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birth asphyxia

Dipak K Mitra, Luke C Mullany, Meagan Harrison, Ishtiaq Mannan, Rashed Shah, Nazma Begum, Mamun Ibne Moin, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Infections cause about one fifth of the estimated 2.7 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide. Population-based data on burden and risk factors of neonatal infections are lacking in developing countries, which are required for the appropriate design of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We used data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial conducted to evaluate the impact of two umbilical cord cleansing regimens with chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and morbidity in a rural area of Sylhet District in Bangladesh...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Daigo Ochiai, Hirotaka Masuda, Yushi Abe, Toshimitsu Otani, Marie Fukutake, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kei Miyakoshi, Mamoru Tanaka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated great interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and immunotherapy because of their unique biological properties. Among MSCs, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS) have a number of characteristics that make them attractive candidates for tissue engineering and cell replacement strategies, particularly for perinatal medicine. If various neonatal conditions, including birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and congenital abnormalities, which result in long-lasting severe impairments, could be predicted during pregnancy, it would allow collection of small samples of amniotic fluid cells by amniocentesis...
March 6, 2018: Keio Journal of Medicine
Augustine Massawe, Hussein L Kidanto, Robert Moshiro, Edna Majaliwa, Flora Chacha, Aisa Shayo, Paschal Mdoe, Prisca Ringia, Mary Azayo, Georgina Msemo, Estomih Mduma, Hege L Ersdal, Jeffrey M Perlman
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonatal mortality (NM) has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Major causes of mortality include birth asphyxia, respiratory insufficiency and infections. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have been shown to significantly reduce mortality in developed countries. There is inconsistent use of ACS in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether implementation of a care bundle that includes ACS, maternal antibiotics (MA), neonatal antibiotics (NA) and avoidance of moderate hypothermia (temperature < 36°C) targeting infants of estimated gestational age (EGA) 28 to 34 6/7 weeks would reduce NM (< 7 days) by 35%...
2018: PloS One
Helen Campbell, Oya Eddama, Denis Azzopardi, A David Edwards, Brenda Strohm, Oliver Rivero-Arias
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of hypothermic neural rescue at birth on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in middle childhood. DESIGN: Six-year to 7-year follow-up of surviving children from the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy (TOBY) Trial. SETTING: Community study including a single parental questionnaire to collect information on children's HRQL. PATIENTS: 145 children (70 in the control group, 75 in the hypothermia group) whose parents consented and returned the questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Renato S Procianoy, Andrea Lucia A Corso, Maria Gabriela Longo, Leonardo Vedolin, Rita C Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To determine the neurodevelopment outcomes after Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and identify the neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings associated with neurological outcome in a middle-income country. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born after 35 completed weeks' gestation with signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and evidence of perinatal asphyxia before 6 hours of life were submitted to whole-body hypothermia and were imaged at 18 ± 8...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nariae Baik, Megan O'Reilly, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung, Georg M Schmölzer
Approximately, 10-20% of newborns require breathing assistance at birth, which remains the cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation. Fortunately, the need for chest compression (CC) or medications in the delivery room (DR) is rare. About 0.1% of term infants and up to 15% of preterm infants receive these interventions, this will result in approximately one million newborn deaths annually worldwide. In addition, CC or medications (epinephrine) are more frequent in the preterm population (~15%) due to birth asphyxia...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ingrid Frid, Johan Ågren, Mattias Kjellberg, Erik Normann, Richard Sindelar
AIM: This study evaluated the medical quality of acute airborne transports carried out by a neonatal emergency transport service in a Swedish healthcare region from 2012-2015. METHODS: The transport charts and patient records of all infants transported to the regional centre were reviewed for transport indications and vital parameters and outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 187 acute airborne transports and the main indications for referral were therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia, extremely preterm birth and respiratory failure...
