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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636230/quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-erythrocytes-and-plasma-by-fast-gas-chromatography
#1
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Sagar K Thakkar, Isabelle Masserey-Elmelegy, William Bousi, Patric Fontannaz, Francesca Giuffrida
As a result of the heterogeneous nature of lipid classes in complex biological matrices such as plasma and erythrocytes, it is imperative to have a robust and validated methodology for fatty acid quantification. The effective method presented here combines available methodology of fast gas chromatography and an improvement of the sample preparation methodology before injection into the gas chromatograph. This methodology ensures complete transesterification and quantification of total and individual fatty acids (and not only in relative amounts) by addition of internal standards...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636047/decoding-the-regulatory-mechanism-of-glucose-and-insulin-induced-phosphatidylinositol-3-4-5-trisphosphate-dynamics-in-%C3%AE-cells
#2
Tagari Samanta, Peeyush Sharma, Dwijendra Kukri, Sandip Kar
In MIN6 pancreatic β-cells, glucose and insulin act in a synergistic manner to regulate the dynamics of Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). However, the precise regulatory mechanism behind such an experimentally observed synergy is poorly understood. In this article, we propose a phenomenological mathematical model for studying the glucose and insulin driven PIP3 activation dynamics under various stimulatory conditions to unfold the mechanism responsible for the observed synergy. The modeling study reveals that the experimentally observed oscillation in PIP3 dynamics with disparate time scales for different external glucose doses is mainly orchestrated by the complex dynamic regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in β-cells...
June 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636003/in-vitro-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-whey-protein-to-preserve-intestinal-health
#3
T Sánchez-Moya, R López-Nicolás, D Planes, C A González-Bermúdez, G Ros-Berruezo, C Frontela-Saseta
The effect of several types of whey milk - cow, sheep, goat and a mixture of them (60 : 20 : 20, respectively) - was assessed in the human gut microbiota. The prebiotic potential of these substrates was evaluated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion following faecal batch culture fermentations (mimicking colonic fermentation) for 48 hours, using faeces from normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) donors. Throughout the fermentation process, pH, gas production, short chain and branched fatty acids (SCFA-BCFA) were measured, as well as the changes of microbiota using qPCR...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635680/saturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-replacements-for-saturated-fat-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk
#4
REVIEW
Michelle A Briggs, Kristina S Petersen, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk...
June 21, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635632/glucose-and-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-prediabetes-induced-by-a-high-sucrose-diet
#5
Ana Burgeiro, Manuela G Cerqueira, Bárbara M Varela-Rodríguez, Sara Nunes, Paula Neto, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, Eugénia Carvalho
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)-received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)-received vehicle (water)...
June 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635612/consequences-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-administration-on-aortic-function-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Barbara Kaprinay, Ruzena Sotnikova, Karel Frimmel, Jakub Krizak, Iveta Bernatova, Jana Navarova, Ludmila Okruhlicova
The aim of the work was to study the delayed effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on endothelial function of the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension. Further, the possibility to ameliorate LPS-induced changes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was tested. Rats received a bolus of 1 mg/kg LPS i.p.; n-3 PUFA were administered in the dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 10 days p.o.. Ten days after receiving of LPS, the body weight gain of rats was statistically lower compared to control rats (p < 0...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635579/-fish-oil-in-pregnancy-can-it-prevent-asthma-in-children
#7
P L P Brand, M B Katan
Taking fish oil supplements in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with significantly less wheezing or asthma in the child at the age of 3-5 years, according to a randomized clinical trial by Bisgaard et al., NEJM 2017. However, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. The primary end points were modified at a late stage in the study, and two primary end points, eczema in the first 3 years of life and allergic sensitization at 18 months of age, were demoted to secondary end points, and showed no significant effect of treatment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634625/serum-antioxidant-capacity-biochemical-profile-and-body-composition-of-breast-cancer-survivors-in-a-randomized-mediterranean-dietary-intervention-study
