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Nudrat Noor, Geng Zong, Ellen W Seely, Marc Weisskopf, Tamarra James-Todd
BACKGROUND: Low to moderate acute cadmium exposure has been associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and kidney disease. Little is known about the association between urinary cadmium levels-an indicator of longer-term exposure-and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We analysed data from 3982 participants aged 20-<80 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2014. Urinary cadmium levels were measured and adjusted for creatinine using spot urine samples...
September 19, 2018: Environment International
Bo Wu, Yunting Du, Yonghui Feng, Qinghui Wang, Wei Pang, Zanmei Qi, Jichun Wang, Dan Yang, Yang Liu, Yaming Cao
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious and fatal malaria-associated syndrome caused by the development of an overwhelming proinflammatory response. Vitamin D (Vit.D; cholecalciferol) has regulatory functions associated with both innate and adaptive immune responses. Prevention is better than cure, in this experiment, we evaluated prophylactic oral Vit.D as a means of preventing CM presentation before infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) by modulating the host proinflammatory response. Mice that were supplemented with oral Vit...
September 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Zsuzsanna H McMahan, Robyn T Domsic, Lei Zhu, Thomas A Medsger, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A Shah
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of anti-RNPC3 antibodies in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma or SSc) patients with selected gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications. METHODS: Sera from SSc patients with or without severe GI dysfunction (total parenteral nutrition-dependence) from the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center were screened for anti-RNPC3 antibodies. We then examined anti-RNPC3-positive cases and negative SSc controls from the University of Pittsburgh and UMPC Scleroderma cohort to confirm our findings and to examine whether specific GI features were associated with anti-RNPC3 antibodies...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Adam D Kennedy, Bryan M Wittmann, Anne M Evans, Luke A D Miller, Douglas R Toal, Shaun Lonergan, Sarah H Elsea, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics is the untargeted measurement of the metabolome, which is comprised of the complement of small molecules detected in a biological sample. As such, metabolomic analysis produces a global biochemical phenotype. It is a technology that has been utilized in the research setting for over a decade. The metabolome is directly linked to and is influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors and the microbiome - all of which affect health. Metabolomics can be applied to human clinical diagnostics and to other fields such as veterinary medicine, nutrition, exercise, physiology, agriculture/plant biochemistry, and toxicology...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Ranjit K Deka, Wei Z Liu, Shih-Chia Tso, Michael V Norgard, Chad A Brautigam
Biophysical and biochemical studies on the lipoproteins and other periplasmic proteins from the spirochetal species Treponema pallidum have yielded numerous insights into the functioning of the organism's peculiar membrane organization, its nutritional requirements, and intermediary metabolism. However, not all T. pallidum proteins have proven to be amenable to biophysical studies. One such recalcitrant protein is Tp0309, a putative polar-amino-acid-binding protein of an ABC transporter system. To gain further information on its possible function, a homolog of the protein from the related species T...
September 22, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
M H Abaspour Aporvari, M Mamoei, S Tabatabaei Vakili, M Zareei, Navid Dadashpour Davachi
Zinc is an essential mineral and accepted as a trace element in the animal nutrition and for its role in biological enzymatic pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effect of oral administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on some of the antioxidant parameters of semen plasma, quantitative and qualitative properties of Arabic ram sperm in the non-breeding season. Twelve adult Arabic rams (about 3-5 years old, 70 &plusmn;2.1 kg) were randomly assigned to receive one of the three levels of dietary ZnONPs (control; 0, group 1; 40 ppm and group 2; 80 ppm)...
June 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Stephanie Senna, Chengsi Ong, Zhi Min Ng, Jan Hau Lee
INTRODUCTION: Improved mortality rates in paediatric critical care may come with the cost of increased morbidity. Goals of modern paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) management should focus on restoring long-term function of paediatric critical illness survivors. This review outlines our current knowledge on trajectories and risk factors of long-term morbidities in PICU survivors. Specifically, we aimed to identify current limitations and gaps in this area so as to identify opportunities for future investigations to reduce the burden of morbidities in these children...
August 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Sophie Parat, Véronique Nègre, Amandine Baptiste, Paul Valensi, Anne-Marie Bertrand, Christine Chollet, Myriam Dabbas, Jean-Jacques Altman, Alexandre Lapillonne, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Caroline Elie, Maithé Tauber, Françoise Lorenzini, Emmanuel Cosson
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate whether pre and perinatal education of pregnant women would reduce childhood overweight. METHODS: Four French centers included women at ≤21 gestational weeks (GWs) with body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 before pregnancy. Patients were randomized to a control group (routine care including at least one dietary visit) or an intervention group (2 individuals (26 and 30 GW) and 4 group sessions (21, 28, 35 GW, 2 months postpartum)) aimed at educating the future mother regarding infant and maternal nutrition...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Chaobin Li, Yihong Yue, Hanjun Chen, Weiwei Qi, Rentao Song
Zeins are the most abundant storage proteins in maize (Zea mays) kernels, thereby affecting the nutritional quality and texture of this crop. 27-kD γ-zein is highly expressed and plays a crucial role in protein body formation. Several transcription factors (TFs) (O2, PBF1, OHP1 and OHP2) regulate the expression of the 27-kD γ-zein gene, but the complexity of its transcriptional regulation is not fully understood. Here, using probe affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified ZmbZIP22, a TF that binds to the 27-kD γ-zein promoter...
