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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232837/a-burkholderia-pseudomallei-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-provides-cross-protection-against-inhalational-glanders-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#1
Sarah M Baker, Christopher J H Davitt, Natalya Motyka, Nicole L Kikendall, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, Chad J Roy, Lisa A Morici
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of a vaccine against B. mallei of critical importance. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with multivalent outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from B. pseudomallei provide significant protection against pneumonic melioidosis...
December 9, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229103/effect-of-budesonide-formoterol-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-on-exacerbations-versus-formoterol-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-the-6-month-randomized-rise-revealing-the-impact-of-symbicort-in-reducing-exacerbations-in-copd-study
#2
Gary T Ferguson, Donald P Tashkin, Tor Skärby, Carin Jorup, Kristina Sandin, Michael Greenwood, Kristine Pemberton, Frank Trudo
BACKGROUND: Prevention of exacerbations is a primary goal for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapy. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter study evaluated the effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus formoterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) on reducing COPD exacerbations. METHODS: 1219 patients aged ≥40 years with moderate-to-very-severe COPD (per lung function) and a history of ≥1 COPD exacerbation received budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg twice daily (BID) during a 4-week run-in...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210888/pneumonia-in-a-teenager-hiding-a-fire-eating-stunt
#4
Michele Ghezzi, Marta Odoni, Oriana Testagrossa, Daniela Messina, Jorge Daniel Ruocco, Camillo Lovati, Ahmad Kantar
Pneumonia in children due to hydrocarbon aspiration is usually the result of an uncommon accidental event. However, an acute and severe type of pneumonia induced by hydrocarbon aspiration is occasionally experienced by entertainers known as fire-eaters. Different approaches to treat fire-eater's pneumonia appear in the literature. Although there is no consensus regarding the management of this condition, the use of antibiotic therapy is well recognized and recommended by some, whereas others recommend only supportive treatment...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180593/qualitative-interview-study-of-antibiotics-and-self-management-strategies-for-respiratory-infections-in-primary-care
#5
Lisa McDermott, Geraldine M Leydon, Amy Halls, Jo Kelly, Amanda Nagle, Jennifer White, Paul Little
OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of illness, the decisions to consult and the acceptability of delayed antibiotic prescriptions and self-help treatments for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interview study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 20 adult patients who had been participating in the 'PIPS' (Pragmatic Ibuprofen Paracetamol and Steam) trial in the South of England...
November 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180254/reclaiming-hijacked-phagosomes-hybrid-nano-in-micro-encapsulated-miap-peptide-ensures-host-directed-therapy-by-specifically-augmenting-phagosome-maturation-and-apoptosis-in-tb-infected-macrophage-cells
#6
Ankur Sharma, Kalpesh Vaghasiya, Pushpa Gupta, Umesh Datta Gupta, Rahul Kumar Verma
TB-Superbugs have emerged as one of the most challenging global health threat due to the decrease in effectiveness of conventional antibiotics. Meanwhile, Host defense peptides (HDP) have evolved as an alternative to classical therapeutics with lesser susceptibility of resistance. We describe the potential of nano-encapsulated synthetic Magainin-I analog peptide (MIAP) as Host Directed Therapy against TB. Micron-sized inhalable platform "Porous Nanoparticle Aggregates Particles (PNAP)" with nano-scale physiognomies were developed to improve the delivery of MIAP-peptide to the lungs and enhance its stability...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162355/-hot-tub-lung-a-case-report
#7
M Vergez, S Honjoya, S Guérin, C Delacourt, G Benoist
Hot tub lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalational exposure to the Mycobacterium avium complex. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy presenting dyspnea with hypoxemia, whose medical history and clinical course helped make the diagnosis. Infectious causes were considered first, and antibiotics were initiated without success. Further questioning and explorations led to discussing a hypersensitivity pneumonitis diagnosis. Relapse after exposure to a hot tub enabled us to confirm hot tub lung...
