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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637274/association-of-bariatric-surgery-with-risk-of-infectious-diseases-a-self-controlled-case-series-analysis
#1
Tadahiro Goto, Atsushi Hirayama, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
Background: Although emerging data demonstrate that obesity is a risk factor for infectious diseases, no study has investigated the relationship of bariatric surgery with the risk of infectious diseases among obese adults. Methods: We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using data from the State Emergency Department Database and State Inpatient Database of three US states (California, Florida, and Nebraska) from 2005 through 2011. We included obese adults who underwent bariatric surgery as an instrument of weight reduction...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636184/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-bococizumab-a-monoclonal-antibody-to-pcsk9-after-single-subcutaneous-injection-at-3-sites-nct-02043301
#2
Ellen Q Wang, Anna Plotka, Joanne Salageanu, Catherine Sattler, Carla Yunis
AIM: To characterize the single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of bococizumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibiting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm (NCT02043301). METHODS: Seventy-five adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL and not on background lipid-lowering therapy were randomized (1:1:1) to a single 150-mg s.c. dose of bococizumab administered to the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm...
June 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635374/sepsis-favors-high-on-clopidogrel-platelet-reactivity
#3
Karolina Akinosoglou, Angelos Perperis, Spyridoula Theodoraki, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Charalambos Gogos
High-on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) is associated with ischemic events in patients on antiplatelet therapy with a history of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, recent data have associated sepsis with adverse cardiovascular events in patients admitted with bacteremia or respiratory infection. We aimed to assess P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity (PR) during sepsis and recovery in patients under clopidogrel. This was a prospective observational study. Incoming patients presenting with signs/symptoms of sepsis already on a maintenance dose of clopidogrel of 75 mg qd for cardiovascular events were included in this study...
June 21, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634353/coronavirus-hku15-in-respiratory-tract-of-pigs-and-first-discovery-of-coronavirus-quasispecies-in-5-untranslated-region
#4
Patrick Cy Woo, Susanna Kp Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Candy Cy Lau, Po-Chun Wong, Franklin Wn Chow, Jordan Yh Fong, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Coronavirus HKU15 is a deltacoronavirus that was discovered in fecal samples of pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. Over the past three years, Coronavirus HKU15 has been widely detected in pigs in East/Southeast Asia and North America and has been associated with fatal outbreaks. In all such epidemiological studies, the virus was generally only detected in fecal/intestinal samples. In this molecular epidemiology study, we detected Coronavirus HKU15 in 9.6% of the nasopharyngeal samples obtained from 249 pigs in Hong Kong...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634021/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-health-outcomes-in-children-with-asthma
#5
Pamela R Wood, Jordan C Kampschmidt, Peter H Dube, Marianna P Cagle, Paola Chaparro, Norma S Ketchum, Thirumalai R Kannan, Harjinder Singh, Jay I Peters, Joel B Baseman, Edward G Brooks
BACKGROUND: Acute infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) have been associated with worsening asthma in children. Mp can be present in the respiratory tract for extended periods; it is unknown whether the long-term persistence of Mp in the respiratory tract affects long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Mp on asthma control. METHODS: We enrolled 31 pediatric subjects 3 to 10 years of age with persistent asthma who completed up to 8 visits over a 24-month period...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#6
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631594/human-picornaviruses-associated-with-neurological-diseases-and-their-neutralization-by-antibodies
#7
Maria Anastasina, Aušra Domanska, Kaia Palm, Sarah Butcher
Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. The most infamous picornavirus is poliovirus, for which significant epidemics of poliomyelitis were reported from the end of the nineteenth century. A successful vaccination campaign has brought poliovirus close to eradication, but neurological diseases caused by other picornaviruses have increasingly been reported since the late 1990s...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631022/risk-analysis-and-outcomes-of-bronchopulmonary-sequestrations
#8
Chun Hong, Gang Yu, Jing Tang, QianLi Liu, Bo Xia
BACKGROUND: Researched and discussed the risks and outcomes of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, especially the intralobar type. METHODS: A retrospective review of our experiences with bronchopulmonary sequestrations from January 2012 to April 2015 is reported. The present study researched and discusses the risks and outcomes of bronchopulmonary sequestrations, especially the intralobar type, compared with other types of bronchopulmonary sequestrations in symptoms, surgery, pathology, and excretion...
