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# cool

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#1
Seline Glorieux, Liselot Steen, Jos De Brabanter, Imogen Foubert, Ilse Fraeye
The aim of this research was to simultaneously study the effect of meat type (chicken breast and leg meat), animal fatty acid composition (selected pork backfats having a low and high degree of saturation, respectively), and isothermal temperature (50, 60, 70, and 80 °C) on the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during and after application of different time-temperature profiles. Gelation of meat proteins contributed most to the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during heating, whereas crystallization of the lipids especially contributed to the viscoelastic properties during the cooling phase...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
#2
A Ramm, N Sakib, A Bhasin, M C Downer
We use near-infrared dark-field optical microscopy to probe isothermal time variation of the volume fraction of naturally-occurring, subsurface microstructures in PG 64-22 asphalt binders at temperature T=30∘C, following a rapid heating (cooling) increment |ΔT|=20∘C from initial temperature T0=10∘C(50∘C). We compare these microstructure variations with isothermal time variations of the magnitude |G30∗(t)| of the bulk complex shear modulus measured for identical sample conditions with a Dynamic Shear Rheometer...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
#3
Yanpei Tian, Alok Ghanekar, Matt Ricci, Mikhail Hyde, Otto Gregory, Yi Zheng
Radiative thermal transport of metamaterials has begun to play a significant role in thermal science and has great engineering applications. When the key features of structures become comparable to the thermal wavelength at a particular temperature, a narrowband or wideband of wavelengths can be created or shifted in both the emission and reflection spectrum of nanoscale metamaterials. Due to the near-field effect, the phenomena of radiative wavelength selectivity become significant. These effects show strong promise for applications in thermophotovoltaic energy harvesting, nanoscale biosensing, and increased energy efficiency through radiative cooling in the near future...
May 22, 2018: Materials
#4
REVIEW
Gottfried Schmalz, Reinhard Hickel, Kirsten L van Landuyt, Franz-Xaver Reichl
Nanoparticles having a size from 1 to 100 nm are present in nature and are successfully used in many products of daily life. In dental materials, nanoparticles are typically embedded but they may also exist as by-products from milling processes. Possible adverse effects of nanoparticles have gained increased interest, with the lungs being the main target organ. Exposure to nanoparticles in the dental laboratory is addressed by legal regulations. In dental practice, nanoparticles are mainly produced by intra-oral grinding/polishing and removal of materials, by wear of restorations or release from dental implants...
May 22, 2018: International Dental Journal
#5
Alexandre De Neef, Cédric Samuel, Grégory Stoclet, Mohamed Rguiti, Christian Courtois, Philippe Dubois, Jérémie Soulestin, Jean-Marie Raquez
Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) displays attractive ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and its polar β-crystals are specifically targeted for achieving electroactive applications. However, their direct crystallization from the melt state represents a challenging task that has never been addressed using melt-state processes. The use of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is herein investigated to promote the PVDF polar β-phase using melt-blending and extrusion-calendering technologies. The presence of the β-phase is here confirmed by ATR-FTIR and WAXS experiments with blends at a PMMA content as low as 5 wt%...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
#6
Ken-Ichi Uchida, Shunsuke Daimon, Ryo Iguchi, Eiji Saitoh
The Peltier effect, discovered in 1834, converts a charge current into a heat current in a conductor, and its performance is described by the Peltier coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of the generated heat current to the applied charge current1,2 . To exploit the Peltier effect for thermoelectric cooling or heating, junctions of two conductors with different Peltier coefficients have been believed to be indispensable. Here we challenge this conventional wisdom by demonstrating Peltier cooling and heating in a single material without junctions...
