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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443785/can-endotracheal-intubation-be-the-first-step-in-management-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#1
Saad Warraich, Abbas Ali, Atif Nizami, Moiz Bakhiet
RATIONALE: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is prolonged seizure activity without motor manifestations. Clinically, there are certain examination findings, in addition to elements of history, that help differentiate it from other encephalopathies. When diagnosing NCSE, the physician faces significant difficulties due to inconsistent clinical presentation and somewhat nonspecific electroencephalogram (EEG) criteria. PATIENT CONCERNS: To highlight the problems faced when dealing with such a patient, a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with an altered state of consciousness is put forth for the reader...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442558/progression-of-convulsive-and-nonconvulsive-seizures-during-epileptogenesis-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#2
Zachariah Z Smith, Alexander M Benison, Florencia M Bercum, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Although convulsive seizures occurring during pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis have received considerable attention, nonconvulsive seizures have not been closely examined, even though they may reflect the earliest signs of epileptogenesis and potentially guide research on antiepileptogenic interventions. The definition of nonconvulsive seizures based on brain electrical activity alone has been controversial. Here, we define and quantify electrographic properties of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures in the context of the acquired epileptogenesis that occurs after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438777/the-differential-roles-of-pea15-phosphorylations-in-reactive-astrogliosis-and-astroglial-apoptosis-following-status-epilepticus
#3
Jin-Young Park, Tae-Cheon Kang
Up to this day, the roles of PEA15 expression and its phosphorylation in seizure-related events have not been still unclear. In the present study, we found that PEA15 was distinctly phosphorylated in reactive astrocytes and apoptotic astrocytes in the rat hippocampus following LiCl-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity). PEA15-serine (S) 104 phosphorylation was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes following SE, although PEA15 expression and its S116 phosphorylation were unaltered...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#4
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430560/epilepsy-is-associated-with-ventricular-alterations-following-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#5
Wail Ali, Beth A Bubolz, Linh Nguyen, Danny Castro, Jorge Coss-Bu, Michael M Quach, Curtis E Kennedy, Anne E Anderson, Yi-Chen Lai
Objective: Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. Methods: We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428899/efficacy-of-lacosamide-in-children-and-adolescents-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy-and-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Johann Sebastián Ortiz de la Rosa, Lady Diana Ladino, Paula Juliana Rodríguez, María Camila Rueda, Juan Pablo Polanía, Angie Catalina Castañeda
PURPOSE: Lacosamide, is one of the newer antiepileptic drug approved for focal drug-resistant epilepsy as an add-on treatment in patients older than 16 years. However, there is growing evidence of its use, safety and efficacy in children. We aim to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide in focal and generalized drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus in the pediatric population. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, Google Scholar and Scielo from January 2008 to January 2017...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427088/effect-of-resveratrol-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-immature-brain-during-epileptogenesis
#7
Jaroslava Folbergrová, Pavel Ješina, Hana Kubová, Jakub Otáhal
The presence of oxidative stress in immature brain has been demonstrated during the acute phase of status epilepticus (SE). The knowledge regarding the long periods of survival after SE is not unequivocal, lacking direct evidence. To examine the presence and time profile of oxidative stress, its functional effect on mitochondria and the influence of an antioxidant treatment in immature rats during epileptogenesis, status epilepticus (SE) was induced in immature 12-day-old rats by Li-pilocarpine and at selected periods of the epileptogenesis; rat pups were subjected to examinations...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425964/alterations-of-l-type-voltage-dependent-calcium-channel-alpha-1-subunit-in-the-hippocampal-ca3-region-during-and-after-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy
#8
Jie Hua Xu, Hui Wang, Wen Zhang, Feng Ru Tang
Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been shown to regulate neuronal excitability and their antagonists have been used clinically for the control of seizures. While functional studies of VDCC in epileptogenesis in the CA1 area of hippocampus or the dentate gyrus have been done, few studies were carried out in the CA3 area. Given the bursting characteristics of the CA3 neurons, we speculated that VDCC in the CA3 area might play an important role in the epileptogenesis. In the present study in the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we investigated the alterations of alpha 1 subunits of L-type VDCC in the CA3 area of the hippocampus at different stages of epileptogenesis, i...
