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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541026/advances-in-the-management-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#1
Tamás Várkonyi, Anna Körei, Zsuzsanna Putz, Tímea Martos, Katalin Keresztes, Csaba Lengyel, Szabolcs Nyiraty, Alin Stirban, György Jermendy, Péter Kempler
The authors review current advances in the therapy of diabetic neuropathy. The role of glycaemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors in the prevention and treatment of neuropathic complications are discussed. As further options of pathogenetic ally oriented treatment, recent knowledge on benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid is comprehensively reviewed. Alpha-lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant and clinical trials have proven its efficacy in ameliorating neuropathic signs and symptoms. Benfotiamine acts via the activation of transketolase and thereby inhibits alternative pathways triggered by uncontrolled glucose influx in the cells comprising polyol, hexosamine, protein-kinase-C pathways and formation of advanced glycation end products...
May 25, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538902/impact-of-drug-therapy-on-brachioradial-pruritus
#2
Patrick Alexander Wachholz, Paula Yoshiko Masuda, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte Pinto, Antônio Carlos Ceribelli Martelli
Few studies have described therapeutic options in brachioradial pruritus. We describe a cross-sectional study of brachioradial pruritus patients treated in an outpatient unit. We reviewed medical records and interviewed brachioradial pruritus patients without indication for decompressive surgery, in order to access the perceptions of intensity of pruritus prior to treatment and response to therapy. We found that antidepressants and anticonvulsants were the most frequently prescribed drugs. Best reductions in pruritus were associated with its highest intensities prior to treatment, and with longer periods of therapy...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537944/behavioural-responses-of-zebrafish-larvae-to-acute-ethosuximide-exposure
#3
Yongxia Ji, Jia Lin, Xiaolan Peng, Xiuyun Liu, Fei Li, Yinglan Zhang, Ning Guo, Qiang Li
The anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide has shown diverse anxiety-related activity in rodents, but research in zebrafish is limited. To evaluate the effects of acute ethosuximide exposure on locomotor activity and anxiety-related thigmotaxis behaviours of zebrafish larvae, the activity of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days postfertilization (dpf) was analysed under normal constant illumination and stressful light-dark transitions. Under constant illumination, ethosuximide at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 mmol/l increased the distances travelled and intensified locomotor responses to a novel environment...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536810/fibromyalgia-treating-pain-in-the-juvenile-patient
#4
REVIEW
Sabrina Gmuca, David D Sherry
Presently, evidence for the efficacy of medications for the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) is limited. While there are medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (duloxetine, milnacipran and pregabalin) for adults with fibromyalgia syndrome, there are none for the treatment of JFMS. A variety of medications have been prescribed for the treatment of JFMS, including (but not limited to) non-opioid analgesics, opioids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants...
May 23, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528211/intravenous-levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-for-status-epilepticus-and-cluster-seizures-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Arunodaya R Gujjar, Ramachandiran Nandhagopal, Poovathoor C Jacob, Abdulhakeem Al-Hashim, Khalfan Al-Amrani, Shyam S Ganguly, Abdullah Al-Asmi
PURPOSE: Status Epilepticus (SE) is a common medical emergency carrying a high morbidity and mortality. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant effective against varied seizures. Few prospective studies have addressed its use in SE. We aimed to examine the efficacy of intravenous LEV in controlling SE and cluster attacks of seizures (CS), in comparison with IV phenytoin (DPH), using a prospective, randomized study design. METHOD: Adult patients with SE or CS, following an initial dose of IV benzodiazepine to control ongoing seizure, were randomized to receive either medication...
