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Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031211/cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-inhibits-the-uvb-induced-ros-cox-2-pathway-in-hacat-cells
#1
Yong He, Yunfeng Hu, Xinwei Jiang, Tianfeng Chen, Yuetang Ma, Shi Wu, Jianxia Sun, Rui Jiao, Xiaoling Li, Liehua Deng, Weibin Bai
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight, especially UVB (290-320nm), is one of the most important environmental factors that destroys the integrity of the skin and causes epidermal cell apoptosis, potentially even leading to skin cancer. UVB irradiation can cause skin damage by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that are common in many vegetable foods, and have also demonstrated chemopreventive effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as a typical anthocyanin, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#2
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029291/nutrition-influences-caffeine-mediated-sleep-loss-in-drosophila
#3
Erin S Keebaugh, Jin Hong Park, Chenchen Su, Ryuichi Yamada, William W Ja
Study objectives: Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029168/effects-of-foliar-insecticides-on-leaf-level-spectral-reflectance-of-soybean
#4
Tavvs M Alves, Zachary P Marston, Ian V MacRae, Robert L Koch
Pest-induced changes in plant reflectance are crucial for the development of pest management programs using remote sensing. However, it is unknown if plant reflectance data is also affected by foliar insecticides applied for pest management. Our study assessed the effects of foliar insecticides on leaf reflectance of soybean. A 2-yr field trial and a greenhouse trial were conducted using randomized complete block and completely randomized designs, respectively. Treatments consisted of an untreated check, a new systemic insecticide (sulfoxaflor), and two representatives of the most common insecticide classes used for soybean pest management in the north-central United States (i...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028780/nutritional-neuroscience-a-therapeutic-lifestyle-factor-in-mental-health
#5
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028557/understanding-the-association-between-stunting-and-child-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-next-steps-for-research-and-intervention
#6
REVIEW
Jessica M Perkins, Rockli Kim, Aditi Krishna, Mark McGovern, Victor M Aguayo, S V Subramanian
Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028447/complications-of-home-enteral-nutrition-mechanical-complications-and-access-issues-in-the-home-setting
#7
Brian P Strollo, Stephen A McClave, Keith R Miller
Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is an essential component in the care of patients with an array of underlying etiologies resulting in the inability to meet caloric needs through volitional intake alone. Although some would include oral nutrition supplementation as HEN, for the purposes of this review, the term is limited to a patient's requiring an enteral access device for the delivery of exogenous nutrients. Complications related to such devices remain a difficult problem in the hospital setting, and these issues are often amplified when encountered in the home setting...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028272/dietary-carbohydrates-components-of-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes
#8
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028271/influence-of-adipose-tissue-mass-on-bone-mass-in-an-overweight-or-obese-population-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Eimear Dolan, Paul A Swinton, Craig Sale, Aoife Healy, John O'Reilly
The scientific literature shows conflicting evidence about the relationship between adiposity and bone mass in overweight and obese populations. The aim of this review was to quantify the correlation between adipose mass (absolute and relative) and bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese populations. Three databases were searched electronically. In addition, reference lists of relevant articles were screened. A total of 16 studies, comprising 2587 participants and 75 correlation coefficients were selected for inclusion in the review...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028270/critical-review-of-the-emerging-research-evidence-on-agricultural-biodiversity-diet-diversity-and-nutritional-status-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Andrew D Jones
The declining diversity of agricultural production and food supplies worldwide may have important implications for global diets. The primary objective of this review is to assess the nature and magnitude of the associations of agricultural biodiversity with diet quality and anthropometric outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. A comprehensive review of 5 databases using a priori exclusion criteria and application of a systematic, qualitative analysis to the findings of identified studies revealed that agricultural biodiversity has a small but consistent association with more diverse household- and individual-level diets, although the magnitude of this association varies with the extent of existing diversification of farms...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028241/-du-bist-was-du-isst-challenges-in-european-nutrition-policy
#11
Alessandra Lafranconi, Christopher A Birt
Food cultures have developed in communities as according to the produce of local farms in the vicinity. The industrial revolution resulted in large cities and towns becoming reliant on farm produce from the neighbouring countryside; this stimulated development of farming, which itself became industrialized. However, although local diets in Europe differed markedly, the 'healthiness' of all diets was unquestioned until recently. Early in the 20th century, academic departments studying nutrition were established, but it is only since the 1980s that much interest in the 'healthiness' of our food began to be of concern outwith academia...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027963/optimizing-the-nutritional-support-of-adult-patients-in-the-setting-of-cirrhosis
#12
REVIEW
Brandon J Perumpail, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Radhika Kumari, Aijaz Ahmed
AIM: The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population. METHOD: A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July 2017 on the PubMed Database looking for key terms, such as malnutrition, nutrition, assessment, treatment, and cirrhosis. Articles and studies looking at associations between nutrition and cirrhosis were reviewed...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#13
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027830/occurrence-types-properties-and-interactions-of-phenolic-compounds-with-other-food-constituents-in-oil-bearing-plants
#14
Muhammad H Alu'datt, Taha Rababah, Mohammad N Alhamad, Ghaid J Al-Rabadi, Carole C Tranchant, Ali Almajwal, Stan Kubow, Inteaz Alli
Phenolic phytochemicals have become of interest due to their therapeutic potential, particularly with regards to their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic properties. An evolving area of research involving phenolics in foods and their products pertains to the functional, biological, and nutritional consequences resulting from the binding between certain phenolic compounds and the macronutrient and micronutrient constituents of foods. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of studies investigating endogenous phenolic interactions with major components in food systems, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins, with a focus on the phenolic compounds and nutrients in oil-bearing plants...