February 26, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe, Torbjørn Nedrebø, Jan Kristian Damås, Helge Wiig, Ansgar Berg
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective in asphyxiated neonates by counteracting mechanisms contributing to brain injury. Although an initial increased permeability is part of an inflammatory reaction and thereby a natural healing process, an excessive endothelial permeability with edema formation may result in impaired hemodynamics. Reduced permeability may, however, benefit healing. Although plasma and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure are accessible and essential parameters for understanding fluid imbalance, the mechanisms of fluid exchange remain poorly understood...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
James D S Aridas, Tamara Yawno, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Michael Ditchfield, Flora Y Wong, Rod W Hunt, Michael C Fahey, Atul Malhotra, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long term neurological morbidity, particularly in low resource countries. No neuroprotective interventions are currently available. Melatonin (MLT), a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent offers promise as an intravenous (IV) or transdermal therapy to protect the brain. We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
M N Islam, T Tazmin, M Siddika, M A Hossain, M A Ali, M K Bhuiyan
Multiple pregnancies are a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity due to inherent biological risks. The present study was aimed to determine the risk factors and to evaluate the immediate neonatal outcome of multiple pregnancies. This descriptive observational study was conducted in the newly established Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU) of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Bangladesh from January 2015 to March 2015. Total 86 newborns of multiple pregnancies who were admitted during the study period were included in the study...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
R C Pattinson, V Vannevel, D Barnard, S Baloyi, G S Gebhardt, K Le Roux, N Moran, J Moodley
The need to perform assisted vaginal delivery (AVD) has been regarded as self-evident. In high-income countries, rates of AVD range between 5% and 20% of all births. In South Africa, the rate of AVD is only 1%. This has resulted in increased neonatal morbidity and mortality due to intrapartum asphyxia, and increased maternal morbidity and mortality due to a rise in second-stage caesarean deliveries. In this article, we address the possible causes leading to a decrease in AVD and propose measures to be taken to increase the rates of AVD and subsequently reduce morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
T Biselele, J Bambi, G Naulaers, G Tabu, J Kapinga, V Bola, P Makaya, H Tjabbes, B Tady, C Peeters-Scholte
AIM: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the most frequent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide and 96% of the burden of neonatal encephalopathy occurs in low-income countries. This study investigated the feasibility of providing neuroprotective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in low-income countries. METHODS: Neonates with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, were included in this 2015 observational study in three hospitals in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo...
February 9, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Antje Allendorf, Ruth Dewitz, Joy Weber, Shahrzad Bakthiar, Rolf Schloesser, Udo Rolle
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight infants is a risk factor for developmental delay. To our knowledge, there are no studies published investigating the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with NEC comparing surgically treated and conservatively treated patients versus match paired controls. The aim of this retrospective case control study was to measure the neurodevelopmental outcome of patients with NEC who were treated surgically or conservatively METHODS: All patients were identified, who have been diagnosed with NEC (ICD-10 code, P77) born between 2006 and 2013...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Alexander E P Heazell, Tomasina Stacey, Louise M O'Brien, Edwin A Mitchell, Jane Warland
Changes in fetal movement are associated with increased risk of stillbirth after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The majority of studies have focussed on maternal perception of reduced fetal movements, which is associated with stillbirth via placental dysfunction. Recent studies have also described an association between a single episode of excessive fetal movements and late stillbirth. We present a hypothesis that a sudden episode of excessive fetal activity indicates fetal compromise relating to underlying disturbance of the in utero environment, which if it persists can lead to fetal death...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Heidi E Karpen
Most bone formation and mineralization occurs late in gestation. Accretion of adequate minerals is a key element of this process and is often interrupted through preterm birth. In utero, mineral transport is accomplished via active transport across the placenta and does not require fetal hormone input. Postnatal mineral homeostasis requires a balance of actions of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D on target organs. Preterm birth, asphyxia, acidosis, and prolonged parenteral nutrition increase the risk of mineral imbalance and metabolic bone disease (MBD)...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
Milla Summanen, Susanne Bäck, Juha Voipio, Kai Kaila
Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ester Garne, Nathali Vain-Nielsen, Anne Vinkel Hansen, Jesper Fenger-Grøn
Severe birth asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and long-term disability and may be prevented. However, the consequences of organisational changes are rarely evaluated. 
Methods: A cohort study comparing morbidity and mortality for term-born infants born with severe birth asphyxia, defined as an Apgar score ≤ 5 at 5 min., before and after major changes in the organisation of births in a Danish district.
 Results: The study included 77 infants born in 1997-2004 and 40 infants born in 2009-2013 who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit with an Apgar score ≤ 5 at 5 min...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Xue-Lian Wang, Jin Wang, Lin Yuan, Wen-Jing Shi, Yun Cao, Chao Chen
BACKGROUND: To determine the trend and causes of neonatal mortality in a large level III neonatal intensive care unit in Shanghai during a 15-year period. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-centered study. All neonates who died during the period from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2013 at Children's Hospital of Fudan University were included. We extracted relevant clinical information from their medical records, analyzed neonatal mortality rate and the characteristics of these patients, and compared neonatal deaths between different periods and populations...
January 30, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Ma Del Rosario Cruz-Cruz, Jorge Gallardo-Elías, Sergio Paredes-Solís, José Legorreta-Soberanis, Miguel Flores-Moreno, Neil Andersson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease in the world. In Mexico, epilepsy is among the diseases more related to mortality due to non-infectious diseases in children. The objective of the study was to identify the factors associated with epilepsy in children entitled to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), in Acapulco, Mexico. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study from April 2010 to April 2011. We selected 118 cases from the database of outpatient pediatric neurology with epilepsy diagnostic with two year of evolution according to the International League Against Epilepsy criteria...
September 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
V Peyronnet, J Sibiude, L Mandelbrot, G Kayem
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether the antenatal identification of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses could influence the neonatal and obstetric prognosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. All liveborn singleton neonates with a birthweight<3rd centile, born>32 weeks of gestation between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 were included. Fetuses were considered "suspected SGA" when the estimated fetal weight was<10th centile or when a diagnosis of clinical or ultrasound SGA was explicitly noted in the record...
January 17, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
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