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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330458/the-effects-of-an-extensive-exercise-programme-on-the-progression-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Kate E Devenney, Brian Lawlor, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Stefan Schneider
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions to prevent dementia and delay cognitive decline have gained considerable attention in recent years. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity targets brain function by increasing cognitive reserve. There is also evidence of structural changes caused by exercise in preventing or delaying the genesis of neurodegeneration. Although initial studies indicate enhanced cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following an exercise intervention, little is known about the effect of an extensive, controlled and regular exercise regimen on the neuropathology of patients with MCI...
March 22, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326014/the-gabaergic-hypothesis-for-cognitive-disabilities-in-down-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Contestabile, Salvatore Magara, Laura Cancedda
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 21. DS affects multiple organs, but it invariably results in altered brain development and diverse degrees of intellectual disability. A large body of evidence has shown that synaptic deficits and memory impairment are largely determined by altered GABAergic signaling in trisomic mouse models of DS. These alterations arise during brain development while extending into adulthood, and include genesis of GABAergic neurons, variation of the inhibitory drive and modifications in the control of neural-network excitability...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324781/genesis-and-properties-of-wetland-soils-by-vis-nir-swir-as-a-technique-for-environmental-monitoring
#3
José Alexandre Melo Demattê, Ingrid Horák-Terra, Raphael Moreira Beirigo, Fabrício da Silva Terra, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Caio Troula Fongaro, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324278/concentrations-and-origin-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-sediments-of-western-spitsbergen-fjords-kongsfjorden-hornsund-and-adventfjorden
#4
Anna Pouch, Agata Zaborska, Ksenia Pazdro
Contaminant profiles in sediment cores represent valuable natural archives of environmental contamination, by which contaminant sources and historical changes in contaminant input and cycling may be recognized. In the present study, we discuss the sedimentary profiles and historical trends of organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in three fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact. The obtained results revealed no significant differences between the fjords Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, in the average levels of the analyzed contaminants...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321999/factors-influencing-the-contamination-rate-of-human-organ-cultured-corneas
#5
Daniel Röck, Johanna Wude, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Efdal Yoeruek, Sebastian Thaler, Tobias Röck
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. METHODS: Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation...
March 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320475/decreased-expression-of-semaphorin-3d-is-associated-with-genesis-and-development-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Zhen Wang, Meiman Ding, Naiying Qian, Beifeng Song, Jiayin Yu, Jinlong Tang, Jingyu Wang
BACKGROUND: Semaphorin 3D (SEMA3D) plays important roles in the genesis and progress of many cancers. However, the relationship between SEMA3D and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SEMA3D can be used as a predictive marker for the diagnosis, metastasis, and prognosis of CRC by assessing the expression of SEMA3D in the tissues and serum of CRC patients. METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure the expression of SEMA3D mRNA in 100 CRC tissues and matched normal tissues...
March 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320240/immunogenesis-of-preeclampsia-lessons-from-donor-gametes
#7
Richard P Porreco, Kent D Heyborne
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia remains an important complication of pregnancy. It is associated with mortality and morbidity for both maternal and fetal/newborn patients. Although major inroads have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in recent decades, the initial primary cause of its occurrence in some women and not others has escaped clarification. REVIEW: There have been a number of clinical clues pointing to an immune genesis of this disease, including most recently the use of donor gametes in assisted reproductive technology (ART)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319645/the-atypical-genesis-and-bioavailability-of-the-plant-based-small-rna-mir2911-bulking-up-while-breaking-down
#8
Jian Yang, Natee Kongchan, Cecilia Primo Planta, Joel R Neilson, Kendal D Hirschi
SCOPE: The uptake of dietary plant small RNAs (sRNAs) in consumers remains controversial, which is mainly due to low dietary content in combination with poor fractional absorption. MIR2911, among all the plant sRNAs including microRNAs, has been shown to be one of the most robustly absorbed sRNAs. Here we analyze the unusual abundance and unique genesis of MIR2911 during vegetable processing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using qRT-PCR, the abundance of MIR2911 increased dramatically in macerated tissues while other microRNAs degraded...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318332/abnormality-of-adipokines-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mexican-obese-adolescents-with-insulin-resistance
#9
Maria Del Carmen Ortiz Segura, Blanca Estela Del Río Navarro, Benjamín Antonio Rodríguez Espino, Laurence A Marchat, Fausto Sánchez Muñoz, Santiago Villafaña, Enrique Hong, Fabián Meza-Cuenca, Patrick Mailloux Salinas, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez, Elena Zambrano, Abel Armando Arredondo-López, Guadalupe Bravo, Fengyang Huang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship among insulin resistance (IR), endothelial dysfunction, and alteration of adipokines in Mexican obese adolescents and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-seven adolescents were classified according to the body mass index (BMI) (control: N=104; obese: N=123) and homeostasis model of the assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (obese with IR: N=65)...