May 21, 2018: Nature
#7
Rick Bartlett, Maya Elrick, James R Wheeley, Victor Polyak, André Desrochers, Yemane Asmerom
Widespread marine anoxia is hypothesized as the trigger for the second pulse of the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) mass extinction based on lithologic and geochemical proxies that record local bottom waters or porewaters. We test the anoxia hypothesis using δ238 U values of marine limestones as a global seawater redox proxy. The δ238 U trends at Anticosti Island, Canada, document an abrupt late Hirnantian ∼0.3‰ negative shift continuing through the early Silurian indicating more reducing seawater conditions...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#8
Theodoric A Mattes, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
Alpha-ribazole (α-R) is a unique riboside found in the nucleotide loop of coenzyme B12 (CoB12 ). α-R is not an intermediate of the de novo biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme B12 , but some bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes have evolved a two-protein system (transporter, kinase) that scavenges α-R from the environment and converts it to the pathway intermediate α-RP. Since α-R is not commercially available, one must either synthesize α-R, or isolate it from hydrolysates of vitamin B12 (cyano-B12 , CNB12 ), so the function of the above-mentioned proteins can be studied...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
#9
REVIEW
H Gurruchaga, L Saenz Del Burgo, R M Hernandez, G Orive, C Selden, B Fuller, J Ciriza, J L Pedraz
Over the past few decades, the use of cell microencapsulation technology has been promoted for a wide range of applications as sustained drug delivery systems or as cells containing biosystems for regenerative medicine. However, difficulty in their preservation and storage has limited their availability to healthcare centers. Because the preservation in cryogenic temperatures poses many biological and biophysical challenges and that the technology has not been well understood, the slow cooling cryopreservation, which is the most used technique worldwide, has not given full measure of its full potential application yet...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
#10
Muthulakshmi Thangswamy, Priya Maheshwari, Dhanadeep Dutta, Vinayak G Rane, Pradeep Kumar Pujari
Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidences. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly-frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, upto the eutectic point...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
#11
Jacek Dygut, Monika Piwowar, Kinga Fijałkowska, Ibeth Guevara, Robert Jakubas, Gustaw Gonzales, Krzysztof Popławski, Anna Strokowska, Hanna Wikariak, Wiktor Jurkowski
OBJECTIVES: The study investigates measurable effects of cabbage leaf wraps on post-traumatic knee injury exudate absorption in men. DESIGN: Case-control experiment on the same group of patients (before and after treatment). SETTINGS/LOCATION: One academic center and two hospitals. SUBJECTS: The study was carried out on a group of patients with different degrees of injury severity in the acute stage of the knee injury who were divided into three groups based on the width of suprapatellar recess gap (3-5 mm in group 1, 6-10 mm in group 2, and 11 mm or more in group 3) as assessed by ultrasonography...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
#12
Kun-Lun Cheng, Wen-Li Yuan, Ling He, Ning Tang, Hong-Mei Jian, Ying Zhao, Song Qin, Guo-Hong Tao
Multistimuli responsive soft materials are urgently needed in many different fields, such as anticounterfeiting technology and microdroplet manipulation. Herein, the straightforward preparation of fluorescigenic magnetofluids by the introduction of the paramagnetic metal ions Gd3+ , Tb3+ , and Dy3+ into alkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) is reported. Bright visible fluorescence was observed under UV irradiation for Tb- and Dy-containing ILs. Either pure samples or papers coated with these ILs exhibited pronounced magnetic responses...
