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Terez Shea-Donohue, Bolin Qin, Allen Smith
Nutritional immunology, immunometabolism, and identification of novel immunotherapeutic targets, are areas of active investigation in parasitology. There is a well-documented crosstalk among immune cells and cells in metabolically active tissues that is important for homeostasis. The numbers and function of these cells are altered by obesity leading to inflammation. A variety of helminths spend some part of their life cycle in the gastrointestinal tract and even entirely enteral nematode infections exert beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism...
February 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Matthew Smuck, Christy Tomkins-Lane, Ma Agnes Ith, Renata Jarosz, Ming-Chih Jeffrey Kao
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of physical performance in individuals with musculoskeletal pain is essential. Accelerometry is a powerful tool for this purpose, yet the current methods designed to evaluate energy expenditure are not optimized for this population. The goal of this study is to empirically derive a method of accelerometry analysis specifically for musculoskeletal pain populations. METHODS: We extracted data from 6,796 participants in the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including: 7-day accelerometry, health and pain questionnaires, and anthropomorphics...
2017: PloS One
Anna Shevchenko, Yimin Yang, Andrea Knaust, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Huijuan Mai, Bo Wang, Changsui Wang, Andrej Shevchenko
Lamp illuminants evidence the exploitation of natural resources, animal and plant domestication, commerce, religious practices and nutrition of ancient populations. However, the physicochemical analysis of their major constituent-burned, degraded and aged mixture of triacylglycerols is imprecise and may lead to ambiguous interpretations. We applied proteomics to analyze fuel deposits from eight lamps dated by 6th to 8th centuries AD that were excavated at the Astana necropolis (Xinjiang, China) and determined their origin by identifying organism-specific proteins...
2017: PloS One
Daniel W Cramer, Allison F Vitonis
Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999-2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total homocysteine (tHCY). We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR), platelet-monocyte (PMR), and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR)...
2017: PloS One
Atul Malhotra, Michael Ditchfield, Michael C Fahey, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Graeme R Polglase, Euan M Wallace, Ryan Hodges, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and, in severe cases, is associated with elevated rates of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The leading cause of FGR is placental insufficiency, with the placenta failing to adequately meet the increasing oxygen and nutritional needs of the growing fetus with advancing gestation. The resultant chronic fetal hypoxia induces a decrease in fetal growth, and a redistribution of blood flow preferentially to the brain...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
Dazhi Liu, Brian Seyboth, Sherry Mathew, Stephen W Gilheeney, Alexander J Chou, Esther Drill, Rachel Kobos
BACKGROUND: Palifermin has been proven to decrease the frequency of severe oral mucositis in adult patients with sarcoma and metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy. The impact of palifermin on the incidence of mucositis in nonhematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) pediatric population receiving chemotherapy has never been reported to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who received palifermin as secondary prophylaxis to prevent chemotherapy-induced mucositis at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from January 1, 2008 to 2014...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Annika Mutanen, Jouko Lohi, Päivi Heikkilä, Hannu Jalanko, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVE: Although liver disease is a major complication of parenteral nutrition (PN) for intestinal failure (IF), its pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated potential molecular mechanisms of liver injury in pediatric onset IF. METHODS: Liver expression of canalicular phospholipid (ABCB4), bile acid (ABCB11), and sterol (ABCG5/8) transporters, their upstream regulators LXR and FXR as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were investigated among patients with IF [age median 3...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
Jose L Alfonso-Sanchez, Isabel M Martinez, Jose M Martín-Moreno, Ricardo S González, Francisco Botía
BACKGROUND: Addressing surgical site infection (SSI) is accomplished, in part, through studies that attempt to clarify the nature of many essential factors in the control of SSI. We sought to examine the link between multiple risk factors, including environmental factors, and SSI for prevention management. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal prospective study to identify SSIs in all patients who underwent interventions in 2014 in 8 selected hospitals on the Mediterranean coast of Spain...
February 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Mingxiao Guo, Chunlei Lu, Yousheng Li
In the management of short bowel syndrome (SBS), the benefits of treatment with growth hormone (GH), glutamine, and enteral nutrition (EN) on intestinal adaptation among children patients is still controversial. The aim of present study is to determine whether GH, glutamine, and EN have positive effect on intestinal adaptation in children with SBS. Sixteen children with SBS (small bowel remnant length, 56.75 ± 8.09 cm; mean ± SE) were treated with GH (0.05 mg/kg/d), glutamine (0.45 mg/kg/d), plus EN-enriched fiber diet for four weeks...
