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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530523/cost-effectiveness-of-peginterferon-beta-1a-and-alemtuzumab-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Ankur A Dashputre, Khalid M Kamal, Gauri Pawar
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, affecting 2.5 million people globally and 400,000 people in the United States. While no cure exists for MS, the goal is to manage the disease using disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), which have been shown to slow disease progression and prevent relapses. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common form of MS at the time of diagnosis. Peginterferon beta-1a (PEG) and alemtuzumab (ALT) were recently approved and have demonstrated good clinical outcomes, including reduced relapse rates in clinical trials...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529903/immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#2
REVIEW
Evan W Alley, Sharyn I Katz, Keith A Cengel, Charles B Simone
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a particularly aggressive thoracic malignancy with limited survival following combination chemotherapy. As a result, there has been increased interested in immunotherapy for mesothelioma, both in the first-line and salvage settings. Early investigations of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alfa-2a/b have been limited by modest response rates and toxicity, whereas cytokine gene therapy is currently being investigated and shows early promise. The most prominent class of immunotherapies to be trialed with mesothelioma in the past half-decade has been immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI)...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529614/irf4-mum1-expression-is-associated-with-poor-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#3
Mi Hwa Heo, Ha Young Park, Young Hyeh Ko, Won Seog Kim, Seok Jin Kim
Background: Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)/multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcriptional factors. Although IRF4/MUM1 expression is associated with aggressiveness of B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma, the prognostic value of IRF4/MUM1 expression in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is unclear. Methods: We analyzed a tissue array from 69 patients diagnosed with PTCL. The expression levels of IRF4/MUM1 and associated proteins such as MYC and Ikaros were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522204/peg-interferon-plus-nucleotide-analogue-treatment-versus-no-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-a-low-viral-load-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#4
Annikki de Niet, Louis Jansen, Femke Stelma, Sophie B Willemse, Sjoerd D Kuiken, Sebastiaan Weijer, Carin M J van Nieuwkerk, Hans L Zaaijer, Richard Molenkamp, R Bart Takkenberg, Maarten Koot, Joanne Verheij, Ulrich Beuers, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]). We assessed HBsAg loss during peg-interferon-alfa-2a (peg-IFN) and nucleotide analogue combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. METHODS: In this randomised controlled, open-label trial, patients were enrolled from the Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands...
May 15, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521640/antibody-mediated-immunotherapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
Ying Gao, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus...
May 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521256/antibody-detection-tests-improve-the-sensitivity-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-cattle
#6
C Casal, J A Infantes, M A Risalde, A Díez-Guerrier, M Domínguez, I Moreno, B Romero, L de Juan, J L Sáez, R Juste, C Gortázar, L Domínguez, J Bezos
We evaluated the sensitivity (Se) of the single cervical intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test, two interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assays and three different antibody detection techniques for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) diagnosis in 131 mixed beef breed cattle. The results of the diagnostic techniques performed over the whole herd, and over the animals confirmed as infected based on the presence of lesions compatible with the disease and/or M. bovis isolation were compared to determine apparent prevalence (AP) and Se...
May 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521211/hepatitis-c-virus-core-antigen-a-simplified-treatment-monitoring-tool-including-for-post-treatment-relapse
#7
François M J Lamoury, Angelica Soker, Danica Martinez, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Philip Cunningham, Philip Bruggmann, Graham R Foster, Olav Dalgard, Markus Backmund, Brian Conway, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Gavin Cloherty, Pip Marks, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Simple, affordable diagnostic tools are essential to facilitate global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination efforts. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical performance of core antigen (HCVcAg) assay from plasma samples to monitor HCV treatment efficacy and HCV viral recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples from a study of response-guided pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for people who inject drugs with chronic HCV genotype 2/3 infection were assessed for HCV RNA (AmpliPrep/COBAS Taqman assay, Roche) and HCVcAg (ARCHITECT HCV Ag, Abbott Diagnostics) during and after therapy...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515726/comparative-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-molecules-and-their-potential-role-in-the-transmissible-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease
#8
Andrew S Flies, Nicholas B Blackburn, Alan Bruce Lyons, John D Hayball, Gregory M Woods
Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514731/antagonistic-effects-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-apoptosis-by-restoring-the-mitochondrial-dynamic-equilibrium-and-energy-metabolism-in-chicken-spleens
#9
Zhe Xu, Xi Jin, Tingru Pan, Tianqi Liu, Na Wan, Shu Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleens and the antagonistic effects of selenium. We duplicated the selenium-cadmium interaction model and examined the expression of apoptosis-, immune-, mitochondrial dynamics- and energy metabolism-related genes. The results demonstrated that after treatment with cadmium, the frequency of apoptosis was significantly increased, and the morphological characteristics of apoptosis were observed. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes was increased, and that of anti-apoptotic genes was decreased...
