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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698321/factors-associated-with-non-persistence-to-oral-and-inhaled-antiviral-therapies-for-seasonal-influenza-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-double-blind-multicentre-randomised-clinical-trial
#1
Remi Flicoteaux, Camelia Protopopescu, Annick Tibi, Thierry Blanchon, Sylvie Van Der Werf, Xavier Duval, Anne Mosnier, Cécile Charlois-Ou, Bruno Lina, Catherine Leport, Sylvie Chevret
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate and compare non-adherence to oral and inhaled antiviral therapies prescribed of a randomised clinical trial in outpatients with influenza A infection. DESIGN: A parallel, three-arm, double-blinded trial randomly allocated antiviral therapies twice daily for 5 days: (1) oral oseltamivir plus inhaled zanamivir (arm OZ); (2) oseltamivir plus inhaled placebo (arm Opz); or (3) oral placebo plus inhaled zanamivir (arm poZ). Analysis of non-adherence was a secondary objective of the trial...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696803/thai-pediatricians-current-practice-toward-childhood-asthma
#2
Harutai Kamalaporn, Pongpan Chawalitdamrong, Aroonwan Preutthipan
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696235/evaluation-of-combination-drug-therapy-for-treatment-of-antibiotic-resistant-inhalation-anthrax-in-a-murine-model
#3
H S Heine, S V Shadomy, A E Boyer, L Chuvala, R Riggins, A Kesterson, J Myrick, J Craig, M G Candela, J R Barr, K Hendricks, W A Bower, H Walke, G L Drusano
Bacillus anthracis is considered a likely agent to be used as a bioweapon and use of a strain resistance to the first-line antimicrobial treatments is a concern. We determined treatment efficacy against a ciprofloxacin-resistant (C(r)) strain of B. anthracis (C(r) Ames) in a murine inhalational anthrax model. Ten groups of 46 BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 7-35 LD50 of B. anthracis C(r) Ames spores. Commencing at 36 hours (h) post-exposure, groups were administered intraperitoneal doses of sterile water for injections (SWI) and ciprofloxacinalone (control groups), or ciprofloxacin combined with two antimicrobials including meropenem/linezolid, meropenem/clindamycin, meropenem/rifampin, meropenem/doxycycline, penicillin/linezolid, penicillin/doxycycline, rifampin/linezolid, or rifampin/clindamycin at appropriate dosing intervals(6 or 12 hours) for the respective antibiotics...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687413/effect-of-azithromycin-on-asthma-exacerbations-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-persistent-uncontrolled-asthma-amazes-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Peter G Gibson, Ian A Yang, John W Upham, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge, Alan L James, Christine Jenkins, Matthew J Peters, Guy B Marks, Melissa Baraket, Heather Powell, Steven L Taylor, Lex E X Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Jodie L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma cause a substantial global illness burden. Adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma despite maintenance treatment require additional therapy. Since macrolide antibiotics can be used to treat persistent asthma, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin as add-on therapy in patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma on medium-to-high dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting bronchodilator. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial to determine whether oral azithromycin decreases the frequency of asthma exacerbations in adults (≥18 years) with symptomatic asthma despite current use of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting bronchodilator, and who had no hearing impairment or abnormal prolongation of the corrected QT interval...
July 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671393/top-20-research-studies-of-2016-for-primary-care-physicians
#5
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
This article summarizes the top 20 original research studies and four practice guidelines of 2016, based on regular literature surveillance and as selected by members of the Canadian Medical Association. The studies, known as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters), were rated highly because of their relevance, validity, and potential to change practice. Key hypertension treatment findings include reduced mortality (a benefit not demonstrated in lower-risk persons or persons with diabetes mellitus) but also an increase in harms with a more aggressive blood pressure target in high-risk persons with hypertension and without diabetes...
May 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662114/novel-glycopolymer-sensitizes-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-isolates-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients-to-tobramycin-and-meropenem
#6
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott Giatpaiboon, Shenda M Baker, William P Wiesmann, John J LiPuma, Stacy M Townsend
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infection, associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) is intrinsically multidrug resistant to antibiotic treatment making eradication from the CF lung virtually impossible. Infection with Bcc leads to a rapid decline in lung function and is often a contraindication for lung transplant, significantly influencing morbidity and mortality associated with CF disease. Standard treatment frequently involves antibiotic combination therapy. However, no formal strategy has been adopted in clinical practice to guide successful eradication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656009/role-of-microbial-agents-in-pulmonary-fibrosis%C3%A2
#7
REVIEW
Ozioma S Chioma, Wonder P Drake
Pulmonary fibrosis is a form of lung disease that develops due to aberrant wound-healing following repeated alveoli injury in genetically susceptible individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation, excess deposition of the extracellular matrix components, mainly collagen, and scarring of lung tissue. In addition to irradiation, environmental agents such occupational inhalants, and chemotherapeutic agents, microbial agents also play a role in the etiology of the disease. While viruses have received the most attention, emerging evidence suggest that bacteria and fungi also play a part in the etiology of pulmonary fibrosis...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650591/the-silver-lining-towards-the-responsible-and-limited-usage-of-silver
#8
REVIEW
Kshipra Naik, Meenal Kowshik
Silver has attracted a lot of attention as a powerful, broad spectrum and natural antimicrobial agent since the ancient times because of its non-toxic nature to the human body at low concentrations. It has been used in treatment of various infections and ulcers, storage of water, and prevention of bacterial growth on the surfaces and within materials. However there are numerous medical and health benefits of colloidal or nano silver apart from its microbicidal ability which as yet have not been fully embraced by the medical community...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616442/human-coronavirus-hku1-infection-among-adults-in-cleveland-ohio
#9
Anubhav Kanwar, Suresh Selvaraju, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (CoV) have been long recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract disease including severe respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus-HKU1 has been described predominantly among children less than 5 years of age in the United States with few studies characterizing the disease spectrum among adults. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens of patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for CoV-HKU1 by NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel multiplex assay from February 7, 2016 to April 30, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602999/cough-and-bronchiectasis
#10
REVIEW
Paul McCallion, Anthony De Soyza
Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease with permanent airway dilatation, mucus retention and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis is increasing in prevalence and has a significant morbidity and an excess mortality rate over age matched controls. It is increasingly identified during investigations into chronic cough and is evident high resolution CT scanning. There remain significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis and optimal treatments in bronchiectasis...
