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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035090/early-respiratory-bacterial-detection-and-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Matthew N Hurley, Andrew Fogarty, Tricia M McKeever, Christopher H Goss, Margaret Rosenfeld, Alan R Smyth
RATIONALE: Consensus is lacking regarding anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis use for young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylaxis is recommended in the UK, but recommended against in the US. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with a decreased risk of Staphylococcus aureus acquisition, but no increased risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal observational study of children with cystic fibrosis who were recruited from birth (or their first registry entry in the period) and followed until the age of 4 years (1500 days) using UK CF Trust and US CF Foundation Registries, 2000-2009...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034628/-screening-of-full-human-anthrax-lethal-factor-neutralizing-antibody-in-transgenic-mice
#2
Xiaolin Wang, Xiangyang Chi, Ju Liu, Weicen Liu, Shuling Liu, Shunfang Qiu, Zhonghua Wen, Pengfei Fan, Kun Liu, Xiaohong Song, Ling Fu, Jun Zhang, Changming Yu
Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The major virulence factor of B. anthracis consists of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). PA binds with LF to form lethal toxin (LT), and PA binds with EF to form edema toxin (ET). Antibiotics is hard to work in advanced anthrax infections, because injuries and deaths of the infected are mainly caused by lethal toxin (LT). Thus, the therapeutic neutralizing antibody is the most effective treatment of anthrax...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025281/understanding-treatment-adherence-with-the-health-belief-model-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Nicole R Dempster, Beth G Wildman, Tracy L Masterson, Gregory J Omlor
OBJECTIVE: Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. METHOD: Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens...
October 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023413/diallylthiosulfinate-allicin-a-volatile-antimicrobial-from-garlic-allium-sativum-kills-human-lung-pathogenic-bacteria-including-mdr-strains-as-a-vapor
#4
Jana Reiter, Natalja Levina, Mark van der Linden, Martin Gruhlke, Christian Martin, Alan J Slusarenko
Garlic (Allium sativum) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus, including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983645/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-role-of-long-term-antibiotic-treatment
#5
REVIEW
G G U Rohde, T Welte
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is probably associated with increased mortality and morbidity and a faster progress of COPD, although this has not been conclusively proven by studies. Studies demonstrating an improvement in prognosis in COPD patients by early eradication of Pseudomonas or at least a reduction of the bacterial burden by either inhaled or oral antibiotic maintenance therapy, are missing. An impact on the exacerbation rate has only been shown for macrolide maintenance treatment; however, this effect could be explained by the inclusion of patients with bronchiectasis in the studies...
October 5, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980592/-the-prevalence-of-the-fungal-flora-in-association-with-chronic-inflammatory-pathology-of-the-larynx
#6
V Ya Kunel'skaya, S G Romanenko, G B Shadrin, D I Krasnikova
The present article was designed to analyze the prevalence and clinical features of laryngomycosis associated with chronic inflammatory diseases of the larynx. We examined 430 patients suffering from chronic pharyngitis and found the fungal flora in 100 (23.2%) of them. Diagnostics of the fungal infection was performed by the microscopic study of the stained preparations (including the Gram method, Romanovskiy-Giemsa and fluorescent microscopy). The sowing on elective nutrient media was used. The study revealed the presence of yeast fungi (Candida) in 98 patients (98%) and mold fungi (Aspergillus) in the remaining two (2%)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965921/therapeutic-approaches-of-asthma-and-copd-overlap
#7
REVIEW
Mitsuko Kondo, Jun Tamaoki
Asthma and COPD overlap (ACO) is an important clinical phenotype, due to the low-health-related quality of life (QOL), rapid decline in lung function, frequent exacerbation, and high economic burden. However, no large-scaled therapeutic trials of ACO have been conducted. At present, ACO is treated according to asthma/COPD guidelines. The goals of ACO treatment are to relieve symptoms and improve QOL and lung functions. Treatment must also prevent disease progression, airway remodeling, exacerbation, complications, and comorbidities...
September 28, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965047/physicochemical-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalation-system-containing-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#8
Keyhaneh Karimi, Gábor Katona, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus
Antibiotic delivery in form of dry powder inhalation has been studied for possible clinical treatment of respiratory tract infection in the recent years. Dry powder inhalation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) assures local antibacterial activity and comfort of easy application. The aim of this work was to test the stability of co-spray-dried CIP in carrier free system. Since the microparticles in the dry powder system are amorphous and do not contain any stabilizer, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the physicochemical properties and aerosolization behavior are very important...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918665/considerations-in-establishing-bioequivalence-of-inhaled-compounds
#9
Irvin Mayers, Mohit Bhutani
Generic inhalers are often perceived as inferior to their branded counterparts; however, they are safe and effective if they can meet the regulatory requirements. The approach to assess bioequivalence (BE) in oral dosage form products is not sufficient to address the complexities of inhalational products (e.g., patient-device interface); hence, more considerations are needed and caution should be applied in determining BE of inhaled compounds. Areas covered: This review outlines the evaluation process for generic inhalers, explores the regulatory approaches in BE assessment, and highlights the considerations and challenges in the current in vitro and in vivo approaches (lung deposition, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic/clinical studies, and patient-device interface) for establishing BE of inhaled compounds...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#10
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885458/compassionate-nitric-oxide-adjuvant-treatment-of-persistent-mycobacterium-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#11
Karin Yaacoby-Bianu, Michal Gur, Yazeed Toukan, Vered Nir, Fahed Hakim, Yuval Geffen, Lea Bentur
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium abscessus is one of the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Nitric Oxide (NO) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Clinical studies indicated that it is safe and tolerable when given as 160 ppm intermittent inhalations. METHODS: A prospective compassionate adjunctive inhaled NO therapy in two CF patients with persistent Mycobacterium abscessus infection. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874611/how-should-aerosols-be-delivered-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation
#12
Rajiv Dhand
The delivery of aerosols to mechanically ventilated patients presents unique challenges and differs from inhaled drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients in several respects. Successful aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation requires careful consideration of a host of factors that influence the amount of drug inhaled by the patient. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers and nebulizers (jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh) are the most commonly used aerosol delivery devices in these patients, although other delivery devices, such as dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers, and intratracheal nebulizing catheters, could also be adapted for in-line use...