March 20, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316878/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative-replacement-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-endogenous-cell-sources
#10
Monica L Vetter, Peter F Hitchcock
This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the "Audacious Goals Initiative" (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315461/single-or-multi-frequency-generators-in-on-going-brain-activity-a-mechanistic-whole-brain-model-of-empirical-meg-data
#11
Gustavo Deco, Joana Cabral, Mark W Woolrich, Angus B A Stevner, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach
During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314358/effect-of-rare-earth-doping-on-free-volume-nanostructure-of-ga-codoped-glassy-as-sb-2se3
#12
Yaroslav Shpotyuk
Subsequent stages of atomic-deficient nanostructurization finalizing rare-earth functionality under Pr(3+)-doping in Ga2(As0.28Sb0.12Se0.60)98 glass are studied employing method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Genesis of free-volume positron trapping sites, composed of atomic-accessible geometrical holes (void cores) arrested by surrounding atomic-inaccessible Se-based bond-free solid angles (void shells), are disclosed for parent As2Se3, Ga-codoped Ga2(As0.40Se0.60)98, as well as Ga-codoped and Sb-modified Ga2(As0...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304295/palmitate-increases-%C3%AE-site-a%C3%AE-pp-cleavage-enzyme-1-activity-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-genesis-by-evoking-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-subsequent-c-ebp-homologous-protein-activation
#13
Gurdeep Marwarha, Stephen Rostad, Jaclyn Lilek, Mason Kleinjan, Jared Schommer, Othman Ghribi
Epidemiological studies implicate diets rich in saturated free fatty acids (sFFA) as a potential risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, high plasma levels of the sFFA palmitic acid (palmitate) were shown to inversely correlate with cognitive function. However, the cellular mechanisms by which sFFA may increase the risk for AD are not well known. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as one of the signaling pathways initiating and fostering the neurodegenerative changes in AD by increasing the aspartyl protease β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ) genesis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304186/mir-205-mediates-the-inhibition-of-cervical-cancer-cell-proliferation-using-olmesartan
#14
Zhang Yue, Zhang Yun-Shan, Xue Feng-Xia
OBJECTIVE: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has become known as a prerequisite for tumor angiogenesis that is now recognized as a crucial step in the development of tumors, including cervical cancer. The Ang II-AT1R pathway is known to play an important role in tumor angiogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, regulating RNAs that participate in tumor genesis, differentiation and proliferation. The current study focused on the anti-tumor mechanism of olmesartan, a novel angiotensin II antagonist, on cervical cancer cells...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302856/building-archean-cratons-from-hadean-mafic-crust
#15
Jonathan O'Neil, Richard W Carlson
Geologic processing of Earth's surface has removed most of the evidence concerning the nature of Earth's first crust. One region of ancient crust is the Hudson Bay terrane of northeastern Canada, which is mainly composed of Neoarchean felsic crust and forms the nucleus of the Northeastern Superior Province. New data show these ~2.7-billion-year-old rocks to be the youngest to yield variability in neodymium-142 ((142)Nd), the decay product of short-lived samarium-146 ((146)Sm). Combined (146-147)Sm-(142-143)Nd data reveal that this large block of Archean crust formed by reworking of much older (>4...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301532/factors-associated-with-study-completion-in-patients-with-premature-acute-coronary-syndrome
#16
Anthony W Austin, Roxanne Pelletier, Louise Pilote, Doreen M Rabi
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with study completion in younger adults are not well understood. This study sought to describe psychosocial, clinical, and demographic features associated with completion of a study of men and women with premature acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: As part of the GENdEr and Sex determInantS of cardiovascular disease: From bench to beyond-Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (GENESIS-PRAXY) study, demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables were assessed in 1213 patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (≤ 55 years; 30% women)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300597/gli2-is-a-regulator-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-is-associated-with-loss-of-e-cadherin-cell-invasiveness-and-long-term-epidermal-regeneration
#17
Eleni Pantazi, Emilios Gemenetzidis, Muy-Teck Teh, Sreekanth Vootukuri Reddy, Gary Warnes, Chris Evagora, Giuseppe Trigiante, Michael P Philpott
Uncontrolled HH/GLI and WNT/β-catenin signaling are important events in the genesis of many cancers including skin cancer and are often implicated in tumour progression, invasion and metastasis. However, due to the complexity and context-dependency of both pathways, little is known about HH and WNT interactions in human carcinogenesis. In the current study we provide evidence of HH/GLI2-WNT/β-catenin signaling crosstalk in human keratinocytes. Over-expression of GLI2ΔN in human keratinocytes resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation and nuclear relocalization of β-catenin in vitro and in 3D-organotypic cultures, accompanied by upregulation of WNT genes...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299635/geroscience-and-the-trans-nih-geroscience-interest-group-gsig
#18
EDITORIAL
Felipe Sierra, Ron Kohanski
Age is by far the major risk factor for most chronic diseases. This has been common knowledge since time immemorial. Aging encompasses the biological changes most often seen as declines of function and increasing burden of disease. The close linkage of these two has led people to believe that aging, like age, is immutable. It is only recently that research into the basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging has led to potential interventions that increase lifespan and appear to increase healthspan, as well...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299190/apolipoprotein-b-containing-lipoproteins-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Michael D Shapiro, Sergio Fazio
Cholesterol-rich, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins are now widely accepted as the most important causal agents of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Multiple unequivocal and orthogonal lines of evidence all converge on low-density lipoprotein and related particles as being the principal actors in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the fundamental role of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease and several other humoral and parietal factors that are required to initiate and maintain arterial degeneration...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293444/association-of-gait-characteristics-and-depression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-assessed-in-goal-directed-locomotion-task
#20
Péter Kincses, Norbert Kovács, Kázmér Karádi, Ádám Feldmann, Krisztina Dorn, Zsuzsanna Aschermann, Sámuel Komoly, Tibor Szolcsányi, Árpád Csathó, János Kállai
Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC)...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
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