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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784961/sarcodon-imbricatus-polysaccharides-improve-mouse-hematopoietic-function-after-cyclophosphamide-induced-damage-via-g-csf-mediated-jak2-stat3-pathway
#1
Xue Wang, Qiubo Chu, Xue Jiang, Yue Yu, Libian Wang, Yaqi Cui, Jiahui Lu, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Sarcodon imbricatus, a rare medicinal and edible fungus, has various pharmacological bioactivities. We investigated the effects of S. imbricatus polysaccharides (SIPS) on hematopoietic function and identified the underlying mechanisms using in vitro experiments with CHRF, K562, and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and in vivo experiments with a mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic dysfunction. We found that SIPS induced proliferation and differentiation of CHRF and K562 cells and upregulated the expression of hematopoietic-related proteins, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1p90), c-Myc, and ETS transcription factor, in the two cell lines...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782541/an-unappreciated-role-for-neutrophil-dc-hybrids-in-immunity-to-invasive-fungal-infections
#2
J Scott Fites, Michael Gui, John F Kernien, Paige Negoro, Zeina Dagher, David B Sykes, Jeniel E Nett, Michael K Mansour, Bruce S Klein
Neutrophils are classically defined as terminally differentiated, short-lived cells; however, neutrophils can be long-lived with phenotypic plasticity. During inflammation, a subset of neutrophils transdifferentiate into a population called neutrophil-DC hybrids (PMN-DCs) having properties of both neutrophils and dendritic cells. While these cells ubiquitously appear during inflammation, the role of PMN-DCs in disease remains poorly understood. We observed the differentiation of PMN-DCs in pre-clinical murine models of fungal infection: blastomycosis, aspergillosis and candidiasis...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781188/a-novel-anti-malarial-drug-derivative-inhibits-cyclic-gmp-amp-synthase-in-trex1-deficient-mice
#3
Jie An, Joshua J Woodward, Weinan Lai, Mark Minie, Xizhang Sun, Lena Tanaka, Jessica M Snyder, Tomikazu Sasaki, Keith B Elkon
OBJECTIVE: Type I interferon (IFN-I) is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as well as rare monogenic 'interferonopathies' such as Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS) caused by mutations in the DNA exonuclease, TREX1. The DNA-activated IFN-I pathway, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), is linked to subsets of AGS and lupus. We identified inhibitors of DNA-cGAS interaction and tested lead candidate, X6, in a mouse model of AGS. METHODS: Trex1-/- mice were treated orally from birth with either X6 or HCQ for 8 weeks...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780383/human-metapneumovirus-infection-inhibits-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-human-macrophages
#4
Youxian Li, Stine Østerhus, Ingvild B Johnsen
Human cathelicidin antimicriobial peptide (CAMP) is a critical component of host innate immunity with both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory functions. Several pathogens have been shown to downregulate CAMP expression, yet it is unclear if such modulation occurs during a viral infection. In this study, we showed that infection with human metapneumovirus (hMPV), one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in young children, strongly suppressed basal and vitamin-D induced CAMP expression in human macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777205/oviduct-epithelium-induces-interferon-tau-in-bovine-day-4-embryos-which-generates-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-immune-cells
#5
Anup K Talukder, Mohammad B Rashid, Mohamed S Yousef, Kazuya Kusama, Takashi Shimizu, Masayuki Shimada, Susan S Suarez, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent studies indicate that communication between the bovine embryo and the mother begins in the oviduct. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of embryos on bovine oviducts for their immune responses using an in vitro model. First, zygotes were cultured with or without bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) for 4 days, when embryos had reached the 16-cell stage. At that time, we detected interferon-tau (IFNT) in embryos co-cultured with BOECs, but not in embryos cultured alone. Next, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated either in media from embryo alone cultures or from co-cultures of embryos with BOECs...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776610/comparative-evaluation-of-immune-responses-of-swine-in-prrs-stable-and-unstable-herds
#6
Michele Drigo, Enrico Giacomini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Daniela Pasotto, Dania Bilato, Jessica Ruggeri, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Giovani Loris Alborali, Massimo Amadori
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an elusive model of host/virus relationship in which disease is determined by virus pathogenicity, pig breed susceptibility and phenotype, microbial infectious pressure and environmental conditions. Successful disease control in PRRS-endemic Countries corresponds to "stability", i.e. a condition with no clinical signs of PRRS in the breeding-herd population and no viremia in weaning-age pigs. The aim of this work was to compare the profile and time-course of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in stable and unstable herds, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#8