May 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528187/anticonvulsant-activity-of-pseudospondias-microcarpa-a-rich-engl-hydroethanolic-leaf-extract-in-mice-the-role-of-excitatory-inhibitory-neurotransmission-and-nitric-oxide-pathway
#6
Donatus W Adongo, Priscilla K Mante, Kennedy K E Kukuia, Robert P Biney, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Charles K Benneh, Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pseudospondias microcarpa (A. Rich) Engl. is a plant used for managing various diseases including central nervous system disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study explored the anticonvulsant activity of P. microcarpa hydroethanolic leaf extract (PME) as well as possible mechanism(s) of action in animal models. METHODS: Effects of PME was assessed in electroconvulsive (the maximal electroshock and 6-Hz seizures) and chemoconvulsive (pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, isoniazid-, 4-aminopyridine-, and strychnine-induced seizures) models of epilepsy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527976/eagle-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Arvind Badhey, Ameya Jategaonkar, Alexander Joseph Anglin Kovacs, Sameep Kadakia, Peter Paul De Deyn, Yadranko Ducic, Stimson Schantz, Edward Shin
The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of this disorder. Diagnoses of Eagle Syndrome have increased, in part due to the awareness of physicians to patient symptomatology. While cervical pain and dysphagia are among the typical symptoms, patients can present with a wide spectrum of benign and dangerous symptoms...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527278/-drug-rash-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-syndrome-induced-by-carbamazepine-case-report
#8
Jorge Alonso Marín, Mayra Alexandra Ortega, Isaura Pilar Sánchez, José Armando Pacheco
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction associated with a variety of drugs, mainly anticonvulsants, which is characterized by systemic symptoms and erythematous lesions, common to other toxicodermas. It is an uncommon clinical entity that requires a high suspicion by clinical staff given its varied initial presentation, and the fact that symptoms can overlap with those of other adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. Without early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, mortality increases...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525981/combination-of-gabapentin-and-ramosetron-for-the-prevention-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-after-gynecologic-laparoscopic-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-comparative-study
#9
Kyung Mi Kim, Jin Huh, Soo Kyung Lee, Eun Young Park, Jung Min Lee, Hyo Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: As a drug originally introduced for its anticonvulsant effects, gabapentin has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in various clinical settings. This study compared the antiemetic efficacy of oral gabapentin, intravenous ramosetron and gabapentin plus ramosetron in patients receiving fentanyl-based patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. METHODS: One hundred and thirty two patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia were allocated randomly into three groups: group G received 300 mg oral gabapentin 1 h before anesthesia, group R received 0...
May 19, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523892/a-young-child-with-eosinophilia-rash-and-multisystem-illness-drug-rash-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-syndrome-after-receipt-of-fluoxetine
#10
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Janak Kishore, Ankur Kumar, Keshavamurthy Vinay, Sunil Dogra, Sreejesh Sreedharanunni, Prabhas Prasun Giri, Priyankar Pal, Apurba Ghosh
Drug rash, eosinophilia, and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction that usually occurs within 6 weeks of exposure to the offending drug. Diagnosis is usually straightforward in patients with pyrexia, skin rash, hepatitis, and eosinophilia with a preceding history of exposure to agents often associated with DRESS syndrome, such as aromatic anticonvulsants and sulfa drugs, but diagnosis of DRESS may still be a challenge. We report a 4-year-old child with probable DRESS syndrome complicated by multiple hematologic complications that developed 1 month after exposure to fluoxetine, a drug not known to be associated with such severe reactions...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521703/recent-advances-in-antiepileptic-herbal-medicine
#11
Stephen M Manchishi
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. Most cases of epilepsy are idiopathic, though brain injury, brain tumor, severe systemic infection and genetic mutations have been implicated in some cases. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) currently in existence are not sufficient to contain the disorder. This is not only because of their limited availability and cost, but also their adverse side effects...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521671/the-anticonvulsant-effects-of-ketogenic-diet-on%C3%A2-epileptic-seizures-and-potential-mechanisms
#12
Yifan Zhang, Jingwei Xu, Yingchao Zhang, Wei Yang, Bingjin Li
Epilepsy is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurologic disorders with characteristics of epileptic seizures. Although the multitude of anticonvulsant drugs has been developed, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and contribute to the serious morbidity worldwide. Recently, increasing studies have established the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on epileptic seizure reduction. Both basic experiments and clinical trials demonstrated that KD significantly reduced seizure frequency with mild adverse effects...
May 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521116/efficacy-of-anticonvulsant-substances-in-the-6hz-seizure-test-comparison-of-two-rodent-species
#13
Elise Esneault, Guillaume Peyon, Vincent Castagné
Usually performed in the mouse, the 6Hz seizure test is used for screening potential new anticonvulsant substances against complex partial seizures. Nevertheless, advanced models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are more often performed in rats, so that possible species-related differences may complicate the development of anticonvulsant substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the 6Hz test in the rat. We first compared the effects of increasing current intensities for inducing seizures in the mouse and in the rat...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521115/anticonvulsant-profile-of-the-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-in-animal-models
#14
Rebecca S Hammond, Alison L Althaus, Michael A Ackley, Carla Maciag, Gabriel Martinez Botella, Francesco G Salituro, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Despite the availability of multiple antiepileptic drugs (AED), failure to adequately control seizures is a challenge for approximately one third of epilepsy patients, and new therapies with a differentiated mechanism of action are needed. The neuroactive steroid, SGE-516, is a positive allosteric modulator of both gamma- and delta-containing GABAA receptors. This broad GABAA receptor activity differentiates neuroactive steroids like SGE-516 from benzodiazepines, a class of anticonvulsants which have been shown in vitro to selectively target gamma-subunit containing GABAA receptors...
