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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454635/sleep-behavior-and-eeg-oscillations-in-aged-dp-16-1yey-mice-a-down-syndrome-model
#1
J Levenga, D J Peterson, P Cain, C A Hoeffer
Down syndrome (DS) results from the triplication of genes located on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Though many cognitive and behavioral impairments are associated with DS, sleep disturbances remain poorly understood despite being a reported phenotype in approximately 60% of individuals diagnosed with DS. In this study, sleep and electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations were recorded from aged (12-14 mos.) Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice (Dp16), a mouse model of DS. We observed disrupted sleep demonstrated by increased activity during the dark phase and increased time awake at the expense of NREM sleep compared to wild-type mice...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#2
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452192/graded-6-ohda-induced-dopamine-depletion-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-evokes-progressive-pathological-neuronal-activities-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-of-a-hemi-parkinsonian-mouse
#3
Sunghee Estelle Park, Kang-Il Song, Hyungmin Kim, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
Recent studies have established methods for establishing a rodent model that mimics progressive stages of human Parkinson's disease (PD), via injection of graded doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into regions within the nigrostriatal pathway. However, the electrophysiological characteristics of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in this model have not been fully elucidated in this model. This study aimed to investigate changes in the neuronal activity of the STN in a graded mouse model of PD. Increasing doses of 6-OHDA were unilaterally injected into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to produce a hemi-parkinsonian mouse model, mimicking early, moderate, advanced, and severe stages of human PD...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451071/childhood-emotional-invalidation-and-right-hemispheric-mu-suppression-during-a-pain-empathy-task-an-eeg-study
#4
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448445/collective-excitability-in-a-mesoscopic-neuronal-model-of-epileptic-activity
#5
Maciej Jedynak, Antonio J Pons, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo
At the mesoscopic scale, the brain can be understood as a collection of interacting neuronal oscillators, but the extent to which its sustained activity is due to coupling among brain areas is still unclear. Here we address this issue in a simplified situation by examining the effect of coupling between two cortical columns described via Jansen-Rit neural mass models. Our results show that coupling between the two neuronal populations gives rise to stochastic initiations of sustained collective activity, which can be interpreted as epileptic events...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448391/relationship-between-the-mechanisms-of-gamma-rhythm-generation-and-the-magnitude-of-the-macroscopic-phase-response-function-in-a-population-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-modified-quadratic-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#6
Akihiko Akao, Yutaro Ogawa, Yasuhiko Jimbo, G Bard Ermentrout, Kiyoshi Kotani
Gamma oscillations are thought to play an important role in brain function. Interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal interneuron gamma (PING) mechanisms have been proposed as generation mechanisms for these oscillations. However, the relation between the generation mechanisms and the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation are still unclear. Among the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation, the phase response function (PRF) is important because it encodes the response of the oscillation to inputs...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448336/synchronization-in-networks-with-heterogeneous-coupling-delays
#7
Andreas Otto, Günter Radons, Dániel Bachrathy, Gábor Orosz
Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445333/sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-and-incremental-sentence-comprehension-computational-dependencies-during-language-learning-as-revealed-by-neuronal-oscillations
#8
Zachariah R Cross, Mark J Kohler, Matthias Schlesewsky, M G Gaskell, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
