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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234365/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-croton-macrostachyus-hochst-ex-delile-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton macrostachyus is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. macrostachyus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 81 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, typhoid, and wounds and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230865/glial-source-of-nitric-oxide-in-epileptogenesis-a-target-for-disease-modification-in-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Epileptogenesis is the process of developing an epileptic condition and/or its progression once it is established. The molecules that initiate, promote, and propagate remarkable changes in the brain during epileptogenesis are emerging as targets for prevention/treatment of epilepsy. Epileptogenesis is a continuous process that follows immediately after status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Both SE and epileptogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the discovery of anticonvulsants and antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227797/anticonvulsant-effects-of-acetaminophen-in-mice-comparison-with-the-effects-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#3
Katsuya Suemaru, Misato Yoshikawa, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki, Hiroaki Aso, Masahiko Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: The appropriate use of analgesic drugs based on their degree of analgesia and adverse effects is important for pain management. Although it has been reported that AM404, a metabolite of acetaminophen, has anticonvulsant effects in several animal seizure models, little is known about the relation between acetaminophen and seizures. We therefore investigated the effects of acetaminophen on seizure susceptibility in several mouse seizure and epilepsy models and compared the effects with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227795/divergent-effects-of-levetiracetam-and-tiagabine-against-spontaneous-seizures-in-adult-rats-following-neonatal-hypoxia
#4
Raymond Dunn, Bridget N Queenan, Daniel T S Pak, Patrick A Forcelli
Animal models are valuable tools for screening novel therapies for patients who suffer from epilepsy. However, a wide array of models are necessary to cover the diversity of human epilepsies. In humans, neonatal hypoxia (or hypoxia-ischemia) is one of the most common causes of epilepsy early in life. Hypoxia-induced seizures (HS) during the neonatal period can also lead to spontaneous seizures in adulthood. This phenomenon, i.e., early-life hypoxia leading to adult epilepsy - is also seen in experimental models, including rats...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227273/-poisoning-by-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-azerbaijan-the-results-of-8-year-prospective-observation
#5
I Afandiyev, V Azizov
Acute poisoning of chemical etiology is a significant global public health problem. The aim of this study was the analysis of the toxicoepidemiological structure of psychopharmacological drugs poisoning in Azerbaijan. We collected and analyzed the data on all cases of acute poisoning by psychopharmacological drugs (codes of categories T42/T43 ICD-10) undergoing inpatient treatment at the Center of Clinical Toxicology in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2009-2016. The total number of patients with acute intoxication by psychopharmacological drugs was 3,413, which was 48...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225539/anticonvulsant-effects-of-cannabidiol-in-dravet-syndrome
#6
COMMENT
Mohamad Koubeissi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225143/valproic-acid-disrupts-the-biomechanics-of-late-spinal-neural-tube-closure-in-mouse-embryos
#7
Amy Hughes, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp, Gabriel L Galea
Failure of neural tube closure in the early embryo causes neural tube defects including spina bifida. Spina bifida lesions predominate in the distal spine, particularly after exposure to the anticonvulsant valproic acid (VPA). How VPA specifically disturbs late stages of neural tube closure is unclear, as neurulation is usually viewed as a uniform 'zippering' process along the spine. We recently identified a novel closure site ("Closure 5") which forms at the caudal extremity of the mouse posterior neuropore (PNP) when completion of closure is imminent...
December 7, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222946/triheptanoin-protects-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-degeneration
#8
Kah Ni Tan, David Simmons, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Karin Borges
Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anaplerotic (refills deficient tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) via the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) pathway. It has been shown to be neuroprotective and anticonvulsant in several models of neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of triheptanoin against changes of hippocampal mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and cell death induced by pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in mice. Ten days of triheptanoin pre-treatment did not protect against SE, but it preserved hippocampal mitochondrial functions including state 2, state 3 ADP, state 3 uncoupled respiration, respiration linked to ATP synthesis along with the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex 24 h post-SE...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222671/biological-potential-of-thiazolidinedione-derivatives-of-synthetic-origin
#9
REVIEW
Sucheta, Sumit Tahlan, Prabhakar Kumar Verma
Thiazolidinediones are sulfur containing pentacyclic compounds that are widely found throughout nature in various forms. Thiazolidinedione nucleus is present in numerous biological compounds, e.g., anti-malarial, antimicrobial, anti-mycobacterium, anticonvulsant, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and antitubercular agent. However, owing to the swift development of new molecules containing this nucleus, many research reports have been generated in a brief span of time...