December 1, 2016: American Surgeon
Don K Nakayama
The first patient to receive complete nourishment of a patient by intravenous infusion independent of the alimentary tract was an infant girl born with near-total small bowel atresia. Total parenteral nutrition, the intravenous infusion of nutrients, has been attempted since Harvey's description of the circulatory system in the early 17th century. The modern era of parenteral nutrition began in the early 20th century, when infusions of glucose, plasma, and emulsified fat into humans proved feasible. Robert Elman, working in the 1930s and 1940s, demonstrated that carefully prepared protein hydrolysates could be safely infused intravenously and incorporated by the body...
January 1, 2017: American Surgeon
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of deaths. Cardiovascular mortality is influenced by several factors that can be changed by our behaviour. The goal of this study was to survey the opinions of physicians and nurses on the topic of preventative cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: The inquiry was carried out using a standardized structured interviewer-respondent interview (face-to-face). The final form of the interview was based on the results of a pre-investigation...
December 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article was to assess the delivery of patient health-education, relative to cardiovascular disease from the perspective of physicians and nurses, as well as from the perspective of citizens living in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The article is based on data acquired from the "Intervention procedures in preventive cardiology" grant project. To evaluate patient health education, non-standardized questionnaires intended for physicians (n = 1000) and nurses (n = 1000) were used...
December 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
A Robalo Nunes, M Tátá
INTRODUCTION: Anaemia is increasingly recognised as an important comorbidity in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but remains undervalued in clinical practice. This review aims to characterise the impact of anaemia and iron deficiency in COPD. METHODS: Literature review of studies exploring the relationship between anaemia/iron deficiency and COPD, based on targeted MEDLINE and Google Scholar queries. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of anaemia in COPD patients, ranging from 4...
February 20, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Jamie L Dorsey, Swetha Manohar, Sumanta Neupane, Binod Shrestha, Rolf D W Klemm, Keith P West
Despite substantial reductions in recent years in Nepal, stunting prevalence in children younger than 5 years remains high and represents a leading public health concern. To identify factors contributing to the stunting burden, we report multilevel risk factors associated with stunting in 4,853 children aged 6-59 months in a nationally and agroecologically representative random sample from the first year of the Policy and Science for Health, Agriculture, and Nutrition Community Studies, a community-based observational, mixed-panel study...
February 23, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Yael Hacham, Ifat Matityahu, Rachel Amir
Methionine is an essential amino acid whose low level limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ- SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared to wild-type plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes...
February 24, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Abdessattar Khlaifia, Isabelle Matias, Daniela Cota, Fabien Tell
Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB) induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Shubo Li, Yanyan Cui, Yuan Zhou, Zhiting Luo, Jidong Liu, Mouming Zhao
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop that is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. As an important raw material, cassava is a valuable food source in developing countries, and extensively employed for producing starch, bioethanol and other bio-based products (e.g., feed, medicine, cosmetics, and biopolymers). In addition, these cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, providing a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via bio-refinery...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Liao Liao, Ting Fang, Baiquan Ma, Xianbao Deng, Li Zhao, Yuepeng Han
BACKGROUND: Apple is one of the staple fruits worldwide, which are a good source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about genetic variation for mineral nutrition in apple germplasm. In this study, we report on the assessment of calcium and zinc contents in mature fruits of 378 apple cultivars and 39 wild relatives. Mineral concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). RESULTS: Both calcium and zinc accumulation showed great variation among accessions tested...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
N Veena, B Surendra Nath
BACKGROUND: Effect of addition of flaxseed oil (FO), phytosterols (PS) and polydextrose (PDX) on physicochemical and sensory properties of the milk was investigated as they are known to impart health benefits. RESULTS: For incorporating PS, a hydrophobic substance, FO and milk fat (MF) as an oil source, an emulsifier and PDX solution as an aqueous medium, were used for preparation of emulsion. Three emulsion formulations i.e. A (8 g PS, 8 g FO, 20 g PDX, 6 g MF), B (10 g PS, 10 g FO, 20 g PDX, 4 g MF) and C (12 g PS, 12 g FO, 20 g PDX, 2 g MF) were prepared and added individually to milk at a level of 50 g kg(-1) ...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Simone Perna, Gabriella Peroni, Faliva Milena Anna, Arianna Bartolo, Maurizio Naso, Alessandra Miccono, Mariangela Rondanelli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence, assess the metabolic profile, and key differences (versus healthy) in a cohort of subjects with sarcopenia (S) and in sarcopenic obesity (SO) hospitalized elderly. METHODS: A standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed. We enrolled 639 elderly subjects (196 men, 443 women) with a mean age of 80.90 ± 7.77 years. Analysis of variance and a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for covariates were used to assess the differences between groups...
February 23, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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