May 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
#13
Laurens van Gelderen, Grunde Jomaas
A new method for the simultaneous study of the flammability and burning efficiency of fresh and weathered crude oil through two experimental laboratory setups is presented. The experiments are easily repeatable compared to operational scale experiments (pool diameter ≥2 m), while still featuring quite realistic in situ burning conditions of crude oil on water. Experimental conditions include a flowing water sub-layer that cools the oil slick and an external heat flux (up to 50 kW/m2 ) that simulates the higher heat feedback to the fuel surface in operational scale crude oil pool fires...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
#14
A theory of hot electron cooling power due to polar optical phonons $P_{\rm op}$ is developed in&#13; three-dimensional Dirac semimetal($3$DDS) Cd$_3$As$_2$ taking account of hot phonon effect. Hot phonon&#13; distribution $N_q$ and $P_{\rm op}$ are investigated as a function of electron temperature $T_e$,&#13; electron density $n_e$, and phonon relaxation time $\tau_p$. It is found that $P_{\rm op}$ increases&#13; rapidly (slowly) with $T_e$ at lower (higher) temperature regime.&#13; Whereas, $P_{\rm op}$ is weakly decreasing with increasing $n_e$...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
#15
Thomas Klammsteiner, Heribert Insam, Maraike Probst
Cooling and lubrication agents like triethanolamine (TEA) are essential for many purposes in industry. Due to biodegradation, they need continuous replacement, and byproducts of degradation may be toxic. This study investigates an industrial (1,200 m³) cooling-lubrication circuit (CLC) that has been in operation for 20 years and is supposedly in an ecological equilibrium, thus offering a unique habitat. Next-generation (Illumina Miseq 16S rRNA amplicon) sequencing was used to profile the CLC-based microbiota and relate it to TEA and bicine dynamics at the sampling sites, influent, machine rooms, biofilms and effluent...
May 21, 2018: Biofouling
#16
Hong Ming, Shuifu Liu, Lili Liu, Jiaqing Peng, Junxiang Fu, Fu Du, Xinyu Ye
A new generation of red phosphors of complex fluoride matrices activated with Mn4+ , has gained a broad interest in getting high color rendering index (CRI), low correlated color temperature (CCT) of white light-emitting diodes(WLEDs). However, besides their instability towards moisture, the extremely irregular and nonuniform morphologies of these phosphors have limited their practical industry applications. In the present study, a novel type of K3 ScF6 :Mn4+ red phosphor with highly regular, uniform and high color purity was synthesized successfully via a facile two-step co-precipitation method under mild conditions...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
#17
Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Many features of the development of reptiles are affected by temperature, but very little is known about how incubation temperature affects gene expression. Here, we provide a detailed case study of gene expression profiles in common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) embryos developing at stressfully low (15°C) versus benign (24°C) temperature. For maximum comparability between the two temperature regimes, we selected a precise developmental stage early in embryogenesis defined by the number of somites. We used a split-clutch design and lizards from four different populations to evaluate the robustness of temperature-responsive gene expression profiles...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
#18
A Park Williams, Benjamin I Cook, Jason E Smerdon, Daniel A Bishop, Richard Seager, Justin S Mankin
The fall 2016 drought in the southeastern United States (SE US) appeared exceptional based on its widespread impacts, but the current monitoring framework that only extends from 1979-present does not readily facilitate evaluation of soil-moisture anomalies in a centennial context. A new method to extend monthly gridded soil-moisture estimates back to 1895 is developed, indicating that since 1895, October-November 2016 soil moisture (0-200 cm) in the SE US was likely the second lowest on record, behind 1954...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
#19
Julia König, Marco Alexandre Guerreiro, Derek Peršoh, Dominik Begerow, Jochen Krauss
Epichloë endophytes associated with cool-season grass species can protect their hosts from herbivory and can suppress mycorrhizal colonization of the hosts' roots. However, little is known about whether or not Epichloë endophyte infection can also change the foliar fungal assemblages of the host. We tested 52 grassland study sites along a land-use intensity gradient in three study regions over two seasons (spring vs. summer) to determine whether Epichloë infection of the host grass Lolium perenne changes the fungal community structure in leaves...
2018: PeerJ
#20
Tobias M Gasser, Alexander V Thoeny, Lucie J Plaga, Karsten W Köster, Martin Etter, Roland Böhmer, Thomas Loerting
In the last twelve years five new ice phases were experimentally prepared. Two of them are empty clathrate hydrates and three of them represent hydrogen ordered counterparts of previously known disordered ice phases. Here, we report on hydrogen ordering in ice VI samples produced by cooling at pressures up to 2.00 GPa. Based on results from calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction the existence of a second hydrogen ordered polymorph related to ice VI is suggested...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
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