November 18, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161086/potential-role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-shaping-asthma-phenotypes
#8
Kian Fan Chung
The introduction of 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing as a nonculture technique has led to the discovery of the presence of microbiota in the lower airways of healthy individuals. These bacterial communities may originate from the mouth and nasopharynx or from the environment by inhalation. The microbial composition of the lower airways may be modulated by dietary factors, antibiotic therapy, and microbial infections, particularly in early life. In addition, circulatory products from gut microbiota may influence the lung microbiota to maintain mucosal immunity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158280/anti-pseudomonal-activity-of-phage-pev20-in-a-dry-powder-formulation-a-proof-of-principle-study-in-a-murine-lung-infection-model
#9
Rachel Yoon Kyung Chang, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Martin Wallin, Warwick Britton, Sandra Morales, Elizabeth Kutter, Jian Li, Hak-Kim Chan
Bacteriophage therapy is a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics as it has been documented to be efficacious against multi-drug resistant bacteria with minimal side effects. Several groups have demonstrated the efficacy of phage suspension in vivo to treat lung infections using intranasal delivery; however, phage dry powder administration to the lungs has not yet been explored. Powder formulations provide potential advantages over liquid formulation, including easy storage, transport and administration...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145795/use-of-immunohistochemistry-to-demonstrate-in-vivo-expression-of-the-burkholderia-mallei-virulence-factor-bpab-during-experimental-glanders
#10
Shawn M Zimmerman, Mackenzie E Long, Jeremy S Dyke, Tomislav P Jelesijevic, Frank Michel, Eric R Lafontaine, Robert J Hogan
Burkholderia mallei causes the highly contagious and debilitating zoonosis glanders, which infects via inhalation or percutaneous inoculation and often culminates in life-threatening pneumonia and sepsis. In humans, glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. No vaccine exists to protect against B. mallei, and there is concern regarding its use as a bioweapon. The authors previously identified the protein BpaB as a potential target for devising therapies due to its role in adherence to host cells and the formation of biofilms in vitro and its contribution to pathogenicity in a mouse model of glanders...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143505/-inhaled-antibiotics-for-the-management-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#11
Gregory Berra, Émilie Chappuis-Gisin, Paola M Soccal, Jérôme Plojoux
Bronchiectasis is irreversible bronchial dilatation associated with chronic respiratory symptoms. Management is aimed at reducing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease by interrupting the vicious circle: bronchial infection, inflammation, altered mucociliary clearance, lung destruction. Unlike the literature on inhaled antibiotics in cystic fibrosis, literature data are limited and of low quality for bronchiectasis of other causes. However, new recommendations from the European Respiratory Society propose the conditional use of inhaled antibiotics to prevent repeated infectious exacerbations and to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#12
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129177/copd-x-australian-and-new-zealand-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017-update
#13
Ian A Yang, Juliet L Brown, Johnson George, Sue Jenkins, Christine F McDonald, Vanessa M McDonald, Kirsten Phillips, Brian J Smith, Nicholas A Zwar, Eli Dabscheck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation, and is associated with exacerbations and comorbidities. Advances in the management of COPD are updated quarterly in the national COPD guidelines, the COPD-X plan, published by Lung Foundation Australia in conjunction with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and available at http://copdx.org.au. Main recommendations: Spirometry detects persistent airflow limitation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114903/occupational-generalized-urticaria-and-anaphylaxis-after-inhalation-of-cefuroxime-in-a-nurse
#14
Rolf Merget, Ingrid Sander, Manigé Fartasch, Vera van Kampen, Stefani Röseler, Hans Merk, Gerda Wurpts, Monika Raulf, Thomas Brüning
We present the case of a 53 years old nonatopic female nurse who experienced repeated anaphylactic reactions at work without involvement in drug-specific tasks such as crushing of tablets or preparation of injections. The causal allergen was not identified until a further severe anaphylactic reaction occurred after oral use of cefuroxime during a respiratory infection. Sensitization to cefuroxime was demonstrated by specific IgE, basophil activation test and skin prick test. An inhalation challenge with a dosimeter induced generalized urticaria after a cumulative dose of about 10 μg of the drug, but no asthmatic reaction...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110790/long-term-management-of-patients-with-end-stage-lung-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Domenica Federica Briganti, Frank D'Ovidio
Long-term management of end-stage lung disease differs from interstitial lung disease to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to cystic fibrosis to pulmonary vascular disease. The management includes pharmacological therapy that is disease specific such as antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis, antifibrotic drugs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; long-acting beta-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and vasodilators in pulmonary arterial hypertension...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101282/a-population-based-prospective-cohort-study-examining-the-influence-of-early-life-respiratory-tract-infections-on-school-age-lung-function-and-asthma
#16
Evelien R van Meel, Herman T den Dekker, Niels J Elbert, Pauline W Jansen, Henriëtte A Moll, Irwin K Reiss, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Early-life respiratory tract infections could affect airway obstruction and increase asthma risk in later life. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of early-life respiratory tract infections with lung function and asthma in school-aged children. METHODS: This study among 5197 children born between April 2002 and January 2006 was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study...