December 8, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217181/enhancement-of-intrinsic-fluorescence-of-human-carbonic-anhydrase-ii-upon-topiramate-binding-some-evidence-for-drug-induced-molecular-contraction-of-the-protein
#10
Sirous Ghobadi, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi-Kooshk, Hamid Mahdiuni, Reza Khodarahmi
In this report, the effect of topiramate (TPM), an anticonvulsant sulfamate drug, on the structure of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. The intrinsic fluorescence experiments indicated that TPM binding causes enhancement of enzyme fluorescence via decreasing the internal quenching and energy transfer efficiency, the result supported by molecular dynamics simulation. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding process suggested that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions are the major forces in the interaction of TPM with hCA II...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217174/n-propyl-2-2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyacetamide-a-novel-%C3%AE-hydroxyamide-with-anticonvulsant-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-that-inhibits-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#11
Valentina Pastore, Cristina Wasowski, Pedro Martin, Andrea Enrique, Josefina Higgs, Luis E Bruno-Blanch, Veronica Milesi, Mariel Marder
In patients with epilepsy, anxiety and depression are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities but they often remain unrecognized and untreated. We report herein the antidepressant-like activity in two animal models, tail suspension and forced swimming tests, of six anticonvulsants α-hydroxyamides. From these, N-propyl-2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyacetamide (compound 5) emerged not only as the most active as anticonvulsant (ED50= 2.5mg/kg, MES test), but it showed the most remarkable antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (0...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215383/mood-stabilizing-anticonvulsants-spina-bifida-and-folate-supplementation-commentary
#12
Neil Patel, Adele C Viguera, Ross J Baldessarini
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: High risks of neural tube defects and other teratogenic effects are associated with exposure in early pregnancy to some anticonvulsants, including in women with bipolar disorder. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Based on a semistructured review of recent literature, we summarized findings pertaining to this topic. FINDINGS/RESULTS: Valproate and carbamazepine are commonly used empirically (off-label) for putative long-term mood-stabilizing effects...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212069/cellular-effects-of-the-antiepileptic-drug-valproic-acid-in-glioblastoma
#13
Marita Eckert, Lukas Klumpp, Stephan Huber
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug is used to treat epileptic seizure of glioblastoma patients. Besides its antiepileptic activity, VPA has been attributed further functions that improve the clinical outcome of glioblastoma patients. Those comprise the inhibition of some histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms which reportedly may result in radiosensitization. Retrospective analysis of patient data, however, could not unequivocally confirm a prolonged survival of glioblastoma patients receiving VPA...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210709/alphaxalone-binds-in-inner-transmembrane-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-interfaces-of-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptors
#14
Alexis M Ziemba, Andrea Szabo, David W Pierce, Marian Haburcak, Alex T Stern, Anahita Nourmahnad, Elizabeth S Halpin, Stuart A Forman
BACKGROUND: Neurosteroids like alphaxalone are potent anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, amnestics, and sedative-hypnotics, with effects linked to enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor gating in the central nervous system. Data locating neurosteroid binding sites on synaptic αβγ GABAA receptors are sparse and inconsistent. Some evidence points to outer transmembrane β-α interfacial pockets, near sites that bind the anesthetics etomidate and propofol. Other evidence suggests that steroids bind more intracellularly in β-α interfaces...
