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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#1
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352084/detection-of-human-bocavirus-species-2-and-3-in-bivalve-shellfish-in-italy
#2
G La Rosa, G Purpari, A Guercio, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, Y T R Proroga, M Pisanu, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, E Suffredini
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Recently, HBoVs have been detected in sewage and river waters in Italy and worldwide. However, no studies are yet available on their presence in other water environments and in bivalve molluscs.In this study, 316 bivalve shellfish samples collected in three Italian regions over a six-year period (2012-2017) were analyzed by nested PCR and sequencing using broad-range primer pairs targeting the capsid proteins VP1/VP2 of HBoV...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350153/trends-in-infectious-disease-mortality-south-korea-1983-2015
#3
Young June Choe, Seung-Ah Choe, Sung-Il Cho
We used national statistics from 1983-2015 to evaluate trends in mortality caused by infectious diseases in South Korea. Age-standardized mortality from infectious disease decreased from 43.5/100,000 population in 1983 to 16.5/100,000 in 1996, and then increased to 44.6/100,000 in 2015. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in 1983 and respiratory tract infections in 2015. We observed a significant decline in infant deaths caused by infectious diseases, but mortality in persons age >65 years increased from 135 deaths/100,000 population in 1996 to 307/100,000 in 2015...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350142/lethal-respiratory-disease-associated-with-human-rhinovirus%C3%A2-c-in-wild-chimpanzees-uganda-2013
#4
Erik J Scully, Sarmi Basnet, Richard W Wrangham, Martin N Muller, Emily Otali, David Hyeroba, Kristine A Grindle, Tressa E Pappas, Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin Machanda, Kelly E Watters, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern, Tony L Goldberg
We describe a lethal respiratory outbreak among wild chimpanzees in Uganda in 2013 for which molecular and epidemiologic analyses implicate human rhinovirus C as the cause. Postmortem samples from an infant chimpanzee yielded near-complete genome sequences throughout the respiratory tract; other pathogens were absent. Epidemiologic modeling estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) for the epidemic as 1.83, consistent with the common cold in humans. Genotyping of 41 chimpanzees and examination of 24 published chimpanzee genomes from subspecies across Africa showed universal homozygosity for the cadherin-related family member 3 CDHR3-Y529 allele, which increases risk for rhinovirus C infection and asthma in human children...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348862/digital-gene-expression-analysis-in-mice-lung-with-coinfection-of-influenza-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#5
Jun Luo, Linlin Zhou, Hongren Wang, Zhen Qin, Li Xiang, Jie Zhu, Xiaojun Huang, Yuan Yang, Wanyi Li, Baoning Wang, Mingyuan Li
Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) are two major upper respiratory tract pathogens that can also cause infection in polarized bronchial epithelial cells to exacerbate disease in coinfected individuals which may result in significant morbidity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we employed BALB/c ByJ mice inflected with SP, IAV, IAV followed by SP (IAV+SP) and PBS (Control) as models to survey the global gene expression using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346336/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-united-states-2014-2017
#6
Erica Billig Rose, Alexandra Wheatley, Gayle Langley, Susan Gerber, Amber Haynes
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) (https://www...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#7
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343585/rhinovirus-in-febrile-infants-and-risk-of-bacterial-infection
#8
Anne J Blaschke, E Kent Korgenski, Jacob Wilkes, Angela P Presson, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Elizabeth D Knackstedt, Carolyn Reynolds, Jeff E Schunk, Judy A Daly, Carrie L Byington
BACKGROUND: Febrile infants with viral respiratory infections have a reduced risk of bacterial infection compared with virus-negative infants. The risk of concomitant bacterial infection in febrile infants positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is unknown. METHODS: Infants 1-90 days old managed using the care process model for well-appearing febrile infants and with respiratory viral testing by PCR (RVPCR) in the emergency department or inpatient setting of 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system from 2007-2016 were identified...
January 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343540/point-counterpoint-meningitis-encephalitis-syndromic-testing-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#9
Jennifer Dien Bard, Kevin Alby
"I'm not telling you it's going to be easy. I'm telling you it's going to be worth it"- Art WilliamsFor the most part, syndromic testing by multiplex molecular panels has been a welcome addition to the diagnostic laboratory. The first three panels available addressed syndromes associated with upper respiratory tract infections, bloodstream infections and gastroenteritis, with adoption of the first two panels being the most widespread. Multiple studies have been published on the performance characteristics of these syndromic panels as well as the impact on turn-around-time (TAT), increased pathogen detection, and antimicrobial use...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342998/-x-linked-immunodeficiency-with-magnesium-defect-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-neoplasia-report-of-a-family-and-literature-review
#10
T Y He, Y Xia, C G Li, C R Li, Z X Qi, J Yang
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and genetic characteristics of cases with X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia (XMEN). Methods: Characteristics of clinical material, immunological data and gene mutation of two cases with XMEN in the same family in China were retrospectively analyzed. The related reports literature were searched by using search terms'MAGT1 gene'or'XMEN'. Results: The proband, a 2-year-eight-month old boy, was admitted due to 'Urine with deepened color for two days and yellow stained skin for one day'...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340765/orotracheal-tube-as-a%C3%A2-risk-factor-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-preliminary-data-from-a%C3%A2-randomised-trial
#11
Igor Muzlovic, Janja Perme, David Stubljar
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether polyurethane (PU) endotracheal tubes, continuous measurements of cuff pressure and aspiration of the subglottic space as a bundle of parameters could reduce patients' risk for developing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: Two groups of patients that differed only in terms of endotracheal tubes and intubation intervention were compared. Group A was ventilated using PU tubes a with conical cuff; they also had continuous cuff pressure measurement and continuous subglottic aspiration...
