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Inhaled antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458207/co-spray-drying-of-hygroscopic-kanamycin-with-the-hydrophobic-drug-rifampicin-to-improve-the-aerosolization-of-kanamycin-powder-for-treating-respiratory-infections
#1
Mohammad A M Momin, Ian G Tucker, Colin S Doyle, John A Denman, Shubhra Sinha, Shyamal C Das
High dose delivery of drugs to the lung using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is an emerging approach to combat drug-resistant local infections. To achieve this, highly aerosolizable powders are required. We hypothesized that co-spray-drying kanamycin, a hydrophilic hygroscopic antibiotic, with rifampicin, a hydrophobic antibiotic, would produce inhalable particles with surfaces enriched in rifampicin. Such particles would have higher aerosolization than kanamycin alone, and minimise the mass of powder for inhalation avoiding use of non-active excipients...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454083/incidence-of-acute-suppurative-sialadenitis-in-end-stage-cancer-patients-a-retrospective-observational-study
#2
Hiroaki Watanabe, Takuya Odagiri, Yasuyuki Asai
CONTEXT: Acute suppurative sialadenitis (hereafter referred to as sialadenitis) is accompanied by pain and fever and can diminish the quality of life (QOL) in end-stage cancer patients; however, its incidence is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to elucidate the incidence of sialadenitis in end-stage cancer patients. METHODS: Retrospective review, observational study based on patients' medical records SUBJECTS: 726 consecutive cancer patients who died on the palliative care unit of our hospital between April 2012 and November 2016 were included...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444760/risk-factors-for-persistent-aspergillus-respiratory-isolation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Gina Hong, Kevin J Psoter, Mark T Jennings, Christian A Merlo, Michael P Boyle, Denis Hadjiliadis, Steven M Kawut, Noah Lechtzin
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus species are increasingly detected in the respiratory tracts of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), and chronic Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with more frequent hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbations. However, patient and clinical factors that may contribute to the acquisition of persistent Aspergillus infection have yet to be identified. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for development of Aspergillus respiratory isolation in CF...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444656/implementation-of-a-successful-eradication-protocol-for-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#4
Bryan A Garcia, Jacque L Carden, Dana L Goodwin, Tim A Smith, Amit Gaggar, Kevin Leon, Veena B Antony, Steven M Rowe, George M Solomon
BACKGROUND: Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) results in a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the airways to fulminant respiratory failure in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Early eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa improves clinical outcomes. The efficacy and clinical outcomes following implementation of an eradication protocol for Bcc are less well understood. METHODS: We developed and implemented a single center Bcc eradication protocol that included an intensive combination of intravenous, inhaled, and oral antibiotic therapies based on in vitro sensitivities...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431734/disruption-of-staphylococcal-aggregation-protects-against-lethal-lung-injury
#5
Jaime L Hook, Mohammad N Islam, Dane Parker, Alice S Prince, Sunita Bhattacharya, Jahar Bhattacharya
Infection by Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 causes tissue injury, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adhere to, then stabilize on, mucosal surfaces before causing injury remain unclear. We addressed these issues through the first real-time determinations of USA300-alveolar interactions in live lungs. We found that within minutes, inhaled USA300 established stable, self-associated microaggregates in niches at curved, but not at flat, regions of the alveolar wall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428885/occurrence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-swine-and-swine-workplace-environments-on-industrial-and-antibiotic-free-hog-operations-in-north-carolina-usa-a-one-health-pilot-study
#6
Meghan F Davis, Nora Pisanic, Sarah M Rhodes, Alexis Brown, Haley Keller, Maya Nadimpalli, Andrea Christ, Shanna Ludwig, Carly Ordak, Kristoffer Spicer, David C Love, Jesper Larsen, Asher Wright, Sarah Blacklin, Billy Flowers, Jill Stewart, Kenneth G Sexton, Ana M Rule, Christopher D Heaney
Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427984/controlling-the-risk-domain-in-pediatric-asthma-through-personalized-care
