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Roberto Gandini, Costantino Del Giudice
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous catheter-delivered ultrasound energy to improve local paclitaxel delivery effects in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) treated for femoral-popliteal arterial disease. BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with CLI continues to be the greatest challenge in peripheral artery disease; in particular, treatment of femoral-popliteal chronic total occlusion is characterized by poor primary patency...
October 24, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
David A Leigh
In the beginning…: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 goes to three of the pioneers of the field of synthetic molecular machines, Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, and Ben L. Feringa. Their work has led from the reliable synthesis of rotaxanes and catenanes to molecular rotary motors, shuttles, muscles, and other devices.
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Zhilin Qu, Michael B Liu, Michael Nivala
Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) alternans is a dynamical phenomenon in ventricular myocytes, which is linked to the genesis of lethal arrhythmias. Iterated map models of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling dynamics in ventricular myocytes under periodic pacing have been developed to study the mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans. Two mechanisms of Ca(2+) alternans have been demonstrated in these models: one relies mainly on fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and uptake, and the other on refractoriness and other properties of Ca(2+) sparks...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Rudrashish Haldar, Ankur Khandelwal, Devendra Gupta, Shashi Srivastava, Prabhat K Singh
Hyperglycaemia following surgical and anaesthetic stress is a well-established entity which might have undesirable clinical consequences in known diabetics. We encountered a rare event where an undiagnosed diabetic patient developed ketoacidosis in the immediate post-operative period which was her initial presenting symptom of deranged glucoregulation. Presumably, the stress induced by surgery and anaesthesia lead to the genesis of this event. We discuss the management of this case. In addition, we highlight the importance of glycosylated haemoglobin as a subject of future research in identifying such "at risk" patients and for stratifying the risk of hyperglycaemic complications in perioperative settings...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Kirby Rickel, Fang Fang, Jianning Tao
Osteosarcoma is the predominant form of bone cancer, affecting mostly adolescents. Recent progress made in molecular genetic studies of osteosarcoma has changed our view on the cause of the disease and ongoing therapeutic approaches for patients. As we draw closer to gaining more complete catalogs of candidate cancer driver genes in common forms of cancer, the landscape of somatic mutations in osteosarcoma is emerging from its first phase. In this review, we summarize recent whole genome and/or whole exome genomic studies, and then put these findings in the context of genetic hallmarks of somatic mutations and mutational processes in human osteosarcoma...
October 16, 2016: Bone
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Jianfeng Wang, Yunze Xu, Yun Zou, Liangsong Zhu, Baijun Dong, Jiwei Huang, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Wen Kong, Jin Zhang
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urologic tumor with a poor prognosis. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is a G protein-coupled receptor, has recently been reported to participate in the genesis and development of various cancers. However, the exact role of CB1 in RCC is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of CB1 in RCC cell lines and RCC prognosis, thus underlying its potential as a therapeutic target. Immunohistochemistry and western blots were performed to investigate the expression of CB1 in RCC tissues and to determine its clinicopathological significance in RCC patients...
October 18, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael A van Manen
Vociferous, shrill, and piercing-the first cry of the newborn infant signals that a new and separate life has begun. Separated from the body of the mother, the newborn cry serves to call for care, support, and protection. Yet, what is it that is expressed in the first cry? Or is the cry not really a matter of expression at all? In what sense may the cry be meaningful? Although we may be able to explain the function of the cry, we are puzzled by the enigma of its meaning. In this study, the science of the first cry is complemented with its physiognomy and genesis...
