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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#1
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043491/the-multifactorial-origin-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-cyclophosphamide-treated-lupus-patients
#2
REVIEW
Tatjana Zekić, Mirjana Stanić Benić, Ronald Antulov, Igor Antončić, Srđan Novak
The cyclophosphamide as a predisposing factor for Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) and therapeutic option for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is still confusing. The first and only case of PRES, probably induced by cyclophosphamide, in Croatia followed by the findings of 36 SLE patients diagnosed with PRES after treatment with cyclophosphamide worldwide are described. An 18-year-old Caucasian female patient with a 1-year history of SLE was admitted to the hospital due to lupus nephritis and acute arthritis...
October 17, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042939/aphasic-status-epilepticus-as-the-sole-symptom-of-epilepsy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Ji-Qing Qiu, Yu Cui, Li-Chao Sun, Zhan-Peng Zhu
Aphasia is a common symptom encountered by neurologists. However, the presence of aphasia as the sole manifestation of partial status epilepticus is rare. The present study reports a case of aphasic status epilepticus in a 27-year-old right-handed female who presented after the abrupt onset of aphasia, which had persisted for 1.5 days. The patient's medical history included head trauma followed by a craniectomy and cranioplasty. Computed tomography scans revealed a lesion in the patient's left parietal lobe, and an electroencephalogram showed a spike and slow wave pattern in the left hemisphere of the brain during aphasia...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042874/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-is-increased-in-pediatric-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#4
Dian Pratamastuti, Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Darto Saharso
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was expressed in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) that causes neuronal damage in children. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the pediatric neurology ward of Soetomo Hospital. Cases of AES with ages ranging from 1 month to 12 years were included. Cases that were categorized as simple and complex febrile seizures constituted the non-AES group. Blood was collected for the measurement of NSE within 24 hours of hemodynamic stabilization...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042001/recovery-from-vegetative-state-of-patients-with-a-severe-brain-injury-a-4-year-real-practice-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Alessio Baricich, A de Sire, E Antoniono, F Gozzerino, G Lamberti, C Cisari, M Invernizzi
Patients who have suffered severe traumatic or nontraumatic brain injuries can show a progressive recovery, transitioning through a range of clinical conditions. They may progress from coma to a vegetative state (VS) and/or a minimally conscious state (MCS). A longer duration of the VS is known to be related to a lower probability of emergence from it; furthermore, the literature seems to lack evidence of late improvements in these patients. This real-practice prospective cohort study was conducted in inpatients in a VS following a severe brain injury, consecutively admitted to a vegetative state unit (VSU)...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037936/super-refractory-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-due-to-self-poisoning-with-metaldehyde
#6
José L Fernández-Torre, Alicia Paramio-Paz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Borregán, Pedro Orizaola, Pilar Bosque-Varela, Miguel A Hernández-Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Metaldehyde self-poisoning in adults is uncommon and, to the best of our knowledge, an episode of super-refractory nonconvulsive status epilepticus (sr-NCSE) following an suicide attempt has not been previously demonstrated. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in coma. On neurologic examination, the pupils were reactive, brainstem reflexes were present and plantar responses were flexor bilaterally. Routine laboratory tests were unremarkable...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034166/post-lobotomy-epilepsy-illustrated-by-the-story-of-ellinor-hamsun-the-daughter-of-the-famous-norwegian-author-knut-hamsun
#7
Mia Tuft, Karl O Nakken
In Scandinavia, at least 11.500 people were lobotomized in the period 1939-1983. Beside grave personality changes, the surgery caused epilepsy in 10-35% of the patients. Moreover, many died due to perioperative bleedings, convulsive status epilepticus or SUDEP. Most of the stories of these people are anonymous and their post-lobotomy lives are scarcely documented. If it was not for the fact that Ellinor Hamsun (1916-1987) was the daughter of the famous Nobel Prize winning Norwegian author Knut Hamsun, her lobotomy story and the subsequent iatrogenic epilepsy would probably have remained unknown...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034137/valproic-induced-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-in-a-known-case-of-epilepsy
#8
Syed F Imam, Omair Ul Haq Lodhi, Rizwan Zafar, Saneeya Nasim, Waseem T Malik
Valproic acid, a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant drug, commonly causes elevated ammonia levels, which is usually asymptomatic in most cases. On rare occasions, potentially fatal hyperammonemia-induced encephalopathy can occur. We present a case of a 24-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with status epilepticus that was being managed with valproic acid. Further workup was done because of prolonged postictal state, which revealed increased ammonia levels; she was eventually diagnosed with valproic-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy...