#8
Maria Skouroliakou, D Grosomanidis, P Massara, C Kostara, P Papandreou, D Ntountaniotis, G Xepapadakis
PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that Mediterranean Diet (MD) is correlated with reduced risk of breast cancer (BC) and cancer mortality, since it modifies patients' serum antioxidant capacity, body composition and biochemical parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention based on MD has a beneficial effect on these factors. METHODS: In this intervention study, seventy female BC survivors were randomly assigned to (1) the intervention group (personalized dietary intervention based on MD) and (2) the control group (received the updated American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention and ad libitum diet)...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634477/metabolomic-analysis-and-mode-of-action-of-metabolites-of-tea-tree-oil-involved-in-the-suppression-of-botrytis-cinerea
#9
Jiayu Xu, Xingfeng Shao, Yonghua Li, Yingying Wei, Feng Xu, Hongfei Wang
Tea tree oil (TTO), a volatile essential oil, has been widely used as an antimicrobial agent. However, the mechanism underlying TTO antifungal activity is not fully understood. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomics survey was undertaken to identify changes in metabolite production in Botrytis cinerea cells treated with TTO. Significant differences in 91 metabolites were observed, including 8 upregulated and 83 downregulated metabolites in TTO-treated cells. The results indicate that TTO inhibits primary metabolic pathways through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and fatty acid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634391/two-alternative-pathways-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-22-6n-3-biosynthesis-are-widespread-among-teleost-fish
#10
Angela Oboh, Naoki Kabeya, Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas, L Filipe C Castro, James R Dick, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays important physiological roles in vertebrates. Studies in rats and rainbow trout confirmed that DHA biosynthesis proceeds through the so-called "Sprecher pathway", a biosynthetic process requiring a Δ6 desaturation of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3. Alternatively, some teleosts possess fatty acyl desaturases 2 (Fads2) that enable them to biosynthesis DHA through a more direct route termed the "Δ4 pathway". In order to elucidate the prevalence of both pathways among teleosts, we investigated the Δ6 ability towards C24 substrates of Fads2 from fish with different evolutionary and ecological backgrounds...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634302/structure-of-human-fe-s-assembly-subcomplex-reveals-unexpected-cysteine-desulfurase-architecture-and-acyl-acp-isd11-interactions
#11
Seth A Cory, Jonathan G Van Vranken, Edward J Brignole, Shachin Patra, Dennis R Winge, Catherine L Drennan, Jared Rutter, David P Barondeau
In eukaryotes, sulfur is mobilized for incorporation into multiple biosynthetic pathways by a cysteine desulfurase complex that consists of a catalytic subunit (NFS1), LYR protein (ISD11), and acyl carrier protein (ACP). This NFS1-ISD11-ACP (SDA) complex forms the core of the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) assembly complex and associates with assembly proteins ISCU2, frataxin (FXN), and ferredoxin to synthesize Fe-S clusters. Here we present crystallographic and electron microscopic structures of the SDA complex coupled to enzyme kinetic and cell-based studies to provide structure-function properties of a mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#12
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634213/omega-3-fatty-acids-increase-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-improve-amyloid-%C3%AE-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Henry M Olivera-Perez, Larry Lam, Johnny Dang, Weilan Jiang, Fabian Rodriguez, Elizabeth Rigali, Sarah Weitzman, Verna Porter, Liudmilla Rubi, Marco Morselli, Matteo Pellegrini, Milan Fiala
Mϕs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are defective in amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) phagocytosis and have low resistance to apoptosis by Aβ. ω-3 in vitro and in vivo and the ω-3 mediator, resolvin D1, in vitro increase Aβ phagocytosis by Mϕs of patients with MCI. We have investigated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Mϕs in a longitudinal study of fish-derived, ω-3-supplemented patients with MCI. Patients in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)e3/e3 subgroup over time exhibited an increase of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) expression, Aβ phagocytosis, intermediate M1-M2 Mϕ type, and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) rate of change of +1...