October 16, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Hongjie Wu, Jing Li, Dongxiao Xu, Donghui Jv, Xiaofeng Meng, Peng Qiao, Tao Cui, Baozhong Shi
Glioma is one of the most common brain tumors and one of the most aggressive cancers. Although extensive progress has been made regarding to the diagnosis and treatment, the mortality in glioma patients is still high. Therefore, finding new therapeutic targets to the glioma is critical to the advancement in cancer treatment. Recently, the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) was reported to play important roles in occurrence of some types of cancer, indicating that this molecule may function as a key regulator in the tumor migration and metastasis...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Virginie Cailleau, Bérangère Thirioux, Bernard Méry, Jean-Louis Senon, Nematollah Jaafari
The review of literature devoted to empathy deficits of sexual offenders shows that they have difficulties in identifying specific emotions in specific situations. Their perspective taking abilities range from weak to normal. Face to their victims suffering, their emotional replication would be inhibited. Affective and cognitive impairments in sexual offenders do not result from a general empathy deficit but would however result from the context, cognitive distortions or indifference towards victims. Some sexual offenders are able to decenter from themselves and understand their victims' mental states, but maintain their viewpoint, leading them to not identify with their victims or share their feelings...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Eric Hermand, François J Lhuissier, Nicolas Voituron, Jean-Paul Richalet
We evaluated the mechanisms responsible for the instability of ventilation control system under simultaneous metabolic (exercise) and environmental (hypoxia) stresses, promoting the genesis of periodic breathing. A model following the main concepts of ventilatory control has been tested, including cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, characteristics of peripheral and central chemoreceptors, at mild exercise in hypoxia (FIO2=0.145). Interaction between O2 and CO2 sensing was introduced following three different modalities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Dong Xue, Cuixing Zhou, Hao Lu, Renfang Xu, Xianlin Xu, Xiaozhou He
In prior research, evidence has been found for a relation between low exposure of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and prostate tumor genesis. This study aims to clarify the underlying mechanisms of lncRNA GAS5 in prostate cancer (PCa). In total, 118 pairs of PCa tissues and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected. Additionally, lncRNA GAS5 exposure levels were determined using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. In addition, dual-luciferase report assay was performed to verify the target effect of lncRNA GAS5 on miR-103...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Daniel S Reich
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to the identification of widespread brain abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) that extend far beyond the classic white matter lesion. These findings have generated the idea that MS should be understood as a disease of the whole brain, not just the white matter. While it is no doubt the case that many different pathways are ultimately involved in the destruction of brain tissue that occurs in MS, the implications of the accumulated evidence for understanding disease pathophysiology - and hence the overall significance of these imaging findings - are doubtful...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Georgios Lolas, Lasse Jensen, George C Bourantas, Vasiliki Tsikourkitoudi, Konstantinos Syrigos
With the exception of a limited number of sites in the body, primary tumors infrequently lead to the demise of cancer patients. Instead, mortality and a significant degree of morbidity result from the growth of secondary tumors in distant organs. Tumor survival, growth and dissemination are associated with the formation of both new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and new lymph vessels (lymphagenesis or lymphangiogenesis). Although intensive research in tumor angiogenesis has been going on for the past four decades, experimental results in tumor lymphangiogenesis began to appear only in the last 10 years...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yukihisa Ogawa, Hiroshi Nishimaki, Kiyoshi Chiba, Kenji Murakami, Yuka Sakurai, Keishi Fujiwara, Takeshi Miyairi, Yasuo Nakajima
A woman in her 80s with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm was scheduled for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck (SAN), and the Zenith Flex device was selected. Completion angiography showed migration of the main body resulting in right renal artery stenosis. A Palmaz genesis was placed across the renal orifice. The patient had no renal dysfunction and was discharged 7 days after EVAR. If Zenith Flex devices are used for a SAN, it is necessary to consider not only the position of the renal artery but also the appropriate position of the stent-graft...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Richard Ray, Evelyn Perkins, Patricia Roberts, Lisa Fuller
BACKGROUND: Continuous Special Observation (CSO) is commonly ordered for patients at risk to injure themselves or others and involves assigning staff to monitor one patient at all times. CSO is intrusive, costly, and often has deleterious effects on patient care. Two nursing protocols were developed as alternative interventions to CSO. The first protocol, Psychiatric Nursing Availability (PNA), was designed to treat patients having suicidal or self-injurious thoughts. The second protocol, Psychiatric Monitoring and Intervention (PMI), was designed to prevent violent and impulsive behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Winston Koh, Veronica Gonzalez, Sivaraman Natarajan, Robert Carter, Patrick O Brown, Charles Gawad
Circular RNAs comprise a poorly understood new class of noncoding RNA. In this study, we used a combination of targeted deletion, high-resolution splicing detection, and single-cell sequencing to deeply probe ASXL1 circular splicing. We found that efficient circular splicing required the canonical transcriptional start site and inverted AluSx elements. Sequencing-based interrogation of isoforms after ASXL1 overexpression identified promiscuous linear splicing between all exons, with the two most abundant non-canonical linear products skipping the exons that produced the circular isoforms...
2016: PloS One
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
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