April 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514189/effects-of-vaccination-with-the-c-strain-vaccine-on-immune-cells-and-cytokines-of-pigs-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#10
Lu Xu, Xue-Zheng Fan, Qi-Zu Zhao, Zheng-Xing Zhang, Kai Chen, Yi-Bao Ning, Qian-Yi Zhang, Xing-Qi Zou, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Cui Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Qin Wang
The attenuated C-strain vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the safest and most effective attenuated vaccines. However, little is known of the host immune response after vaccination with the C-strain vaccine. Blood samples from vaccinated pigs were collected to evaluate the number of immune cells, the level of specific CSFV antibody, and related cytokines induced by the vaccination of C-strain vaccine. The C-strain nucleic acid was gradually removed and specific antibody to vaccine kept increasing; the amount of the lymphocyte, Tc cell, and Th cell increased; some inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mainly showed downregulated trends, but IL-6 and IL-8 were upregulated greatly; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-I, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) kept high expression level after 28 days postvaccination (dpv); IFN-γ was upregulated slightly at 5 and 9 dpv, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#11
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#12
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511719/interleukin-10-producing-lag3-regulatory-t-cells-are-associated-with-disease-activity-and-abatacept-treatment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Shinichiro Nakachi, Shuji Sumitomo, Yumi Tsuchida, Haruka Tsuchiya, Masanori Kono, Rika Kato, Keiichi Sakurai, Norio Hanata, Yasuo Nagafuchi, Shoko Tateishi, Hiroko Kanda, Tomohisa Okamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a role in the suppression of inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) was reported as a marker of interleukin (IL)-10-producing Tregs. We aimed to clarify the function of human IL-10-producing CD4(+)CD25(-)LAG3(+) T cells (LAG3(+) Tregs) and their association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: LAG3(+) Tregs of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with B cells and follicular helper T cells to examine antibody suppression effects...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507926/decrease-of-alpha-fetoprotein-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#14
Kelvin Nguyen, Melissa Jimenez, Nima Moghadam, Crystal Wu, Alex Farid, Jonathan Grotts, David Elashoff, Gina Choi, Francisco A Durazo, Mohamed M El-Kabany, Steven-Huy B Han, Sammy Saab
Background and Aims: The lack of specificity has limited the role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening among patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We sought to examine whether AFP may decrease after achieving a sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis who were cured with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy at the University of California, Los Angeles...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507921/sofosbuvir-based-regimens-with-task-shifting-is-cost-effective-in-expanding-hepatitis-c-treatment-access-in-the-united-states
#15
Channa R Jayasekera, Rachel Beckerman, Nathaniel Smith, Ryan B Perumpail, Robert J Wong, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
Background and Aims: The current paradigm of specialist physician-managed treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is inefficient in absorbing the approximately 3 million patients awaiting treatment in the United States. Task shifting-whereby specialist physicians screen patients for treatment eligibility but on-treatment monitoring is devolved to more abundant non-physician clinicians-achieves non-inferior treatment outcomes with second generation direct-acting antivirals (2(nd) Gen DAAs), may increase treatment capacity, and may facilitate greater treatment access...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507808/pro-necrotic-molecules-impact-local-immunosurveillance-in-human-breast-cancer
#16
Gautier Stoll, Yuting Ma, Heng Yang, Oliver Kepp, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer
Necrosis culminates in spilling cellular content through the permeabilized plasma membrane, thereby releasing potentially immunostimulatory molecules in the pericellular space of dead cells. Accordingly, molecules involved in necroptotic signaling, such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL) have been found to stimulate anticancer immune responses in mouse models of chemotherapy. mRNAs encoding prominent pro-necrotic gene products (RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, PGAM5 and DFNA5) were correlated with immune-related metagenes in several cancer types (breast, colorectal, lung, ovary, melanoma), revealing the strongest associations in breast cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507795/digital-analysis-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-the-signature-of-rejection-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
Viktor H Koelzer, Lena Sokol, Stefan Zahnd, Lucine Christe, Heather Dawson, Martin D Berger, Daniel Inderbitzin, Inti Zlobec, Alessandro Lugli
The immune system plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor immune rejection has been previously linked to the activation of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) STAT1, IRF-5 and IRF-1. Specific immunoregulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) may impact the expression of these ISG in the tumor microenvironment. In this translational study, we develop a digital image analysis protocol to identify the ISG-gene expression signature and investigate miRNA expression in the immediate environment of invading cancer cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507081/reversion-of-anergy-signatures-in-clonal-cd21low-b-cells-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-after-clearance-of-hcv-viremia
#18
Martina Del Padre, Laura Todi, Milica Mitrevski, Ramona Marrapodi, Stefania Colantuono, Massimo Fiorilli, Milvia Casato, Marcella Visentini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) by driving clonal expansion of IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells. These cells display both the features of anergy induced by continual engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR), such as high expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and reduced lifespan, and of virus-specific exhaustion such as CD21(low) phenotype and defective response to ligation of BCR and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Usually MC regresses after eradication of HCV with interferon, whose immunomodulatory activity might contribute to this effect...
May 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506538/epitope-specific-immunotherapy-targeting-cd4-positive-t-cells-in-coeliac-disease-two-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-studies
#19
Gautam Goel, Tim King, A James Daveson, Jane M Andrews, Janakan Krishnarajah, Richard Krause, Gregor J E Brown, Ronald Fogel, Charles F Barish, Roger Epstein, Timothy P Kinney, Philip B Miner, Jason A Tye-Din, Adam Girardin, Juha Taavela, Alina Popp, John Sidney, Markku Mäki, Kaela E Goldstein, Patrick H Griffin, Suyue Wang, John L Dzuris, Leslie J Williams, Alessandro Sette, Ramnik J Xavier, Ludvig M Sollid, Bana Jabri, Robert P Anderson
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet...
May 11, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506535/sca-1-expression-level-identifies-quiescent-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#20
Mina N F Morcos, Kristina B Schoedel, Anja Hoppe, Rayk Behrendt, Onur Basak, Hans C Clevers, Axel Roers, Alexander Gerbaulet
Blood cell generation depends on continuous cellular output by the sequential hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor populations that all contain quiescent and actively cycling cells. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) express the surface molecule Stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1/LY6A). Using histone 2B-red fluorescent fusion protein label retention and cell-cycle reporter mice, we demonstrate that high SCA-1 expression (SCA-1(hi)) identifies not only quiescent HSCs but quiescent cells on all hierarchical levels within the lineage(-)SCA-1(+)KIT(+) (LSK) population...
May 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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