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Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Tagbo Oguonu, Ijeoma N Obumneme-Anyim, Joy N Eze, Adaeze C Ayuk, Chinyere V Okoli, Ikenna K Ndu
Background Biofuels and other cooking fuels are used in households in low- and middle-income countries. Aim To investigate the impact of cooking fuels on lung function in children in urban and rural households in South-East Nigeria. Methods The multi-stage sampling method was used to enroll children exposed to cooking fuel in the communities. Lung function values FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio, were measured with ndd EasyOneR spirometer. Airflow limitation was determined with FEV1/FVC Z-score values at -1...
March 15, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Michael D Kennedy, Jessie M S Gill, Alastair N H Hodges
Background: Diagnosing Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) requires bronchial provocation tests that are performed at rest and after exercise or hyperventilation in either a lab or field setting. Presently, it is unclear whether the proposed AHR field test for swimming induces sufficient provocation due to lack of intensity. Thus we aimed to examine how the 8 minute field swim test compared to all out racing and a lower intensity practice exposure affected AHR. We hypothesized that the race would affect AHR the most thereby highlighting the importance of maximal effort in swim AHR...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Arthur Bill Musk, Michael Hunter, Jennie Hui, Matthew W Knuiman, Mark Divitini, John P Beilby, Alan James
OBJECTIVE: To document the changing levels of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and lung function in Busselton adults aged 46-65 years over the past 50 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Repeated cross-sectional population surveys (1966 to 2010-2015) of adults registered to vote in the Busselton shire, Western Australia, including a modified version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of doctor-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking history, respiratory medications used, spirometry parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC])...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Yuan Cao, Shi-Hua Lin, Ding Zhu, Feng Xu, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application...
March 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Jitsupa Onnipa, Thitiporn Suwatanapongched
Background: The prevalence rate of bronchiectasis in COPD is variable. Coexisting bronchiectasis and COPD may influence COPD severity and exacerbation. Objective: We investigated whether bronchiectasis is associated with frequent or severe COPD exacerbation. Lower airway bacterial and mycobacterial infections are a possible mechanism for bronchiectasis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013-2014. COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations were reviewed...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Maria Kerti, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Krisztina Kelemen, Janos T Varga
Rationale: The relationship of functional parameters such as lung mechanics, chest kinematics, metabolism and peripheral and respiratory muscle function with the level of exercise tolerance remains a controversial subject. While it has been previously shown that pulmonary rehabilitation is capable of improving exercise tolerance in patients afflicted by COPD, as expressed by values of 6-minute walking test (6MWT), the degree of contribution to this change by each of the aforementioned parameters remains unclear...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Enya Daynes, Neil J Greening, Theresa C Harvey-Dunstan, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: COPD is characterized by expiratory flow limitation, which results in symptomatic dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity. Changes in breathing mechanics mean the respiratory muscles are unable to respond to the ventilatory demands, increasing the sensation of dyspnea. A high-frequency oscillating device has been developed to improve dyspnea in patients with COPD. We conducted a feasibility trial to gain insight into the potential for recruitment, retention, and study design for a future randomized controlled trial...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Care
Sheryl Magzamen, Assaf P Oron, Emily R Locke, Vincent S Fan
BACKGROUND: Studies have linked ambient air pollution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) healthcare encounters. However, the association between air quality and rescue medication use is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the role of air pollution exposure for increased short-acting beta-2-agonist (SABA) use in patients with COPD through use of remote monitoring technology. METHODS: Participants received a portable electronic inhaler sensor to record the date, time and location for SABA use over a 3-month period...
March 13, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michelle R Zeidler, Jennifer L Martin, Eric C Kleerup, Hartmut Schneider, Michael N Mitchell, Nadia N Hansel, Krishna Sundar, Helena Schotland, Robert C Basner, James Wells, Jerry A Krishnan, Gerard J Criner, Stephanie Cristenson, Samuel Krachman, M Safwan Badr
Study Objectives: Sleep quality is poor among patients with COPD, and studies show sleep disturbance is associated with low overall quality of life in this population. We evaluated the impact of patient-reported sleep quality and sleep apnea risk on disease-specific and overall quality of life within COPD patients enrolled in the SPIROMICS study, after accounting for demographics and COPD disease severity. Methods: Baseline data from 1,341 participants [892 mild/moderate COPD (FEV1≥50% predicted); 449 severe COPD (FEV1<50%)], were used to perform three nested (blocks) regression models to predict quality of life (Short Form-12 mental and physical components and St...
March 9, 2018: Sleep
Claudio Pedone, Renato Giua, Nicola Scichilone, Vincenzo Bellia, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi
INTRODUCTION: In the new GOLD classification the reduction of FEV1, expressed as percentage of predicted value (FEV1PP), is considered an important prognostic factor. However, the use of FEV1PP may introduce bias, especially if based on equations derived from populations different from the one under study. We evaluated how well the GOLD classification stratifies the mortality risk when FEV1PP is based on an equation developed in the same population that gave rise to cases, externally developed equations, or as FEV1 divided by cubed height (FEV1/Ht3 )...