October 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027657/practical-issues-of-nutrition-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#15
Dariusz Onichimowski, Radosław Goraj, Rakesh Jalali, Jolanta Grabala, Ewa Mayzner-Zawadzka, Mirosław Czuczwar
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients has significant impact on one's ability to provide efficient nutritional therapy. CRRT may help in the prevention of intestinal oedema and the maintenance of the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract by enabling strict control of the fluid balance. It facilitates early introduction of nutrition via the enteral route, as well as allowing for the composition of high-volume feeding mixtures. It is necessary to take into consideration that during CRRT, together with blood purification of toxic substances, nutritive elements are also eliminated to some extent (micro- and macronutrients)...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027629/combined-analysis-of-the-preoperative-and-postoperative-prognostic-nutritional-index-offers-a-precise-predictor-of-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#16
Yuki Murakami, Hiroaki Saito, Yusuke Kono, Yuji Shishido, Hirohiko Kuroda, Tomoyuki Matsunaga, Yoji Fukumoto, Tomohiro Osaki, Keigo Ashida, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is considered useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC). This retrospective study investigated the relationship between both the pre- and postoperative PNI and the prognosis of GC patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 254 patients who underwent curative surgery for histopathologically diagnosed GC. RESULTS: Patients were divided according to their pre- and postoperative PNI as follows: preoperative PNI of ≥ 52 (pre-PNI(High)), preoperative PNI of < 52 (pre-PNI(Low)), postoperative PNI of ≥ 49 (post-PNI(High)), and postoperative PNI of < 49 (pre-PNI(Low))...
October 12, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027398/nutritional-status-cachexia-and-anorexia-in-women-with-peritoneal-metastasis-and-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-a-longitudinal-analysis
#17
Ziad Hilal, Günther A Rezniczek, Robert Klenke, Askin Dogan, Clemens B Tempfer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional status of women with peritoneal metastasis (PM) from recurrent ovarian, fallopian, or peritoneal cancer and to assess longitudinal variations of the cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) during palliative pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). METHODS: Nutritional assessment included body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and blood chemistry. CAS presence/absence was recorded before and during repeated cycles (1-11) of PIPAC...
November 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027342/study-on-nutritional-monitoring-of-persian-malnourished-school-students-a-check-on-reproducibility-and-validity-of-questionnaire
#18
Mahkameh Ashourpour, Mohammad-Hossein Kaveh, Musa Salehi, Hamid-Reza Tabatabaee, Maryam Taghdir
AIM: To develop a nutritional screening tool and examine its reliability and validity in elementary school children with malnutrition based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model, in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and its reproducibility was analysed via test-retest design among students with malnutrition. The students were in the fourth to sixth grades. Validity was assessed using face validity, content validity, construct validity, item difficulty and item discrimination...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027330/poor-nutrition-from-first-foods-a-cross-sectional-study-of-complementary-feeding-of-infants-and-young-children-in-six-remote-aboriginal-communities-across-northern-australia
#19
Dympna Leonard, Danielle Aquino, Nyssa Hadgraft, Fintan Thompson, Julia V Marley
AIM: To describe the first foods of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and young children who were recruited to a nutrition promotion and anaemia prevention program conducted from 2010 to 2012, in six remote communities across northern Australia. METHODS: Food records (24-hour diet history, food variety checklist) were completed on recruitment by interview with a parent or carer. Cross-sectional analysis assessed the proportion of participants consuming recommended and not-recommended foods and drinks and meeting recommendations for meal frequency and dietary diversity...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027270/the-yerba-mate-intake-has-a-neutral-effect-on-bone-a-case-control-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
Denise T A da Veiga, Raísa Bringhenti, Aline A Bolignon, Etiane Tatsh, Rafael N Moresco, Fabio V Comim, Melissa O Premaor
Nutritional factors have been associated with osteoporosis and fractures. The intake of coffee may increase the risk of fracture whereas the intake of black and green tea is associated with its reduction. Recently, consumption of yerba mate was associated with increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, its influence on fracture is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate tea intake on fractures, bone markers, calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women...
October 13, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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