November 3, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101134/-well-it-literally-stops-me-from-having-a-life-when-it-s-really-bad-a-nested-qualitative-interview-study-of-patient-views-on-the-use-of-self-management-treatments-for-the-management-of-recurrent-sinusitis-snifs-trial
#17
Geraldine M Leydon, Lisa McDermott, Tammy Thomas, Amy Halls, Ben Holdstock-Brown, Stephen Petley, Clare Wiseman, Paul Little
OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience and perceptions of illness, the decision to consult a general practitioner and the use of self-management approaches for chronic or recurrent sinusitis. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interview study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 32 participants who had been participating in the 'SNIFS' (Steam inhalation and Nasal Irrigation For recurrent Sinusitis) trial in the South of England...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098998/the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-on-inhaled-antibiotics
#18
Atqah AbdulWahab, Khalid Zahraldin, Mazen A Sid Ahmed, Sulieman Abu Jarir, Mohammed Muneer, Shehab F Mohamed, Jemal M Hamid, Abubaker A I Hassan, Emad Bashir Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) is an important and growing issue in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of MDR-PA recovered from the lower respiratory samples of pediatric and adult CF patients, and its antibiotic resistance pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089424/evolved-aztreonam-resistance-is-multifactorial-and-can-produce-hypervirulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Peter Jorth, Kathryn McLean, Anina Ratjen, Patrick R Secor, Gilbert E Bautista, Sumedha Ravishankar, Amir Rezayat, Jayanthi Garudathri, Joe J Harrison, Rachel A Harwood, Kelsi Penewit, Adam Waalkes, Pradeep K Singh, Stephen J Salipante
While much attention has been focused on acquired antibiotic resistance genes, chromosomal mutations may be most important in chronic infections where isolated, persistently infecting lineages experience repeated antibiotic exposure. Here, we used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing to investigate chromosomally encoded mutations causing aztreonam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized the secondary consequences of resistance development. We identified 19 recurrently mutated genes associated with aztreonam resistance...
October 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080051/reducing-unnecessary-chest-x-rays-antibiotics-and-bronchodilators-through-implementation-of-the-nice-bronchiolitis-guideline
#20
Richard Breakell, Benjamin Thorndyke, Julie Clennett, Christian Harkensee
Chest X-rays (CXR), antibiotics and inhaled/nebulized therapy are overused in bronchiolitis, despite evidence-based guidelines suggesting supportive management only. This study investigates the effect of the implementation of the NICE bronchiolitis guideline in a secondary paediatric unit in England. We present a quality improvement project with a completed audit cycle (winter 2014-2015 and 2015-2016) pre- and post-implementation of the NICE bronchiolitis guideline. The educational intervention included sessions for raising awareness of appropriate and inappropriate management of bronchiolitis for both clinicians and nursing staff...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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