June 7, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599925/the-answer-for-inhaled-antibiotics-in-pneumonia-is-still-blowing-in-the-wind
#11
EDITORIAL
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583330/liposomal-andrographolide-dry-powder-inhalers-for-treatment-of-bacterial-pneumonia-via-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#12
Miao Li, Tongtong Zhang, Lifei Zhu, Rui Wang, Yiguang Jin
Andrographolide (AG) is a chemical entity from traditional Chinese herbs and its oral pills have been applied to the treatment of respiratory inflammation. Here we report pulmonary delivery of liposomal AG dry powder inhalers (LADPIs) for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia. AG liposomes were prepared with the injection method and then freeze-dried for preparation of LADPIs. AG liposomes were small and stable with a mean size of 77.91nm and a zeta potential of -56.13mV. Liposomes were well recovered after re-hydration of LADPIs that were suitable for pulmonary delivery with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578558/is-there-a-role-for-inhaled-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-infections
#13
Lucy B Palmer, Jordi Rello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577419/a-simplified-guide-for-charged-aerosol-detection-of-non-chromophoric-compounds-analytical-method-development-and-validation-for-the-hplc-assay-of-aerosol-particle-size-distribution-for-amikacin
#14
Arianne Soliven, Imad A Haidar Ahmad, James Tam, Nani Kadrichu, Pete Challoner, Robert Markovich, Andrei Blasko
Amikacin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic lacking a UV chromophore, was developed into a drug product for delivery by inhalation. A robust method for amikacin assay analysis and aerosol particle size distribution (aPSD) determination, with comparable performance to the conventional UV detector was developed using a charged aerosol detector (CAD). The CAD approach involved more parameters for optimization than UV detection due to its sensitivity to trace impurities, non-linear response and narrow dynamic range of signal versus concentration...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559881/rodent-models-of-invasive-aspergillosis-due-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-still-a-long-path-toward-standardization
#15
REVIEW
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Invasive aspergillosis has been studied in laboratory by the means of plethora of distinct animal models. They were developed to address pathophysiology, therapy, diagnosis, or miscellaneous other concerns associated. However, there are great discrepancies regarding all the experimental variables of animal models, and a thorough focus on them is needed. This systematic review completed a comprehensive bibliographic analysis specifically-based on the technical features of rodent models infected with Aspergillus fumigatus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559466/inhaled-drug-therapy-2016-the-year-in-review
#16
REVIEW
Rajiv Dhand
Some recent salient publications related to inhaled drug therapy are discussed. Unexpectedly, a 2.5-μg once-daily dose of tiotropium (Respimat) had greater efficacy than the 5.0-μg daily dose. Occurrence of a reverse dose response serves to caution us that administering more drug is not always beneficial. Small-airway inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of asthma, especially severe asthma. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the use of small-particle aerosols to target small airways improves clinical outcomes in controlled clinical trials...
July 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546381/adjunct-therapies-for-refractory-status-asthmaticus-in-children
#17
Kyle J Rehder
Asthma exacerbation is a common reason for children to present to the emergency department. If primary therapies fail to halt the progression of an asthma flare, status asthmaticus often leads to hospital, and potentially ICU, admission. Following the initial administration of inhaled β agonists and systemic corticosteroids, a wide array of adjunct medical therapies may be used to treat status asthmaticus. Unfortunately, the data supporting the use of these adjunct therapies are often unclear, conflicting, or absent...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542286/clinical-impact-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-on-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-study-on-1-790-patients-from-the-spanish-bronchiectasis-historical-registry
#18
David De la Rosa, Miguel-Angel Martínez-Garcia, Rosa Maria Giron, Montserrat Vendrell, Casilda Olveira, Luis Borderias, Luis Maiz, Antoni Torres, Eva Martinez-Moragon, Olga Rajas, Francisco Casas, Rosa Cordovilla, Javier de Gracia
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the coexistence of bronchiectasis (BE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in series of patients diagnosed primarily with BE. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with BE associated with COPD included in the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry and compare them to the remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre observational study of historical cohorts, analysing the characteristics of 1,790 patients who had been included in the registry between 2002 and 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535077/sticky-situations-cyanoacrylate-exposures-reported-to-a-poison-control-system
#19
Shaun D Carstairs, Cynthia Koh, Lily Qian, Mariam Qozi, Grant Seivard, F Lee Cantrell
INTRODUCTION: Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue(®)) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509852/inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Diego J Maselli, Holly Keyt, Marcos I Restrepo
The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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