August 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033730/intentional-intra-arterial-injection-of-midazolam-in-a-patient-with-status-epilepticus-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Muhammad Yahya
Fundamental medical care includes intravenous (IV) access which provides prompt resuscitation and reliable delivery of analgesics, antibiotics, and vasoactive medication. Difficult access populations, especially in critical area, continue to challenge providers to consider and utilize alternative means to provide IV access. Potential options under such circumstances include intramuscular, intraosseous, and intratracheal drug administration, but in extreme cases where no other options are available, intra-arterial route might be considered...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026836/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-that-aggravates-after-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia-a-case-report
#10
Cheng C Wang, Da J Li, Yi Q Xia, Kai Liu
We report an atypical case of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE). A 27-year-old man diagnosed with ANMDARE received immunotherapy and had a good recovery. However, within one month, he developed severe status epilepticus and decreased level of conscience with new hyperpyrexia and dyspnea, and was admitted to the emergency intensive care unit. Acinetobacter baumanii were found in the sputum culture; and anti-NMDAR antibodies were positive (titer: 1/80) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Repeated immunotherapy was administered with antibacterial agents, and the patient recovered except for mild psychiatric sequelae...
September 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024678/suppression-of-nucleocytoplasmic-p27-kip1-export-attenuates-cdk4-mediated-neuronal-death-induced-by-status-epilepticus
#11
Ji-Eun Kim, Tae-Cheon Kang
Aberrant cell cycle re-entry promotes neuronal death in various neurological diseases. Thus, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) seem to be one of potential therapeutic targets to prevent neuronal loss. In the present study, we investigated the involvements of CDK4, CDK5 and p27(Kip1) (an endogenous CDK inhibitor) in status epilepticus (SE)-induced neuronal death. Following SE, CDK4 expression was increased in CA1 neurons, while CDK5 was decreased. Most of TUNEL-positive neurons showed CDK4 expression, but less CDK5 expression...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023170/ampa-receptors-and-perampanel-behind-selected-epilepsies-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#12
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Angelo Labate, Marta Maschio, Stefano Meletti, Emilio Russo
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the major mediators of glutamate-mediated excitatory neurotransmission, and are critical for synchronization and spread of epileptic activity. Areas covered: AMPA receptor antagonists have been also developed as antiepileptic drugs and perampanel (PER) is the first highly selective, non-competitive AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist that is available on the market. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in patients aged ≥ 12 years...
October 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018404/socioeconomic-outcome-and-quality-of-life-in-adults-after-status-epilepticus-a-multicenter-longitudinal-matched-case-control-analysis-from-germany
#13
Lena-Marie Kortland, Susanne Knake, Felix von Podewils, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data concerning socioeconomic outcome and quality of life (QoL) in patients after status epilepticus (SE) in Germany. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients treated between 2011 and 2015 due to SE at the university hospitals in Frankfurt, Greifswald, and Marburg were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding long-term outcome of at least 3 months after discharge. The SE cohort consisted of 25.9% patients with an acute symptomatic, 42% with a remote symptomatic and previous epilepsy, 22...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018345/involvement-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-ep-80317-a-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist
#14
Chiara Lucchi, Anna M Costa, Carmela Giordano, Giulia Curia, Marika Piat, Giuseppina Leo, Jonathan Vinet, Luc Brunel, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Antonio Torsello, Giuseppe Biagini
Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and other related peptides possess anticonvulsant activities. Although ghrelin and cognate peptides were shown to physiologically regulate only the ghrelin receptor, some of them were pharmacologically proved to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) through stimulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 in macrophages. In our study, we challenged the hypothesis that PPARγ could be involved in the anticonvulsant effects of EP-80317, a ghrelin receptor antagonist...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017081/safety-of-intravenous-lacosamide-in-critically-ill-children
#15
Sarah S Welsh, Nan Lin, Alexis A Topjian, Nicholas S Abend
PURPOSE: Acute seizures are common in critically ill children. These patients would benefit from intravenous anti-seizure medications with few adverse effects. We reviewed the usage and effects of intravenous lacosamide in critically ill children with seizures or status epilepticus. METHODS: This retrospective series included consecutive patients who received at least one dose of intravenous lacosamide from April 2011 to February 2016 in the pediatric intensive care unit of a quaternary care children's hospital, including patients with new lacosamide initiation and continuation of outpatient oral lacosamide...
