming stimuli to detect regularity. It has recently been hypothesized that the neural basis of sensory predictions exists for not only what happens (predictive coding) but also when a particular stimulus occurs (predictive timing). Here, we hypothesize that the phases of neural oscillations are critical in predictive timing, and these oscillations are modulated in a band-specific manner when acoustic patterns become predictable, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183030/estradiol-and-raloxifene-modulate-hippocampal-gamma-oscillations-during-a-spatial-memory-task
#11
Anna Schroeder, Matthew Hudson, Xin Du, Yee Wen Candace Wu, Jay Nakamura, Maarten van den Buuse, Nigel C Jones, Rachel A Hill
Previous work suggests that estradiol regulates the expression of hippocampal parvalbumin as well as hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in mice. Parvalbumin interneurons generate neuronal oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range (30-80Hz) and gamma oscillations are closely linked with higher cognitive functions. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, shows beneficial effects on human cognitive performance, and has few peripheral side effects unlike estradiol, but the biological mechanisms which underpin these benefits are not clear...
January 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182648/rna-seq-analysis-of-drosophila-clock-and-non-clock-neurons-reveals-neuron-specific-cycling-and-novel-candidate-neuropeptides
#12
Katharine C Abruzzi, Abigail Zadina, Weifei Luo, Evelyn Wiyanto, Reazur Rahman, Fang Guo, Orie Shafer, Michael Rosbash
Locomotor activity rhythms are controlled by a network of ~150 circadian neurons within the adult Drosophila brain. They are subdivided based on their anatomical locations and properties. We profiled transcripts "around the clock" from three key groups of circadian neurons with different functions. We also profiled a non-circadian outgroup, dopaminergic (TH) neurons. They have cycling transcripts but fewer than clock neurons as well as low expression and poor cycling of clock gene transcripts. This suggests that TH neurons do not have a canonical circadian clock and that their gene expression cycling is driven by brain systemic cues...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177286/sloppy-morphological-tuning-in-identified-neurons-of-the-crustacean-stomatogastric-ganglion
#13
Adriane G Otopalik, Marie L Goeritz, Alexander C Sutton, Ted Brookings, Cosmo Joseph Guerini, Eve Marder
Neuronal physiology depends on a neuron's ion channel composition and unique morphology. Variable ion channel compositions can produce similar neuronal physiologies across animals. Less is known regarding the morphological precision required to produce reliable neuronal physiology. Theoretical studies suggest that morphology is tightly tuned to minimize wiring and conduction delay of synaptic events. We utilize high-resolution confocal microscopy and custom computational tools to characterize the morphologies of four neuron types in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab Cancer borealis...
February 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174044/propylparaben-applied-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-modifies-hippocampal-excitability-and-glutamate-release-in-rats
#14
César Emmanuel Santana-Gómez, Sandra Adela Orozco-Suárez, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Luisa Rocha
Propylparaben (PPB) induces cardioprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. The present study focuses on investigating whether the i.p. application of 178mg/kg PPB after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) reduces the acute and long-term consequences of seizure activity. Initially, we investigated the effects of a single administration of PPB after SE. Our results revealed that compared to rats receiving diazepam (DZP) plus vehicle after 2h of SE, animals receiving a single dose of PPB 1h after DZP injection presented 126% (p<0...
February 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169319/early-life-stress-impairs-recognition-memory-and-perturbs-the-functional-maturation-of-prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal-networks
#15
Samuel A J Reincke, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Early life exposure to stressful situations impairs cognitive performance of adults and contributes to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Most of affected cognitive abilities rely on coupling by synchrony within complex neuronal networks, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP), and perirhinal cortex (PRH). Yet it remains poorly understood how early life stress (ELS) induces dysfunction within these networks during the course of development. Here we used intermittent maternal separation during the first 2 postnatal weeks to mimic ELS and monitored the recognition memory and functional coupling within prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal circuits in juvenile rats...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#16
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157557/elimination-of-spiral-waves-in-a-locally-connected-chaotic-neural-network-by-a-dynamic-phase-space-constraint
#17
Yang Li, Makito Oku, Guoguang He, Kazuyuki Aihara
In this study, a method is proposed that eliminates spiral waves in a locally connected chaotic neural network (CNN) under some simplified conditions, using a dynamic phase space constraint (DPSC) as a control method. In this method, a control signal is constructed from the feedback internal states of the neurons to detect phase singularities based on their amplitude reduction, before modulating a threshold value to truncate the refractory internal states of the neurons and terminate the spirals. Simulations showed that with appropriate parameter settings, the network was directed from a spiral wave state into either a plane wave (PW) state or a synchronized oscillation (SO) state, where the control vanished automatically and left the original CNN model unaltered...
January 16, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154537/odor-induced-neuronal-rhythms-in-the-olfactory-bulb-are-profoundly-modified-in-ob-ob-obese-mice
#18
Yan Chelminski, Christophe Magnan, Serge H Luquet, Amandine Everard, Nicolas Meunier, Hirac Gurden, Claire Martin
Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148726/synchronous-infra-slow-bursting-in-the-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb-emerge-from-interplay-between-intrinsic-neuronal-dynamics-and-network-connectivity
#19
Asaph Zylbertal, Yosef Yarom, Shlomo Wagner
: Rhythmic neuronal activity of multiple frequency bands has been described in many brain areas and attributed to numerous brain functions. Among these, little is known about the mechanism and role of infra-slow oscillations, which have been recently demonstrated in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Along with prolonged responses to stimuli and distinct network connectivity, they inexplicably affect the AOB processing of social relevant stimuli. Here we show that assemblies of AOB mitral cells are synchronized by lateral interactions through chemical and electrical synapses...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146472/gamma-oscillations-organize-top-down-signalling-to-hypothalamus-and-enable-food-seeking
#20
Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye, Franziska Bender, Suzanne van der Veldt, Christin Kosse, Christoph Börgers, Soo Yeun Lee, Charu Ramakrishnan, Yubin Hu, Natalia Denisova, Franziska Ramm, Emmanouela Volitaki, Denis Burdakov, Karl Deisseroth, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova
Both humans and animals seek primary rewards in the environment, even when such rewards do not correspond to current physiological needs. An example of this is a dissociation between food-seeking behaviour and metabolic needs, a notoriously difficult-to-treat symptom of eating disorders. Feeding relies on distinct cell groups in the hypothalamus, the activity of which also changes in anticipation of feeding onset. The hypothalamus receives strong descending inputs from the lateral septum, which is connected, in turn, with cortical networks, but cognitive regulation of feeding-related behaviours is not yet understood...
February 9, 2017: Nature
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