We hypothesize a beneficial influence of sleep on the consolidation of the combinatorial mechanisms underlying incremental sentence comprehension. These predictions are grounded in recent work examining the effect of sleep on the consolidation of linguistic information, which demonstrate that sleep-dependent neurophysiological activity consolidates the meaning of novel words and simple grammatical rules. However, the sleep-dependent consolidation of sentence-level combinatorics has not been studied to date...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444427/an-excitatory-neural-assembly-encodes-short-term-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Yaxuan Cui, Feng Su, Yongjie Wang, Yangzhen Wang, Peijiang Yuan, Shujiang Shang, Hao Li, Jizong Zhao, Desheng Zhu, Shiming Tang, Peng Cao, Yunbo Liu, Xunli Wang, Liecheng Wang, Wenbo Zeng, Haifei Jiang, Fei Zhao, Minhua Luo, Wei Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Xiang-Yao Li, Chen Zhang
Short-term memory (STM) is crucial for animals to hold information for a small period of time. Persistent or recurrent neural activity, together with neural oscillations, is known to encode the STM at the cellular level. However, the coding mechanisms at the microcircuitry level remain a mystery. Here, we performed two-photon imaging on behaving mice to monitor the activity of neuronal microcircuitry. We discovered a neuronal subpopulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that exhibited emergent properties in a context-dependent manner underlying a STM-like behavior paradigm...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443100/single-cell-resolution-fluorescence-live-imaging-of-drosophila-circadian-clocks-in-larval-brain-culture
#10
Virginie Sabado, Emi Nagoshi
The circadian pacemaker circuit orchestrates rhythmic behavioral and physiological outputs coordinated with environmental cues, such as day/night cycles. The molecular clock within each pacemaker neuron generates circadian rhythms in gene expression, which underlie the rhythmic neuronal functions essential to the operation of the circuit. Investigation of the properties of the individual molecular oscillators in different subclasses of pacemaker neurons and their interaction with neuronal signaling yields a better understanding of the circadian pacemaker circuit...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442553/phase-reorganization-leads-to-transient-%C3%AE-lfp-spatial-wave-patterns-in-motor-cortex-during-steady-state-movement-preparation
#11
Michael Everett Rule, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, John P Donoghue, Wilson Truccolo
Previous studies on the origin and properties of spatial patterns in motor cortex beta local field potential (β-LFP) oscillations have focused on planar traveling waves. However, it is unclear (a) whether β-LFP waves are limited to plane waves, or even (b) whether they are propagating waves of excito-excitatory activity, i.e. primarily traveling waves in excitable media; they could reflect, instead, reorganization in the relative phases of transient oscillations at different spatial sites. We addressed these two problems in β-LFPs recorded via microelectrode arrays implanted in three adjacent motor-cortex areas of non-human primates during steady-state movement preparation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439241/near-infrared-deep-brain-stimulation-via-upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-optogenetics
#12
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438803/sleep-state-dependence-of-optogenetically-evoked-responses-in-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-positive-cells-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Michelle A Schmidt, Mark R Zielinski, Michele E Moore, Jonathan P Wisor
Slow-wave activity (SWA) in the electroencephalogram during slow-wave sleep (SWS) varies as a function of sleep-wake history. A putative sleep-active population of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing interneurons in the cerebral cortex, defined as such by the expression of Fos in animals euthanized after protracted deep sleep, may be a local regulator of SWA. We investigated whether electrophysiological responses to activation of these cells are consistent with their role of a local regulator of SWA...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427848/targeting-alpha-band-oscillations-in-a-cortical-model-with-amplitude-modulated-high-frequency-transcranial-electric-stimulation
#14
Ehsan Negahbani, Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann, Flavio Frohlich
Non-invasive brain stimulation to target specific network activity patterns, e.g. transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has become an essential tool to understand the causal role of neuronal oscillations in cognition and behavior. However, conventional sinusoidal tACS limits the ability to record neuronal activity during stimulation and lacks spatial focality. One particularly promising new tACS stimulation paradigm uses amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency waveforms (AM-tACS) with a slow signal envelope that may overcome the limitations...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424420/neuroanatomical-details-of-the-lateral-neurons-of-drosophila-melanogaster-support-their-functional-role-in-the-circadian-system
#15
Frank K Schubert, Nicolas Hagedorn, Taishi Yoshii, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Dirk Rieger