January 16, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339818/development-and-optimization-of-a-differentiated-airway-epithelial-cell-model-of-the-bovine-respiratory-tract
#12
Daniel Cozens, Edward Grahame, Erin Sutherland, Geraldine Taylor, Catherine C Berry, Robert L Davies
Cattle are subject to economically-important respiratory tract infections by various bacterial and viral pathogens and there is an urgent need for the development of more realistic in vitro models of the bovine respiratory tract to improve our knowledge of disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we have optimized the culture conditions in serum-free medium that allow bovine bronchial epithelial cells (BBECs) grown at an air-liquid interface to differentiate into a three-dimensional epithelium that is highly representative of the bovine airway...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339536/length-of-stay-and-hospital-revisit-after-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations
#13
Christopher J Russell, Mary R Mamey, Joyce Y Koh, Sheree M Schrager, Michael N Neely, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI...
January 16, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338045/protection-induced-by-virus-like-particle-vaccine-containing-tandem-repeat-gene-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-g-protein
#14
Ah-Ra Kim, Dong-Hun Lee, Su-Hwa Lee, Ilaria Rubino, Hyo-Jick Choi, Fu-Shi Quan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children and the elderly. However, there is no licensed vaccine available against RSV infection. In this study, we generated virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine and investigated the vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. For VLP vaccines, tandem gene (1-780 bp) for V1 VLPs and tandem repeat gene (repeated 450-780 bp) for V5 VLPs were constructed in pFastBacTM vectors, respectively. Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) was used as a core protein in the VLPs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337997/event-based-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-bangladesh-among-pilgrims-and-travelers-from-the-middle-east-an-update-for-the-period-2013-2016
#15
A K M Muraduzzaman, Manjur Hossain Khan, Rezina Parveen, Sharmin Sultana, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Arifa Akram, Mahmudur Rahman, Tahmina Shirin
INTRODUCTION: Every year around 150,000 pilgrims from Bangladesh perform Umrah and Hajj. Emergence and continuous reporting of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia emphasize the need for surveillance of MERS-CoV in returning pilgrims or travelers from the Middle East and capacity building of health care providers for disease containment. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) under the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family welfare (MoHFW), is responsible for MERS-CoV screening of pilgrims/ travelers returning from the Middle East with respiratory illness as part of its outbreak investigation and surveillance activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337839/serum-admission-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-outcomes-in-initially-non-septic-critically-ill-patients
#16
Alice G Vassiliou, Edison Jahaj, Zafeiria Mastora, Eleni Stagaki, Stylianos E Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou
INTRODUCTION: To examine whether very low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D {25(OH)D} upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with worse outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of critically-ill patients treated in a multidisciplinary ICU. Two hundred and twenty seven initially non-septic, critically-ill patients, in whom 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured at ICU admission. An additional group of 192 healthy subjects was also used...
January 15, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336783/bronchiectasis-is-highly-prevalent-in-anti-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-and-is-associated-with-a-distinct-disease-presentation
#17
Antoine Néel, Alexandra Espitia-Thibault, Pierre-Paul Arrigoni, Christelle Volteau, Marie Rimbert, Agathe Masseau, Christian Agard, Fadi Fakhouri, Renan Liberge, Mohamed Hamidou
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of bronchiectasis in a Western cohort with ANCA-positive granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and its correlations with disease presentation and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients followed at Nantes University Hospital (2005-2015). Clinical, biological, and follow-up data were collected through chart review. Two experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data interpreted chest high-resolution CTs according to the Feischner Society criteria...
December 7, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336187/efficacy-and-safety-of-sirukumab-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-rheumatoid-arthritis-inadequately-controlled-by-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-subgroup-analysis-of-a-phase-3-study
#18
Tsutomu Takeuchi, Yoshiya Tanaka, Hisashi Yamanaka, Masayoshi Harigai, Toshikazu Nakano, Koshiro Akagi, Yoshifumi Ukyo, Benjamin Hsu
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirukumab in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis uncontrolled by disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods This subgroup analysis based on a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 52-week phase 3 study (SIRROUND-D) assessed American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20 response at week 16 and van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (vdH-S) at week 52 (coprimary endpoints). Results A total of 168 (Japanese)/1670 patients received sirukumab 50 mg/4 weeks (q4w, n = 58), 100 mg/every 2 weeks (q2w, n = 54), or placebo (n = 56) subcutaneously...
January 16, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335801/igm-augments-complement-bactericidal-activity-with-serum-from-a-patient-with-a-novel-cd79a-mutation
#19
Jeroen D Langereis, Stefanie S Henriet, Saskia Kuipers, Corry M R Weemaes, Mirjam van der Burg, Marien I de Jonge, Michiel van der Flier
Antibody replacement therapy for patients with antibody deficiencies contains only IgG. As a result, concurrent IgM and IgA deficiency present in a large proportion of antibody deficient patients persists. Especially patients with IgM deficiency remain at risk for recurrent infections of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. The lack of IgM in the current IgG replacement therapy is likely to contribute to the persistence of these mucosal infections because this antibody class is especially important for complement activation on the mucosal surface...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335323/antibiotic-prescribing-quality-for-children-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#20
Megan Rose Williams, Giles Greene, Gurudutt Naik, Kathryn Hughes, Christopher C Butler, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is driving antibiotic resistance. GPs often prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in young children despite their marginal beneficial effects. AIM: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing for common infections in young children attending primary care and to investigate influencing factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational, descriptive analysis, including children attending primary care sites in England and Wales...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
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