February 7, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422735/successful-use-of-ketamine-for-burst-suppression-in-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-following-substance-abuse
#9
Dnyaneshwar P Mutkule, S Manimala Rao, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Kunche Rajasri
Status epilepticus is frequently encountered in neuro Intensive Care Units. It is a medical emergency and if not treated promptly can lead to severe brain damage and even death. Here, we present the case of a 18-year-old male with uncontrolled and unrelenting seizures with a rare etiology requiring ketamine infusion for burst suppression as it was resistant to thiopentone and midazolam infusions. The management of this case is presented in detail.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422395/diurnal-occurrence-of-complex-febrile-seizure-and-their-severity-in-pediatric-patients-needing-hospitalization
#10
Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Hiroaki Nagase, Yusuke Ishida, Daisaku Toyoshima, Azusa Maruyama, Kazumi Tomioka, Tsukasa Tanaka, Masahiro Nishiyama, Kyoko Fujita, Taniguchi-Ikeda Mariko, Kandai Nozu, Ichiro Morioka, Noriyuki Nishimura, Hiroshi Kurosawa, Satoshi Takada, Yoshiyuki Uetani, Kazumoto Iijima
Several studies describing the diurnal occurrence of febrile seizures have reported greater seizure frequency early or late in the evening relative to midnight or early morning. However, no articles have reported on the diurnal occurrence of complex febrile seizure. Moreover, no studies have addressed the relationship between seizure severity and diurnal occurrence. We retrospectively evaluated complex febrile seizures in 462 children needing hospitalization, and investigated the relationship between severity and diurnal occurrence according to four categorized time periods (morning, afternoon, evening, and night)...
February 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417304/systemic-complications-following-status-epilepticus
#11
REVIEW
Maximiliano A Hawkes, Sara E Hocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus (SE) is a multisystem disorder. Initially, complications of a massive catecholamine release followed by the side effects of medical therapies, impact patients' outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide an updated summary of the systemic complications following SE. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the importance of the multifaceted nature of SE and its relationship with clinical outcomes has been increasingly recognized...
February 7, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414595/safety-and-efficiency-of-medication-withdrawal-at-home-prior-to-long-term-eeg-video-monitoring
#12
Renate van Griethuysen, Wytske A Hofstra, Sandra M A van der Salm, Mireille D Bourez-Swart, Al W de Weerd
PURPOSE: Long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM) is frequently used for diagnostic purposes and in the workup of epilepsy surgery to determine the seizure onset zone. Different strategies are applied to provoke seizures during LTM, of which withdrawal of anti-epileptic drugs (AED) is most effective. Remarkably, there is no standardized manner of AED withdrawal. For instance, the majority of clinics taper medication during clinical admission, whereas we prefer to taper medication at home prior to admission...
January 31, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414555/specificity-of-electroclinical-features-in-the-diagnosis-of-ring-chromosome-20
#13
A B Gago-Veiga, R Toledano, I García-Morales, M A Pérez-Jiménez, J Bernar, A Gil-Nagel
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 20 (R20) syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized mainly by drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and typical EEG features. The aim of this study was to investigate if this triad is common and specific to all patients with R20. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (from 2000 to 2011), we selected patients who fulfilled at least two out of three criteria: drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent NCSE, and characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414550/clinical-aspects-neuroimaging-and-electroencephalography-of-35-cases-of-hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-syndrome
#14
Mohamed Albakaye, Halima Belaïdi, Fatiha Lahjouji, Leila Errguig, Callixte Kuate, Youssoufa Maiga, Seybou Hassane Diallo, Najib Kissani, Reda Ouazzani
INTRODUCTION: The hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a rare consequence of febrile seizures during childhood. It is characterized by the presence of prolonged unilateral clonic seizures occurring during febrile illness in a child less than 4years of age. Then, a flaccid unilateral hemiplegia with variable duration occurs. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging treatment and outcome of series of cases of HHE syndrome followed for 10years in our clinical neurophysiology department of the specialty hospital of Rabat...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414381/dexmedetomidine-stops-benzodiazepine-refractory-nerve-agent-induced-status-epilepticus
#15
Hilary S McCarren, Julia A Arbutus, Cherish Ardinger, Emily N Dunn, Cecelia E Jackson, John H McDonough
Nerve agents are highly toxic chemicals that pose an imminent threat to soldiers and civilians alike. Nerve agent exposure leads to an increase in acetylcholine within the central nervous system, resulting in development of protracted seizures known as status epilepticus (SE). Currently, benzodiazepines are the standard of care for nerve agent-induced SE, but their efficacy quickly wanes as the time to treatment increases. Here, we examine the role of the α2-adrenoceptor in termination of nerve agent-induced SE using the highly specific agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX)...
