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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107795/adherence-to-therapies-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-targeted-literature-review
#1
Siva Narayanan, Jochen G Mainz, Smeet Gala, Harold Tabori, Daniel Grossoehme
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening condition with no cure. Available therapies relieving the symptoms of CF are complex and time-consuming. A comprehensive review assessing adherence to different CF therapies, association of adherence with outcomes, and factors influencing adherence could inform optimal patient management strategies. Areas covered: A targeted literature review of studies published from 2010-2016 assessed adherence to CF therapies. Nineteen studies qualified for inclusion. Adherence to CF therapies was sub-optimal, and varied by treatment, mode of treatment administration, age, season, time and method of adherence measurement...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104101/preventing-hospitalizations-from-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jessica E Burchette, G Douglas Campbell, Stephen A Geraci
Chronic obstructive lung disease is among the leading causes of adult hospital admissions and readmissions in the United States. Preventing acute exacerbations is the primary approach in therapy. Combinations of smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, vaccinations and inhaled and oral medications may all reduce the overall risk of acute exacerbations. When prevention is unsuccessful, treatment of exacerbations often does not require hospitalization but can be safely executed in the outpatient setting. In the patient who does not require mechanical ventilation or who manifests respiratory acidosis, oxygen supplementation, frequent short-acting inhaled bronchodilators, oral corticosteroids and often antibiotics can abort the decompensation and sometimes return the patient to his or her pre-attack baseline lung function...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100365/-effectiveness-and-safety-assessment-of-inhaled-antibiotics-therapy-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis
#4
J J Yuan, W J Guan, H M Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#5
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#6
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025037/impact-of-azithromycin-on-the-clinical-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-tobramycin-in-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Dave P Nichols, Carrie L Happoldt, Preston E Bratcher, Silvia M Caceres, James F Chmiel, Kenneth C Malcolm, Milene T Saavedra, Lisa Saiman, Jennifer L Taylor-Cousar, Jerry A Nick
BACKGROUND: Concomitant use of oral azithromycin and inhaled tobramycin occurs in approximately half of US cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent data suggest that this combination may be antagonistic. METHODS: Test the hypothesis that azithromycin reduces the clinical benefits of tobramycin by analyses of clinical trial data, in vitro modeling of P. aeruginosa antibiotic killing, and regulation of the MexXY efflux pump. RESULTS: Ongoing administration of azithromycin associates with reduced ability of inhaled tobramycin, as compared with aztreonam, to improve lung function and quality of life in a completed clinical trial...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994272/alveolar-hemorrhage-as-the-initial-presentation-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Bruna A de Holanda, Isabela G Menna Barreto, Isadora S Gomes de Araujo, Daniel B de Araujo
Alveolar hemorrhage (AH) is a rare syndrome that can often occur in autoimmune diseases, blood clotting disorders, infection or by acute inhalation injury, presenting rapid evolution and high mortality, especially with late diagnosis and treatment. Among the autoimmune diseases, there are reported cases in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An early diagnosis is an essential tool in the successful management of this complication, requiring aggressive treatment based on vigorous immunosuppression and broad-spectrum antibiotic...
2016: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987292/tracheomalacia-and-recurrent-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Ghaly Kerolus, Ossama Ikladios
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. COPD exacerbation is usually treated with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and inhaled bronchodilators. We present a case of recurrent COPD exacerbation that was treated repeatedly with standard therapy. Dynamic expiratory computed tomography of the chest was done, which revealed concomitant tracheomalacia. COPD and tracheomalacia may coexist during recurrent exacerbations of COPD, and delayed diagnosis can be associated with severe comorbidities...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977937/the-long-and-winding-road-to-inhaled-tb-therapy-not-only-the-bug-s-fault
#10
Stefano Giovagnoli, Aurelie Schoubben, Maurizio Ricci
Not all of the issues impacting the success of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment arise from pathogen-related disease characteristics. Nowadays, there is an increasing awareness that antibiotic treatment is not the only answer to the TB problem, promoting the search for alternative administration strategies and host-directed therapies. Among all the administration routes, being the lungs the main TB focus, inhalation is conceptually a logical solution to enhance treatment effectiveness and compliance. Nevertheless, research efforts and funding are almost entirely conveyed to conventional approaches...
December 15, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977844/paracetamol-acetaminophen-or-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-alone-or-combined-for-pain-relief-in-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Alies Sjoukes, Roderick P Venekamp, Alma C van de Pol, Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anne Gm Schilder, Roger Amj Damoiseaux
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children...
15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959299/drug-induced-liver-injury
#12
Leslie A Hamilton, Angela Collins-Yoder, Rachel E Collins
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can result from both idiosyncratic and intrinsic mechanisms. This article discusses the clinical impact of DILI from a broad range of medications as well as herbal and dietary supplements. Risk factors for idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI) are the result of multiple host, environmental, and compound factors. Some triggers of IDILI often seen in critical care include antibiotics, antiepileptic medications, statins, novel anticoagulants, proton pump inhibitors, inhaled anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941713/pathogenic-effects-of-biofilm-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection-and-its-relationship-to-cytokines
#13
Shuangqi Cai, Yanan Li, Ke Wang, Yanling Cen, Huasong Lu, Biying Dong, Yiqiang Chen, Jinliang Kong
BACKGROUND An animal (Sprague-Dawley rat) model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm associated with chronic pulmonary infection in vivo was established and the effects of the biofilm on P. aeruginosa and its relationship to cytokines were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Biofilm of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads and planktonic PA0725 were purified by anion-exchange chromatograph. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with the biofilm and then inhaled the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Anti-biofilm antibody titer was detected using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method...
December 12, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941638/bronchiectasis-in-the-last-five-years-new-developments
#14
REVIEW
Jun Keng Khoo, Victoria Venning, Conroy Wong, Lata Jayaram
Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#15
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916619/counterpoint-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-no
#16
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#17
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890714/a-randomized-trial-of-the-amikacin-fosfomycin-inhalation-system-for-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-iasis-trial
#18
Marin H Kollef, Jean-Damien Ricard, Damien Roux, Bruno Francois, Eleni Ischaki, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Thierry Boulain, Zsolt Ivanyi, Gál János, Denis Garot, Firas Koura, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, George Dimopoulos, Antonio Torres, Wayne Danker, A Bruce Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Clinical failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria are common and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. METHODS: We assessed the safety and efficacy of the amikacin fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial VAP in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2 study between May 2013 and March 2016. We compared standard of care in each arm plus 300 mg amikacin/120 mg fosfomycin or placebo (saline), delivered by aerosol twice daily for 10 days (or to extubation if <10 days) via the investigational eFlow Inline System (PARI GmbH, Germany)...
November 24, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889361/adult-bronchiectasis-patients-a-first-look-at-the-united-states-bronchiectasis-research-registry
#19
Timothy R Aksamit, Anne E O'Donnell, Alan Barker, Kenneth N Olivier, Kevin L Winthrop, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Margaret Johnson, Edward Eden, David Griffith, Michael Knowles, Mark Metersky, Matthias Salathe, Byron Thomashow, Gregory Tino, Gerard Turino, Betsy Carretta, Charles L Daley
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the characteristics of adult bronchiectasis patients enrolled in the United States Bronchiectasis Research Registry (BRR). METHODS: The BRR is a database of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients enrolled at 13 sites within the United States. Baseline demographic, spirometric, imaging, microbiologic, and therapeutic data were entered into a central web-based database. Patients were subsequently analyzed by the presence NTM...
November 23, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#20
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
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