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#9
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769705/possible-role-of-the-nipah-virus-v-protein-in-the-regulation-of-the-interferon-beta-induction-by-interacting-with-ubx-domain-containing-protein1
#10
Shotaro Uchida, Ryo Horie, Hiroki Sato, Chieko Kai, Misako Yoneda
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes lethal encephalitis in humans. We previously reported that the V protein, one of the three accessory proteins encoded by the P gene, is one of the key determinants of the pathogenesis of NiV in a hamster infection model. Satterfield B.A. et al. have also revealed that V protein is required for the pathogenicity of henipavirus in a ferret infection model. However, the complete functions of NiV V have not been clarified. In this study, we identified UBX domain-containing protein 1 (UBXN1), a negative regulator of RIG-I-like receptor signaling, as a host protein that interacts with NiV V...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768502/interferon-lambda-is-required-for-interferon-gamma-expressing-nk-cell-responses-but-does-not-afford-antiviral-protection-during-acute-and-persistent-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#11
Silvia Gimeno Brias, Morgan Marsden, Jessica Forbester, Mathew Clement, Cordelia Brandt, Katherine Harcourt, Leanne Kane, Lucy Chapman, Simon Clare, Ian R Humphreys
Interferon lambda (IFNλ) is a group of cytokines that belong to the IL-10 family. They exhibit antiviral activities against certain viruses during infection of the liver and mucosal tissues. Here we report that IFNλ restricts in vitro replication of the β-herpesvirus murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV). However, IFNλR1-deficient (Ifnλr1-/-) mice were not preferentially susceptible to mCMV infection in vivo during acute infection after systemic or mucosal challenge, or during virus persistence in the mucosa. Instead, our studies revealed that IFNλ influences NK cell responses during mCMV infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766002/influence-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-on-response-to-pegylated-interferon-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-egyptian-patients
#12
Gomaa Mostafa-Hedeab, Dina Sabry, Ghada Mostafa Abdelaziz, Manal Ewaiss, Nagla Adli, Wael Fathy
Background: We explored the effect of vitamin D receptor gene ( VDR ) polymorphisms in response to PEG-IFN treatment in Egyptian chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods: Two hundred hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients (42.3±10.7 years) on PEG-IFN α-2a (180 µg /kg for 48 weeks) and one hundred control subjects (37.3 ±12 years) were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression were assessed by ELISA. VDR polymorphisms FokI T>C (rs 10735810), BsmI A>G (rs 1544410), ApaI (rs7975253), and TaqI C>T (rs 731236), were genotyped using real-time PCR...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765238/higher-baseline-viral-diversity-correlates-with-lower-hbsag-decline-following-pegylated-interferon-alpha-therapy-in-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
Hu Li, Li Zhang, Hong Ren, Peng Hu
Background: Viral diversity seems to predict treatment outcomes in certain viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline intra-patient viral diversity and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) therapy. Patients and methods: Twenty-six HBeAg-positive patients who were treated with Peg-IFN-α were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus S gene were performed on baseline samples, and normalized Shannon entropy (Sn) was calculated as a measure of small hepatitis B surface protein (SHBs) diversity...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761292/-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-delta-current-and-future-treatments
#14
REVIEW
N Wortmann, C Höner Zu Siederdissen, M Cornberg
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the 30 leading causes of death, despite effective vaccination and therapeutic options. Chronic hepatitis delta (coinfection with hepatitis D virus) leads to a rapid disease progression. AIMS: Based on current international guidelines and studies, an overview about present and future therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B and delta is provided. RESULTS: Therapy with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues leads to nearly complete HBV DNA suppression, which is associated with regression of liver fibrosis and a lower risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 14, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760693/treatment-intensification-in-hiv-infected-patients-is-associated-with-reduced-frequencies-of-regulatory-t-cells
#15
Eva M Grützner, Tanja Hoffmann, Eva Wolf, Elke Gersbacher, Ashley Neizert, Renate Stirner, Ramona Pauli, Albrecht Ulmer, Jürgen Brust, Johannes R Bogner, Hans Jaeger, Rika Draenert