October 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872662/current-options-in-aerosolised-drug-therapy-for-children-receiving-respiratory-support
#13
REVIEW
S Trend, B S von Ungern-Sternberg, S G Devadason, A Schultz, M L Everard
Inhalation of aerosolised medications are the mainstay of treatment for a number of chronic lung diseases and have several advantages over systemically-administered medications. These include more rapid onset of action for drugs such as β-adrenergic agonists when compared with oral medication, high luminal doses for inhaled antibiotics when used to treat endobronchial infection, and an improved therapeutic index compared with systemic delivery for these and other classes of drugs such as corticosteroids. The use of aerosolised drugs to treat patients whose tracheas are intubated is less well established, in part because systemic delivery via the intravenous route can be a simpler alternative for many drugs...
November 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856066/estimation-of-time-period-for-effective-human-inhalational-anthrax-treatment-including-antitoxin-therapy
#14
Lewis Rubinson, Alfred Corey, Dan Hanfling
INTRODUCTION: Infrequent natural human inhalational anthrax cases coupled with high bioterrorism risk have brought about use of animal models to serve as the basis for approval of novel treatments. For inhalational anthrax, protective antigen (PA) drives much of the mortality, and raxibacumab, an anti-PA monoclonal antibody, has been approved for therapeutic use using the Animal Rule. Given the paucity of human inhalational anthrax clinical data including PA kinetics, the post-exposure period for effective treatment of human disease remains unknown...
July 28, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854668/current-and-future-therapies-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Wynne D Smith, Emmanuelle Bardin, Loren Cameron, Claire L Edmondson, Katie V Farrant, Isaac Martin, Ronan A Murphy, Odel Soren, Andrew R Turnbull, Natasha Wierre-Gore, Eric W Alton, Jacob G Bundy, Andrew Bush, Gary J Connett, Saul N Faust, Alain Filloux, Paul S Freemont, Andrew L Jones, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy S Webb, Huw D Williams, Jane C Davies
Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistically infects the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Initial infection can often be eradicated though requires prompt detection and adequate treatment. Intermittent and then chronic infection occurs in the majority of patients. Better detection of P. aeruginosa infection using biomarkers may enable more successful eradication before chronic infection is established. In chronic infection P. aeruginosa adapts to avoid immune clearance and resist antibiotics via efflux pumps, β-lactamase expression, reduced porins and switching to a biofilm lifestyle...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826725/dry-powder-aerosols-to-co-deliver-antibiotics-and-nutrient-dispersion-compounds-for-enhanced-bacterial-biofilm-eradication
#16
S Sommerfeld Ross, S Gharse, L Sanchez, J Fiegel
The purpose of this study was to formulate a dry powder for inhalation containing a combination treatment for eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilms. Dry powders containing an antibiotic (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, CH) and nutrient dispersion compound (glutamic acid, GA) at a ratio determined to eliminate the biofilms were generated by spray drying. Leucine was added to the spray dried formulation to aid powder flowability. A central composite design of experiments was performed to determine the effects of solution and processing parameters on powder yield and aerodynamic properties...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811115/recurrence-of-cutaneous-coccidioidomycosis-6-years-after-valley-fever-a-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#17
Rana Shahab, Nasir K Amra, Rola Rabah, Justin Saunar, Joan Soriano, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Coccidioidomycosis is usually acquired by inhalation of spores of Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. The disease ranges from a self-limited acute pneumonia (Valley Fever) to a disseminated disease. We present a 44-year-old healthy male who had patchy hair loss of several months duration resembling discoid lupus. He developed a firm non-scaly red plaque on the right forehead. Initial biopsy showed spongiotic dermatitis, and he was treated with systemic steroids. He then developed forehead and periorbital cellulitis and was treated with systemic antibiotics...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810628/use-of-aerosol-inhalation-treatment-with-budesonide-and-terbutaline-sulfate-on-acute-pediatric-asthmatic-bronchitis
#19
Fangfang Bian, Yue-E Wu, Chong-Lin Zhang
The use of oxygen-driven aerosol inhalation therapy with budesonide (suspension) and terbutaline sulfate for the treatment of pediatric asthmatic bronchitis was studied. Sixty pediatric patients diagnosed with asthmatic bronchitis in Xuzhou Children's Hospital during the period comprising April 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled in the study. After randomly dividing the patients into a control (conventional dexamethasone drip) and a treatment group (inhalation of budesonide with terbutaline sulfate) of 30 patients each, the symptoms were treated using antibiotics when necessary...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810307/-research-progress-of-inhaled-antibiotics-in-pulmonary-infectious-disease
#20
J M Qu, D Liu, J Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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