November 28, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209390/the-mechanism-of-anti-epileptogenesis-by-levetiracetam-treatment-is-similar-to-the-spontaneous-recovery-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-during-adolescence
#15
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tadahito Hanaoka, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Yasushi Yoshida, Takafumi Mizuno, Hirotaka Toyoda, Hiroshi Yoneda
Objective: The anti-epileptogenic drug levetiracetam has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenesis effects. Synergy between cell death and inflammation can lead to increased levels of apoptosis inhibitory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, aberrant neurogenesis and extended axon sprouting. Once hyperexcitation of the neural network occurs, spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis develops. This study investigated whether the anti-epileptogenic effect of levetiracetam is due to its alternate apoptotic activity...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208169/effect-of-melatonin-on-cytokine-levels-in-a-hyperthermia-induced-febrile-seizure-model
#16
Leyla Aydin, Erkan Yurtcu, Yeşim Korkmaz, Taner Sezer, Ersin Ogus
Higher serum cytokine levels have been reported in children admitted with febrile seizures and in some experimental models. However, other studies have shown that cytokine levels are influenced by melatonin. In this study, we investigated serum cytokine levels in a hyperthermia-induced febrile rat seizure model and the effect of melatonin. A total of 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the control (C) group, healthy melatonin (MT) group, and hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure groups with (HIFS-MT) and without (HIFS) administration of melatonin...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207224/-bone-biopsy-in-the-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd
#17
REVIEW
Luca Dalle Carbonare, Maria Teresa Valenti
Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption, formation and structure parameters. It is the only technique allowing a dynamic evaluation of osteoblast activity after labelling with tetracycline. In addition, the use of computed image analyzer allows the possibility to assess bone microarchitecture. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Bone samples are taken at iliac crest level under local anesthesia and sedation. Samples are put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of different histomorphometric parameters...
December 5, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203220/bilateral-spontaneous-anterior-shoulder-dislocation-a-missed-orthopedic-injury-mistaken-as-proximal-neuropathy
#18
Khalil Ahmad, Saeed Bin Ayaz, Heyyan Bin Khalil, Sumeera Matee
A number of orthopedic injuries can occur during epileptic seizures. Anterior shoulder dislocation is one such orthopedic injury that is quite rare. The shoulder dislocation may injure the brachial plexus. Besides seizures, the nerves can also be damaged by anticonvulsive therapy. Muscle wasting following a seizure can misguide a clinician to investigate only neural or muscular pathologies. We report here an individual with epilepsy who was referred to us for electrodiagnostic evaluation of proximal muscle wasting related to a suspected proximal neuropathy...
November 4, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201080/anticonvulsant-effects-of-new-1-4-dihydropyridinederivatives-containing-imidazolyl-moiety-against-seizures-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-and-maximal-electroshock-in-mice
#19
Yasaman Rasouli, Asghar Davood, Armin Alaee, Golnoush Dehqani, Hamed Shafaroudi, Mahboubeh Lotfinia, Mohsen Amini, Abbas Shafiee
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain affecting around 50 million people in the world. Up to 30% of epileptic patients do not respond to available drugs and medical therapies. In this paper, anticonvulsant screening of 10 synthesized new derivatives of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-dicarboxamides was performed. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by intravenous and intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced seizures tests. Nifedipine was used as reference drug. Our pharmacological results revealing the compounds 2, 4, 5, and 6 can be effective in both absence and grandmal seizures in human...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199960/update-on-the-genetic-basis-of-drug-hypersensitivity-reactions
#20
REVIEW
R Jurado-Escobar, J R Perkins, E García-Martín, M Isidoro-García, I Doña, M J Torres, J A Cornejo-García
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are unpredictable, complex responses to medicines in predisposed individuals. They represent a major health problem owing to the number of patients affected and the severity of the clinical conditions they can induce. In addition to environmental factors, the underlying mechanisms of DHRs are also influenced by genetic factors, although considerable gaps remain in our knowledge. Therefore, further study of the genetics of DHRs is necessary to shed light on their underlying mechanisms...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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