May 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515564/delayed-stevens-johnson-syndrome-secondary-to-the-use-of-lamotrigine-in-bipolar-mood-disorder
#15
Kunal Kishor Jha, Durgesh Prasad Chaudhary, Tshristi Rijal, Semanta Dahal
Lamotrigine is a mood-stabilizing drug used in maintenance treatment of bipolar I disease. There are adverse effects with lamotrigine such as a headache, blurred vision, diplopia, somnolence, ataxia, dizziness, rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis. SJS is a life-threatening, blistering mucocutaneous disease. SJS is characterized by the presence of flat, diffuse erythematous maculopapular rashes with the involvement of <10% of the body surface area. Standard trigger is drugs including anticonvulsants, antibiotics, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511829/suicidal-behaviors-in-the-dermatology-patient
#16
Madhulika A Gupta, Daiana R Pur, Branka Vujcic, Aditya K Gupta
An assessment of suicidal behaviors in the dermatology patient may be necessary in several situations: (1) in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (major depressive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, substance use disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder), encountered in up to 30% of dermatology patients; (2) when dermatologic symptoms ("dysmorphophobia," dermatitis artefacta) represent psychiatric pathologic conditions; (3) when psychosocial stressors (bereavement, interpersonal violence) increase the risk of suicidal behavior and exacerbate stress-reactive dermatoses (psoriasis, acne); (4) in the presence of high disease burden (chronicity, increased disease severity); (5) in instances of significant pruritus or chronic sleep disruption; (6) in the presence of facial lesions or facial scarring; (7) when social exclusion or feelings of alienation arise secondary to the skin disorder; (8) with use of medications (retinoids, biologics) for which suicidal behavior has been implicated as a possible side effect; and (9) when treating psychiatric patients experiencing a serious reaction to psychotropic medications (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and anticonvulsants)...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504022/safinamide-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ruth Mary deSouza, Anthony Schapira
The major unmet needs in the medical treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) are reduction of motor side effects from dopaminergic drugs, management of non-motor symptoms and disease modification. Areas covered: Motor fluctuations and OFF periods are a significant determinant of quality of life in PD and reducing their duration and severity can significantly improve motor function. This aim may be partly facilitated by the development of effective adjunctive drugs for dopamine replacement. Safinamide (Xadago), which is a first generation anticonvulsant, has pharmacological properties which are of interest in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, leading to research into its potential as an adjunct to levodopa in PD...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501696/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-anticonvulsant-effect-of-nanocurcumine-on-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-in-mice
#18
Alireza Aminirad, Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Nahid Fakhraei, Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat
A plant alkaloid obtained from Curcuma longa, curcumin possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nanoformulations have been developed for preclinical studies which demonstrate enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Effect of acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of curcumin C3 complex nanoparticles [1,5, 10, 20, 40, 80mg/kg, (i.p.)] 75min prior to PTZ, on clonic seizure thresholds induced by intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 0.5% was investigated in comparison with curcumin (40 and 80mg/kg, i...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501694/4-4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2-disulfonic-acid-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-vasogenic-edema-following-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#19
Tingting Yang, Zhenzhou Lin, Ling Xie, Yao Wang, Suyue Pan
Vasogenic edema induced by blood brain barrier disruption and neuronal loss play an important role in the epileptogenic process. 4,4'- diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) is a commonly used anion channel inhibitor that has been reported to exert an anticonvulsant effect in rat hippocampus in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate whether DIDS could prevent epileptogenic process in rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The tight junction proteins and serum extravasation were examined in the piriform cortex 3days after status epilepticus...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495313/posterior-hypothalamus-glutamate-infusion-decreases-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-of-male-rats-through-hippocampal-histamine-increase
#20
Atieh Arzhang, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Iran Goudarzi
OBJECTIVES: Seizures are epileptic manifestations that are intrinsically modulated through different neurotransmitters and receptor systems. Although glutamate increases excitation and hence seizures, it activates other systems which could potentially terminate seizures. Histamine originates from neurons of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) and can mediate anticonvulsant properties, but the effect of local PH glutamate on hippocampal histamine content is unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PH glutamate and the involvement of hippocampal histamine in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizure activity was studied...
May 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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