October 3, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989142/-expression-and-spatial-distribution-of-p2x7-receptor-in-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rat-hippocampus
#16
Xiangchang Zeng, Lulu Chen, Luping Zhou, Wei Luo, Kai Hu, Dongsheng Ouyang
To investigate the dynamic expression and spatial distribution of P2X7 receptor in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rat hippocampus.
 Methods: Status epilepticus (SE) model of rats was established by intraperitoneal injection with chloride lithium and pilocarpine. Rat brain tissue and hippocampus were collected at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days after SE. The protein expression of P2X7 receptor in rat hippocampus was detected by Western blot. The distribution of P2X7 receptor in hippocampal sub-region was analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
September 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987845/recurrent-cerebral-hemorrhages-in-normal-pregnancy-secondary-to-mycotic-pseudoaneurysms-related-to-choriocarcinoma
#17
Crystal Jing Jing Yeo, Gavin W Britz, Suzanne Z Powell, R Glenn Smith, Yi J Zhang
BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma coexisting with or after normal pregnancy is extremely rare. To our knowledge, our case report is the first time cerebral mycotic pseudoaneurysms from choriocarcinoma have been proven angiographically. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-week pregnant 26-year old woman presented with an acute left frontal hemorrhage. She underwent emergency Caesarian, followed by hematoma evacuation and resection of what grossly appeared to be a medium-sized arteriovenous malformation at the time of surgery...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987270/involvement-of-nitrergic-system-in-anticonvulsant-effect-of-zolpidem-in-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-evaluation-of-inos-and-cox-2-genes-expression
#18
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Maryam Ghasemi, Taraneh Bahremand, Majid Momeny, Mahdi Gholami, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
This study aims to investigate the role of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and probable mechanisms involved in seizure threshold alteration. In the present study, lithium chloride (127mg/kg) was administered 20h prior to pilocarpine (60mg/kg) to induce SE in adult male Wistar rats. Different doses of zolpidem (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10mg/kg) were injected 30min before pilocarpine administration. Furthermore, to find out whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the observed effect, L-arginine and L-NAME were injected 15min before zolpidem...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983622/novel-insights-into-the-effect-of-paroxetine-administration-in-pilocarpine%C3%A2-induced-chronic-epileptic-rats
#19
Wan-Hui Lin, Xiao-Feng Li, Ming-Xing Lin, Ying Zhou, Hua-Pin Huang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of paroxetine intervention in epilepsy, and its association with the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) and hippocampal apoptosis. Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control vehicle (n=6) and epileptic (n=24) groups. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced via systemic injection of pilocarpine, and seizure activity was monitored via video electroencephalogram. The epileptic group was then randomly divided into two groups; Four weeks following SE induction, paroxetine (5 mg/kg/day; SE + paroxetine group) or normal saline (SE group) was intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks...
September 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982711/sudden-death-after-febrile-seizure-case-report-cerebral-suppression-precedes-severe-bradycardia
#20
Kenneth A Myers, Robyn E McPherson, Robin Clegg, Jeffrey Buchhalter
A 20-month-old girl with a complex chromosomal disorder had first presentation of febrile status epilepticus and was admitted to the hospital. Two days after her initial seizure, she died suddenly and unexpectedly during a video EEG monitoring study. An advanced analysis of the physiologic changes in the hours and minutes leading up to death was undertaken. The electrocardiography over the last 19 minutes of life was reviewed, and the R-R intervals were manually measured. Heart rate variability was assessed through calculation of the SD of the R-R intervals and the root mean square of successive differences over successive 100 beat periods...
October 5, 2017: Pediatrics
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