June 19, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630178/efficacy-of-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-immunocompetent-rat-respiratory-tract-infection-models-recreating-human-plasma-pharmacokinetics
#9
Shuhei Matsumoto, Christine M Singley, Jennifer Hoover, Rio Nakamura, Roger Echols, Stephen Rittenhouse, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266), a novel siderophore cephalosporin, shows potent activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of cefiderocol against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in immunocompetent rat respiratory tract infection models recreating plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in healthy human subjects. A total of 6 clinical isolates (1 cephalosporin-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1 multidrug-resistant P...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629903/recording-adverse-events-following-joint-arthroplasty-financial-implications-and-validation-of-an-adverse-event-assessment-form
#10
Matthew J Lee, Khalid M S Mohamed, John C Kelly, John G Galbraith, John Street, Brian J Lenehan
BACKGROUND: In Ireland, funding of joint arthroplasty procedures has moved to a pay-by-results national tariff system. Typically, adverse clinical events are recorded via retrospective chart-abstraction methods by administrative staff. Missed or undocumented events not only affect the quality of patient care but also may unrealistically skew budgetary decisions that impact fiscal viability of the service. Accurate recording confers clinical benefits and financial transparency. The aim of this study was to compare a prospectively implemented adverse events form with the current national retrospective chart-abstraction method in terms of pay-by-results financial implications...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features,antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. METHODS: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined with disc diffusion method. Cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629721/a-16-year-retrospective-surveillance-report-on-the-pathogenic-features-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-fahju-in-guangzhou-representative-of-southern-china
#12
Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Brian M Peters, Lequn Chen, Dingqiang Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. A 16-year retrospective report from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in Southern China. A total of 1387 P. aeruginosa were collected from inpatients and outpatients. Susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2015). Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and carbapenems remained to be active against P...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629670/trends-in-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-allergic-rhinitis-symptoms-in-primary-schoolchildren-six-years-apart-in-budapest
#13
M Sultész, I Balogh, G Katona, G Mezei, A Hirschberg, G Gálffy
BACKGROUND: Few data are available concerning the time trends and risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in schoolchildren in Hungary. METHODS: At an interval of six years, parents of 6-12-year-old children completed identical ISAAC-based and additional questionnaires related to possible risk factors. RESULTS: Response rate was 62.8% with 6335 questionnaires distributed in 2007, and 52.9% with 6441 questionnaires in 2013. The prevalence of current AR symptoms (subjects presenting clinical symptoms of AR in the past 12 months, but had yet to be diagnosed by physician) increased significantly from 14...
June 16, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628889/the-innate-immune-response-to-lower-respiratory-tract-e-coli-infection-and-the-role-of-the-ccl2-ccr2-axis-in-neonatal-mice
#14
Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Roland Ndeh, Joseph M Collaco, Amy K Poupore, Dustin Dikeman, Qiong Zhong, Benjamin D Singer, Franco D'Alessio, Alan Scott
Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E...
June 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628546/the-impact-of-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-on-outcomes-for-critically-ill-children
#15
Jigar C Chauhan, Nicholas B Slamon
OBJECTIVE: Advances in molecular diagnosis have led to increased testing for single and multiviral respiratory infection in routine clinical practice. This study compares outcomes between single and multiviral respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care, freestanding children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure and positive respiratory molecular panel...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628024/-evaluation-of-dynamic-telomere-length-shortening-of-lymphocytes-in-immunocompromised-children-with-chronic-diseases-of-the-respiratory
#16
E Khalturina, I Nesterova
Nowadays it is common to observe the growth of viral-viral and viral-bacterial co-infections in children of different ages, due to dysfunction of lymphocytes (DL), which can be connected with the process of the accelerated shortening of the end structures of chromosomal telomeres, telomere length changes are described in lymphocytes of children with chronic mono-infections. The conducted study has shown the shortening of telomere lymphocytes in children with CDRT seropositive for mixed-herpes viral infections (herpes simplex virus, virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in various combinations) and for bacterial co-infections - Chlamydia trachomatis and (or) Mycoplasma pneumoniae...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625542/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-of-the-orf2-gene-of-feline-calicivirus
#18
Minghui Zang, Wanting He, Fanshu Du, Gongjian Wu, Bohao Wu, Zhenlei Zhou
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly prevalent pathogen of the domestic cat that causes acute infections of the oral and upper respiratory tract. The E region of the ORF2 protein is responsible for the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies, thus it is important to understand the codon usage of this gene. Here, analysed 90 coding sequences of ORF2 and show that it undergoes a low codon usage bias. In addition, although mutational bias is one of the factors shaping the codon usage bias of this gene, natural selection plays a more significant role...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624659/surface-engineering-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticle-assemblies-by-methyl-%C3%AE-d-mannopyranoside-for-the-active-targeting-to-macrophages-in-anti-tuberculosis-inhalation-therapy
#19
Eleonora Maretti, Luca Costantino, Cecilia Rustichelli, Eliana Leo, Maria Antonietta Croce, Francesca Buttini, Eleonora Truzzi, Valentina Iannuccelli
This study describes the development of new mannosylated Solid Lipid Nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas) delivering rifampicin for an inhaled treatment of tuberculosis. SLNas were surface engineered with mannose residues to recognize mannose receptors located on infected alveolar macrophages and facilitate cell internalization. Two sets of SLNas were produced by the melt emulsifying technique using biocompatible lipid components, i.e. cholesteryl myristate combined with palmitic acid (PA set) or tripalmitin (TP set), in the presence of the targeting moiety, methyl α-d-mannopyranoside...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623109/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-adult-respiratory-tract-infections-in-nationwide-japanese-surveillances-from-2006-to-2014
#20
Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports on the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been received from many countries. However, in countries where the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were introduced, overall coverage of the serotypes by the vaccine gradually decreased due to pneumococcal serotype replacement. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and to also provide basic data on adult respiratory infection in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 1086 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated from respiratory tract infection specimens in adult patients from 2006 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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