Drosophila melanogaster is a long-standing model organism in the circadian clock research. A major advantage is the relative small numbers of about 150 neurons, which built the circadian clock in Drosophila. In our recent work, we focused on the neuroanatomical properties of the lateral neurons of the clock network. By applying the multicolor-labeling technique Flybow we were able to identify the anatomical similarity of the previously described E2 subunit of the evening oscillator of the clock, which is built by the 5th small ventrolateral neuron (5th s-LNv ) and one ITP positive dorsolateral neuron (LNd )...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423437/fast-and-slow-oscillations-recruit-molecularly-distinct-subnetworks-of-lateral-hypothalamic-neurons-in-situ
#16
Christin Kosse, Denis Burdakov
Electrical signals generated by molecularly-distinct classes of lateral hypothalamus (LH) neurons have distinct physiological consequences. For example, LH orexin neurons promote net body energy expenditure, while LH non-orexin neurons [VGAT, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)] drive net energy conservation. Appropriate switching between such physiologically-opposing LH outputs is traditionally thought to require cell-type-specific chemical modulation of LH firing. However, it was recently found that, in vivo, the LH neurons are also physiologically exposed to electrical oscillations of different frequency bands...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420934/vigilance-associated-gamma-oscillations-coordinate-the-ensemble-activity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons
#17
Alon Amir, Drew B Headley, Seung-Chan Lee, Darrell Haufler, Denis Paré
Principal basolateral amygdala (BL) neurons profoundly influence motivated behaviors, yet few of them are activated by emotionally valenced stimuli. Here, we show that a likely explanation for this paradox is the synchronizing influence of the high-gamma rhythm. High-gamma (75-95 Hz) entrained BL firing more strongly than all other rhythms. It was most pronounced during states of increased vigilance, when rats were apprehensive. Relative to behavioral states, high-gamma produced minor changes in firing rates yet dramatic increases in synchrony...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415033/theta-rhythm-like-bidirectional-cycling-dynamics-of-living-neuronal-networks-in-vitro
#18
Arseniy Gladkov, Oleg Grinchuk, Yana Pigareva, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The phenomena of synchronization, rhythmogenesis and coherence observed in brain networks are believed to be a dynamic substrate for cognitive functions such as learning and memory. However, researchers are still debating whether the rhythmic activity emerges from the network morphology that developed during neurogenesis or as a result of neuronal dynamics achieved under certain conditions. In the present study, we observed self-organized spiking activity that converged to long, complex and rhythmically repeated superbursts in neural networks formed by mature hippocampal cultures with a high cellular density...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410822/frequency-doubling-by-active-in-vivo-motility-of-mechanosensory-neurons-in-the-mosquito-ear
#19
James F C Windmill, Joseph C Jackson, Victoria G Pook, Daniel Robert
Across vertebrate and invertebrate species, nonlinear active mechanisms are employed to increase the sensitivity and acuity of hearing. In mosquitoes, the antennal hearing organs are known to use active force feedback to enhance auditory acuity to female generated sounds. This sophisticated form of signal processing involves active nonlinear events that are proposed to rely on the motile properties of mechanoreceptor neurons. The fundamental physical mechanism for active auditory mechanics is theorized to rely on a synchronization of motile neurons, with a characteristic frequency doubling of the force generated by an ensemble of motile mechanoreceptors...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410179/envelope-analysis-links-oscillatory-and-arrhythmic-eeg-activities-to-two-types-of-neuronal-synchronization
#20
Javier Diaz, Alejandro Bassi, Alex Coolen, Ennio A Vivaldi, Juan-Carlos Letelier
Traditionally, EEG is understood as originating from the synchronous activation of neuronal populations that generate rhythmic oscillations in specific frequency bands. Recently, new neuronal dynamics regimes have been identified (e.g. neuronal avalanches) characterized by irregular or arrhythmic activity. In addition, it is starting to be acknowledged that broadband properties of EEG spectrum (following a 1/f law) are tightly linked to brain function. Nevertheless, there is still no theoretical framework accommodating the coexistence of these two EEG phenomenologies: rhythmic/narrowband and arrhythmic/broadband...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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