January 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414137/the-effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulator-in-controlling-status-epilepticus-in-children
#16
Satyanarayana Gedela, Bilal Sitwat, William P Welch, Robert T Krafty, Yoshimi Sogawa
PURPOSE: This study explores the effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) on Status Epilepticus (SE) in children with medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: Retrospective review was conducted in children with a history of at least two SE, who had VNS implantation and had at least one year follow up after the procedure. RESULTS: Sixteen patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The median age of seizure onset and surgery was 1.3 years and 9...
January 23, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412538/avoiding-errors-when-administering-injectable-phenytoin-to-a-child-in-status-epilepticus
#17
Callum Douglass
Errors often occur in the prescribing, preparing, administering and monitoring of intravenous phenytoin ( NHS Improvement 2016 ). Following two fatal incidents involving injectable phenytoin, with contributing factors such as wrong weight estimation, a disregard for existing phenytoin prescriptions and confusion about the final concentration, an alert was issued by NHS Improvement in 2016. This article explores research into the use of injectable phenytoin and why adverse events occur when it is used. The article will inform nurses and doctors who work with children in acute settings about the risks associated with using injectable phenytoin and implications for practice on how to negate these risks...
February 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411537/developmental-and-sex-differences-in-tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-tmdt-induced-syndrome-in-rats
#18
Marcela Lauková, Jana Velíšková, Libor Velíšek, Michael P Shakarjian
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a synthetic neurotoxic rodenticide considered a chemical threat agent. Symptoms of intoxication include seizures leading to status epilepticus and death. While children and women have been often the victims, no studies exist investigating the neurotoxic effects of TMDT in developing individuals or females. Thus, we performed such an investigation in developing Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes in order to identify potential age- or sex-dependent vulnerability to TMDT exposure...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410648/status-epilepticus-behavioral-and-electroencephalography-seizure-correlates-in-kainate-experimental-models
#19
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Achala Thippeswamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Various etiological factors, such as head injury, chemical intoxication, tumors, and gene mutation, can induce epileptogenesis. In animal models, status epilepticus (SE) triggers epileptogenesis. In humans, convulsive SE for >30 min can be a life-threatening medical emergency. The duration and severity of convulsive SE are highly variable in chemoconvulsant animal models. A continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording, and/or diligent direct observation, facilitates quantification of exact duration of different stages of convulsive seizures (Racine stages 3-5) to determine the severity of SE...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409776/the-validation-of-simplified-eeg-derived-from-the-bispectral-index-monitor-in-post-cardiac-arrest-patients
#20
Jolien Haesen, Ward Eertmans, Cornelia Genbrugge, Ingrid Meex, Jelle Demeestere, Margot Vander Laenen, Willem Boer, Dieter Mesotten, Jo Dens, Frank Jans, Ludovic Ernon, Cathy De Deyne
AIMS: We aimed to validate retrospectively the accuracy of simplified electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring derived from the bispectral index (BIS) monitor in post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients. METHODS: Successfully resuscitated CA patients were transferred to the Catherization Lab followed by percutaneous coronary intervention when indicated. On arrival at the coronary care unit, bilateral BIS monitoring was started and continued up to 72 h. Raw simplified EEG tracings were extracted from the BIS monitor at a time point coinciding with the registration of standard EEG monitoring...
February 1, 2018: Resuscitation
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