March 9, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Wooho Ban, Hyeon Hui Kang, In Kyoung Kim, Jick Hwan Ha, Hyonsoo Joo, Jong Min Lee, Jeong Uk Lim, Sang Haak Lee, Chin Kook Rhee
Background/Aims: Several studies have identified a role for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between the plasma Nrf2 level and the extent of systemic inflammation associated with COPD status remains unclear. Methods: Patients diagnosed with COPD were recruited from St. Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, between July 2009 and May 2012. Patients were classified into two groups according to the severity of their symptoms on initial presentation, a COPD-stable group (n = 25) and a COPD-exacerbation group (n = 30)...
March 13, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Elizabeth C Oelsner, Benjamin M Smith, Eric A Hoffman, Ravi Kalhan, Kathleen M Donohue, Joel D Kaufman, Jennifer N Nguyen, Ani W Manichaikul, Jerome I Rotter, Erin D Michos, David R Jacobs, Gregory L Burke, Aaron R Folsom, Joseph E Schwartz, Karol Watson, R Graham Barr
RATIONALE: Large airway dimensions on computed tomography (CT) have been associated with lung function, symptoms, and exacerbations in COPD, and symptoms in smokers with preserved spirometry. Their prognostic significance in persons without lung disease remains undefined. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between large airway dimensions on CT and respiratory outcomes in a population-based cohort of adults without prevalent lung disease. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants ages 45-84 years without cardiovascular disease in 2000-02; we excluded participants with prevalent chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD)...
March 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Devin B Phillips, Craig D Steinback, Sophie É Collins, Desi P Fuhr, Tracey L Bryan, Eric Y L Wong, Vincent Tedjasaputra, Mohit Bhutani, Michael K Stickland
COPD patients have increased central arterial stiffness and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA), both of which contribute to cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction and increased CV risk. Previous work suggests that COPD patients have elevated carotid chemoreceptor (CC) activity/sensitivity, which may contribute to the elevated MSNA and arterial stiffness. Accordingly, the effect of CC inhibition on central arterial stiffness, MSNA and CV function at rest in COPD patients was examined in a randomized placebo-controlled study...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kenichiro Tanaka, Hideaki Senjyu, Yuichi Tawara, Takako Tanaka, Masaharu Asai, Mitsuru Tabusadani, Sumihisa Honda, Terumitsu Sawai, Ryo Kozu
Objective The early detection and treatment of COPD requires comprehensive follow-up over a long period. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a comprehensive long-term intervention system developed by the COPD Task Force for a rural city in Japan during a 7-year period. Methods This prospective, community-based longitudinal study encompassed 2006-2013 in Matsuura City, Japan. Primary and secondary screenings were performed for the early diagnosis and treatment of COPD. Individuals diagnosed with COPD were managed by the COPD Task Force's comprehensive early intervention system...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Melanie Dreßler, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Stefan Zielen, Johannes Schulze
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an important part of life, and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) can reduce the quality of life. A standardized exercise challenge is needed to diagnose EIA, but this is a time consuming, effortful and expensive method. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as a marker of eosinophil inflammation is determined rapidly and easily. The aim of this study was to investigate eNO as surrogate marker for predicting a positive reaction in an exercise challenge in a cold chamber (ECC)...
March 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Clément Medrinal, Guillaume Prieur, Yann Combret, Aurora Robledo Quesada, David Debeaumont, Tristan Bonnevie, Francis Edouard Gravier, Elise Dupuis Lozeron, Jean Quieffin, Olivier Contal, Bouchra Lamia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of quadriceps Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-Cycling on exertional VO2 compared with Placebo FES-cycling in patients with COPD. DESIGN: A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial SETTING: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Department PARTICIPANTS: 23 consecutive patients with COPD GOLD stage 2, 3 or 4 (mean FEV1 : 1.4±0.4 L (50.3% pred)) who had recently begun a respiratory rehabilitation program. INTERVENTION: Two consecutive 30-minute sessions were carried out at a constant load with active and placebo FES-Cycling...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Manu Jain, Grs Budinger, Borko Jovanovic, Jane Dematte, Sara Duffey, Jayesh Mehta
Pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (p-CGVHD) following allogeneic HSCT is devastating with limited proven treatments. Although sporadically associated with pulmonary toxicity, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may be efficacious in p-CGVHD. We sought to establish safety and tolerability of bortezomib in pilot, open-label trial of patients with p-CGVHD. The primary endpoint was adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by comparing FEV1 decline prior to p-CGVHD diagnosis to during the bortezomib treatment period...
March 9, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Katariina Lajunen, Satu Kalliola, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Seppo Sarna, L Pekka Malmberg, Anna S Pelkonen, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. METHODS: Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Shuang Dou, Chunyan Zheng, Xiuli Ji, Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao
Background: Pulmonary vascular disease, especially pulmonary hypertension, is an important complication of COPD. Bronchiectasis is considered not only a comorbidity of COPD, but also a risk factor for vascular diseases. The main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio) has been found to be a reliable indicator of pulmonary vascular disease. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis may be associated with relative pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A ratio >1)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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