September 21, 2018: Plant Cell
A Sauret, M-C Andro-Garçon, J Chauvel, A Ligneul, P Dupas, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Dabadie
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of human milk fortifier (HMF) on the osmolality of various preterm human milks (PHMs) at different gestational and lactation stages, and with different storage and treatment conditions that are routinely used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four mothers who had given birth to their baby before 28 or between 29 and 31 weeks of pregnancy participated in the study after 1-2 weeks or 3-4 weeks breastfeeding after delivery...
September 18, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Ania M Jastreboff, Tara M Chaplin, Sheridan Finnie, Mary Savoye, Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Wendy K Silverman, Rajita Sinha
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of engaging stressed, low-income parents with obesity in a novel mindfulness-based parent stress intervention aimed at decreasing the risk of early childhood obesity. STUDY DESIGN: An 8-week mindfulness-based parent stress group intervention (parenting mindfully for health) plus nutrition and physical activity counseling (PMH+N) was developed for parents with obesity aimed at preventing obesity in their at-risk 2- to 5-year-old children...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Alexandra K Adams, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Kyungmann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Tassy Parker
OBJECTIVE: To describe sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among American Indian (AI) families with young children and determine predictors of adult and child weight status among these factors. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional baseline data. SETTING: One urban area and 4 rural AI reservations nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 450 AI families with children aged 2-5years participating in the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 intervention...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Seung Eun Jung, Crystal Bice
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing intention to consume fruits and vegetables (F&V) among college students by applying the Theory of Planned Behavior with the inclusion of self-identity and past behavior. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017. SETTING: Undergraduate classes at the University of Alabama. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 343 undergraduate students, mean age 20.3 years, participated in the study...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Quanhe Yang, Julia L Durmer, Anne G Wheaton, Sandra L Jackson, Zefeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep negatively impacts the cardiovascular system. No study has examined the association between sleep duration and heart age (person's predicted vascular age based on cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk profile). This study examines association between sleep duration and excess heart age (EHA; difference between heart age and chronological age) among US adults. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for respondents aged 30-74 years without CVD or stroke (n = 12,775)...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Holly L McClung, Lauren T Ptomey, Robin P Shook, Anju Aggarwal, Anna M Gorczyca, Edward S Sazonov, Katie Becofsky, Rick Weiss, Sai Krupa Das
Accurate assessment of dietary intake and physical activity is a vital component for quality research in public health, nutrition, and exercise science. However, accurate and consistent methodology for the assessment of these components remains a major challenge. Classic methods use self-report to capture dietary intake and physical activity in healthy adult populations. However, these tools, such as questionnaires or food and activity records and recalls, have been shown to underestimate energy intake and expenditure as compared with direct measures like doubly labeled water...
October 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Samanta Michelini, Biju Balakrishnan, Silvia Parolo, Alice Matone, Jane A Mullaney, Wayne Young, Olivier Gasser, Clare Wall, Corrado Priami, Rosario Lombardo, Martin Kussmann
BACKGROUND: Weaning is a period of marked physiological change. The introduction of solid foods and the changes in milk consumption are accompanied by significant gastrointestinal, immune, developmental, and microbial adaptations. Defining a reduced number of infections as the desired health benefit for infants around weaning, we identified in silico (i.e., by advanced public domain mining) infant gut microbes as potential deliverers of this benefit. We then investigated the requirements of these bacteria for exogenous metabolites as potential prebiotic feeds that were subsequently searched for in the natural product space...
September 21, 2018: Microbiome
Pasi Huuskonen, Leea Keski-Nisula, Seppo Heinonen, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Juha Pekkanen, Jussi Lampi, Soili M Lehto, Hannariikka Haaparanta, Antti-Pekka Elomaa, Raimo Voutilainen, Katri Backman, Hannu Kokki, Kirsti Kumpulainen, Jussi Paananen, Kirsi Vähäkangas, Markku Pasanen
BACKGROUND: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. METHODS: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort...
September 21, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Eleni Kintziou, Georgios Georgoudis, José Afonso, Rodrigo L Vancini, Beat Knechtle
Although the beneficial role of exercise for health is widely recognized, it is not clear to what extent the acute physiological responses (e.g., heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO₂)) to a graded exercise test are influenced by nutritional status (i.e., overweight vs. normal-weight). Therefore, the main objectives of the present narrative review were to examine the effect of nutritional status on acute HR, and VO₂ responses of children to exercise testing. For this purpose, we examined existing literature using PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and Google Scholar search engines...
September 20, 2018: Sports
Anna Ventura Comes, Antonio J Sánchez-Oliver, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Raúl Domínguez
The aim of the present study is to analyse nutritional supplements (NS) consumption by squash players of different levels (international vs. national). A total of 14 international players and 28 national ones answered a NS consumption frequency questionnaire that had been previously validated. A T-Student test was used for independent samples and a χ² test was used in the comparative analysis among athletes of different levels. International level players consume NS in greater proportion vs. national level players (100% vs...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Wei Qi Fan, Amy Gan, Olivia Crane
The aim of this study was to observe after following a routine change in the feeding protocol whether the earlier introduction of nutrient supplements improved nutritional outcomes in moderately preterm to late preterm low birth weight (LBW) babies. In this prospective observational study, LBW babies between 31 and 39 weeks' gestation admitted to a Special Care Nursery were assigned to two groups (F80, n = 45, F160, n = 42) upon commencing nutrient supplement at total fluid intake achievement of 80 or 160 mL/kg/day...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
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