#7
William C Anderson, Stanley J Szefler
Strategies to control the risk domain of NHLBI EPR-3 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report-3) asthma guidelines, which includes exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, reduction in lung growth, and progressive loss of lung function, and treatment-related adverse effects, are evolving in children and adolescents. Increasing evidence demonstrates that children and adolescents with asthma are at risk of a reduction in lung growth, leading to lower lung function and potentially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as adults...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417313/sweetening-inhaled-antibiotic-treatment-for-eradication-of-chronic-respiratory-biofilm-infection
#8
Ching-Yee Loo, Wing-Hin Lee, Gianluca Lauretani, Santo Scalia, David Cipolla, Daniela Traini, Paul Young, Hui Xin Ong
PURPOSE: The failure of chronic therapy with antibiotics to clear persistent respiratory infection is the key morbidity and mortality factor for patients with chronic lung diseases, primarily due to the presence of biofilm in the lungs. It is hypothesised that carbon sources, such as mannitol, could stimulate the metabolic activity of persister cells within biofilms and restore their susceptibility to antibiotics. The aims of the current study are to: (1) establish a representative in vitro model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection, and (2) investigate the effects of nebulised mannitol on antibiotic efficacy, focusing on ciprofloxacin, in the eradication of biofilm...
February 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398078/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-inhalation-injury-an-evidence-based-approach
#9
REVIEW
C J Deutsch, A Tan, S Smailes, P Dziewulski
INTRODUCTION: Smoke inhalation injury (II) is an independent risk factor for mortality in burns and its management is inherently complex. We aim to make recommendations for best practice in managing II and its sequelae by reviewing all available current evidence in order to provide an evidence-based approach. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database and Embase using PRISMA guidelines with no patient population exclusion criteria. Published work was reviewed and evidence levels graded...
February 1, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388572/melioidosis
#10
REVIEW
W Joost Wiersinga, Harjeet S Virk, Alfredo G Torres, Bart J Currie, Sharon J Peacock, David A B Dance, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium and the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening infection that is estimated to account for ∼89,000 deaths per year worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, and the global diabetes pandemic could increase the number of fatalities caused by melioidosis. Melioidosis is endemic across tropical areas, especially in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Disease manifestations can range from acute septicaemia to chronic infection, as the facultative intracellular lifestyle and virulence factors of B...
February 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375882/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-as-a-presenting-sign-of-adrenal-insufficiency
#11
Sandra Shenouda, Khaled Al-Farawi, Jenna Dolan, Susan L Flesher
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion defined by elevated intracranial pressure without mass lesions or hydrocephalus. Causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension include obesity, vitamin derangements, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and autoimmune disorders. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease have been associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Secondary adrenal insufficiency following withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids has been found to be a relatively common phenomenon...
2018: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370836/successful-eradication-of-newly-acquired-mrsa-in-six-of-seven-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-applying-a-short-term-local-and-systemic-antibiotic-scheme
#12
Alexander Kiefer, Christian Bogdan, Volker O Melichar
BACKGROUND: In individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was reported to be associated with a deterioration of pulmonary disease as reflected by an accelerated decline in lung function. Thus, an early eradication of MRSA could be beneficial in these patients. Here, we report on an intensified MRSA eradication protocol. METHODS: Since 2012 a protocol for the eradication of newly acquired MRSA has been used in our CF Clinic, combining oral rifampicin and fusidic acid, inhaled vancomycin, nasal mupirocin, local antiseptic treatment and hygienic directives all of which are applied for only 7 days during an inpatient hospital stay...