In untreated HIV infection, the efficacy of T cell responses decreases over the disease course, resulting in disease progression. The reasons for this development are not completely understood. However, immunosuppressive cells are supposedly crucially involved. Treatment strategies to avoid the induction of these cells preserve immune functions and are therefore the object of intense research efforts. In this study, we assessed the effect of treatment intensification [=5-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART)] on the development of suppressive cell subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759145/thymoquinone-increases-the-expression-of-neuroprotective-proteins-while-decreasing-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-the-gene-expression-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signaling-targets-in-lps-ifn%C3%AE-activated-bv-2-microglia-cells
#16
Makini K Cobourne-Duval, Equar Taka, Patricia Mendonca, Karam F A Soliman
Neuroinflammation and microglial activation are pathological markers of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Chronic activation of microglia induces the release of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, chronic microglial activation has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Thymoquinone (TQ) has been identified as one of the major active components of the natural product Nigella sativa seed oil...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757957/arthroprotective-effects-of-cf-02-sharing-structural-similarity-with-quercetin
#17
Feng-Cheng Liu, Jeng-Wei Lu, Chiao-Yun Chien, Hsu-Shan Huang, Chia-Chung Lee, Shiu-Bii Lien, Leou-Chyr Lin, Liv Weichien Chen, Yi-Jung Ho, Min-Chung Shen, Ling-Jun Ho, Jenn-Haung Lai
In this study, we synthesized hundreds of analogues based on the structure of small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that were previously identified in our laboratory with the aim of identifying potent yet safe compounds for arthritis therapeutics. One of the analogues was shown to share structural similarity with quercetin, a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in many different fruits and vegetables. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of this compound, namely 6-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2 H -benzo[ e ][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3 H )-dione (Cf-02), in a side-by-side comparison with quercetin...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755462/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-between-canine-non-b-non-t-natural-killer-lymphocytes-and-cd3-cd5-dim-cd21-cytotoxic-large-granular-lymphocytes
#18
Soo-Hyeon Lee, Dong-Jun Shin, Yoseop Kim, Cheol-Jung Kim, Je-Jung Lee, Mee Sun Yoon, Tung Nguyen Thanh Uong, Dohyeon Yu, Ji-Youn Jung, Duck Cho, Bock-Gie Jung, Sang-Ki Kim, Guk-Hyun Suh
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the immune response against infections and malignant transformation, and adopted transfer of NK cells is thought to be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Previous reports describing the phenotypic features of canine NK cells have produced inconsistent results. Canine NK cells are still defined as non-B and non-T (CD3- CD21- ) large granular lymphocytes. However, a few reports have demonstrated that canine NK cells share the phenotypic characteristics of T lymphocytes, and that CD3+ CD5dim CD21- lymphocytes are putative canine NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754771/epstein-barr-virus-specific-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-for-treatment-of-epstein-barr-virus-related-malignant-lymphoma
#19
Lisa-Marie Pfeffermann, Verena Pfirrmann, Sabine Huenecke, Melanie Bremm, Halvard Bonig, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Eva Rettinger
BACKGROUND: Prolonged immunosuppression or delayed T-cell recovery may favor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which can lead to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and high-grade malignant B-cell lymphoma. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with dual specific anti-tumor and virus-specific cellular immunity may be applied in this context. METHODS: CIK cells with EBV-specificity were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanded in the presence of interferon-γ, anti-CD3, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 and were pulsed twice with EBV consensus peptide pool...
May 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752613/immune-homeostasis-effects-of-chinese-herbal-formulae-and-herb-derived-compounds-on-allergic-asthma-in-different-experimental-models
#20
REVIEW
Lu Liu, Lin-Peng Wang, Shan He, Yan Ma
Allergic asthma is thought to arise from an imbalance of immune regulation, which is characterized by the production of large quantities of IgE antibodies by B cells and a decrease of the interferon-γ/interleukin-4 (Th1/Th2) ratio. Certain immunomodulatory components and Chinese herbal formulae have been used in traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. However, there are few studies performing evidence-based Chinese medicine (CM) research on the mechanisms and effificacy of these drugs in allergic asthma...
May 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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