January 25, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363975/pulmonary-delivery-of-ceftazidime-for-the-treatment-of-melioidosis-in-a-murine-model
#13
Sara I Ruiz, Larry E Bowen, Mark M Bailey, Cory Berkland
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent responsible for melioidosis, exhibits a great public health toll in its endemic regions. The elevation of B. pseudomallei to a Tier I select agent underscores the urgent need for effective therapeutics and preventatives. The current treatment regimen for melioidosis is sub-optimal, requiring an intensive phase of intravenous antibiotic followed by months of oral antibiotics. Inhaled antibiotics are a promising avenue to pursue for pulmonary diseases, including melioidosis, since this mode of delivery mimics the likely exposure route and can provide high drug doses directly to the infected tissue...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360899/pediatric-periorificial-dermatitis
#14
Roselyn Kellen, Nanette B Silverberg
Periorificial dermatitis (POD) has been documented in the pediatric population in patients as young as 3 months, with a slight predominance in girls compared to boys. Many patients have a personal or family history of atopic disorders. Periorificial dermatitis typically presents with erythematous to flesh-colored papules and rarely pustules near the eyes, nose, and mouth. Although the etiology is unknown, many patients have had recent exposure to a topical or less commonly an inhaled or systemic corticosteroid...
December 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351551/periodontal-health-status-and-lung-function-in-two-norwegian-cohorts
#15
Antonio Manuel Pérez Barrionuevo, Francisco Gómez Real, Jannicke Igland, Ane Johannessen, Ernst Omenaas, Karl A Franklin, Laura Pérez Barrionuevo, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm, Cecilie Svanes, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The oral cavity is united with the airways, and thus poor oral health may affect respiratory health. However, data on the interaction of periodontal and respiratory health is limited. We aimed to evaluate whether periodontal health status, assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), was related to lung function among young and middle-aged adults in two Norwegian cohorts. METHODS: Periodontal health status and lung function were measured among 656 participants in the Norwegian part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECHRS III) and the RHINESSA offspring study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#16
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344434/rare-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-aids
#17
Cherry O Onaiwu, Manasa Velagapudi, Luay Sarsam, Lindsay Utley, Lauren Bricker, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Renuga Vivekanandan
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Inhalation is the primary route for exposure via dust particles. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk of disseminated disease. A challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is that it can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Nocardia farcinica tends to be a more virulent, multidrug-resistant strain with an increased tendency to disseminate. This report describes a 64-year-old man with AIDS found to have pulmonary nocardiosis that did not respond to standard antibiotic therapy...
November 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338445/investigational-inhaled-therapies-for-non-cf-bronchiectasis
#18
Sabina Antonela Antoniu
Bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) are associated with a high unmet therapeutic need due to the lack of specifically authorized medications, especially via the inhalation route. In non-CF bronchiectasis chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common and favored by the persistent local inflammation and viscid sputum production. Therefore inhaled antibiotics, mucolytics or anti-inflammatory agents could represent appropriate therapeutic interventions in this setting Areas covered: This review herein discusses the inhaled therapies currently under investigation for non-CF bronchiectasis and their potential therapeutic positioning in exacerbation versus stable state...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317659/clinical-outcome-of-eosinophilic-airway-inflammation-in-chronic-airway-diseases-including-nonasthmatic-eosinophilic-bronchitis
#19
Jaeyoung Cho, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Sang-Min Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Chang-Hoon Lee
We enrolled patients with confirmed sputum eosinophilia who had visited our tertiary referral hospital between 2012 and 2015. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of exacerbations in patients with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB), and investigated predictors of improvement in eosinophilic inflammation in chronic airway diseases with or without persistent airflow limitation. In total, 398 patients with sputum eosinophilia were enrolled. Of these, 152 (38.2%) had NAEB. The incidence rate of exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, or hospital admission was 0...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313589/role-of-clarithromycin-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Agam Vora
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in under-developing and developing countries. As per current estimations, COPD will become the third leading cause of death globally, by 2030. Long-acting anti-cholinergic agents, β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, antibiotics and mucolytics are few of the agents currently used in the treatment of COPD, which improve the symptoms and overall quality of life. Several of the important classes of antibiotics are used in the management of COPD including penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and macrolides...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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