June 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634191/cd36-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-lithogenic-diet-induced-gallstones
#14
Yan Xie, Vincenza Cifarelli, Terri Pietka, Elizabeth P Newberry, Susan M Kennedy, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Robin Clugston, Kamran Atabai, Nada A Abumrad, Nicholas O Davidson
The scavenger receptor and multiligand transporter CD36 functions to promote cellular free fatty acid uptake and regulates aspects of both hepatic and intestinal cholesterol metabolism. However, the role of CD36 in regulating canalicular and biliary cholesterol transport and secretion is unknown. Here we show that germline Cd36 knockout mice are protected against lithogenic diet (LD) induced gallstones compared to congenic (C57BL6/J) controls. Cd36 knockout mice crossed into congenic L-Fabp knockout mice (DKO mice) demonstrated protection against LD induced gallstones, reversing the susceptibility phenotype observed in L-Fabp knockout mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633967/the-effects-of-chronic-faah-inhibition-on-myocardial-lipid-metabolism-in-normotensive-and-doca-salt-hypertensive-rats
#15
Agnieszka Polak, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska, Irena Kasacka, Anna Pędzińska-Betiuk, Jolanta Weresa, Adrian Chabowski
AIMS: There is significant evidence that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) takes part in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. It is quite well established that hypertension causes several changes in the heart metabolism, but it is still unknown whether the ECS affects this process. Therefore, we investigated the influence of prolonged ECS activation on myocardial lipid metabolism in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats by chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition...
June 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633870/omega-3-free-fatty-acids-attenuate-insulin-promoted-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#16
Yang Guo, Sheng-Long Zhu, Yi-Kuan Wu, Zhao He, Yong-Quan Chen
High insulin levels in obese people are considered as a risk factor to induce breast carcinogenesis. And consumption of fish oils which mainly contain omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, whether omega-3 free fatty acids (FFAs) modulate insulin signaling pathway to prevent breast cancer is poorly understood. The current study tested the hypothesis that omega-3 FFAs attenuate insulin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and regulate insulin signaling pathway. We show here that omega-3 FFAs attenuate MCF-7 cell proliferation and Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation levels stimulated by insulin...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633867/review-of-a-causal-role-of-fructose-containing-sugars-in-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
REVIEW
Gerald J Maarman, Amy E Mendham, Kim Lamont, Cindy George
In 2012, the World Health Organization Global Status Report on noncommunicable diseases showed that 7.4 million deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. Consequently, cardiovascular disease is a significant health burden, especially when partnered with comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, these diseases can all be induced or exacerbated by diet. Carbohydrates, in particular, fructose and glucose, generally form the largest part of the human diet. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that if large amounts of fructose are consumed either in isolation or in combination with glucose (fructose-containing sugars), myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633686/polymorphisms-of-the-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-interact-with-plasma-fatty-acids-on-inflammatory-biomarker-profile-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#18
Erica Oki, Marina N Norde, Antônio A F Carioca, José M P Souza, Inar A Castro, Dirce M L Marchioni, Regina M Fisberg, Marcelo M Rogero
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of four TNF-α SNP with inflammatory biomarkers and plasma fatty acids (FA), and the interaction among them in a population-based, cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 281 subjects, aged >19 and <60 years, participated in a cross-sectional, population-based study performed in Brazil. The following SNP spanning the TNF-α gene were genotyped: -238G/A (rs361525), -308G/A (rs1800629), -857C/T (rs1799724) and -1031T/C (rs1799964)...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633498/thymol-as-natural-antioxidant-additive-for-poultry-feed-oxidative-stability-improvement
#19
A Luna, R C Lema-Alba, J S Dambolena, J A Zygadlo, M C Labaque, R H Marin
Antioxidant are regularly included in poultry feed as protection from deterioration during storage. Recently the interest for the use of natural phytochemicals in animal diets has been increased. Thymol (THY) has been proven to be an effective antioxidant for extending broiler meat quality during storage with similar action to the widely used butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). This study evaluates whether THY can also have a protective effect on the feed mash by assessing its antioxidant potential and related changes in fatty acid (FA) balance...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633104/transcriptional-and-cellular-effects-of-paracetamol-in-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#20
M J Bebianno, A C P Mello, M A S Serrano, F Flores-Nunes, J J Mattos, F L Zacchi, C E Piazza, M N Siebert, R S Piazza, C H A M Gomes, C M R Melo, A C D Bainy
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) (PAR) is one of the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with analgesic and antipyretic properties consumed worldwide and often detected in the aquatic environment. Due to the fact that PAR induces oxidative stress in mammals, the aim of this study was to evaluate if similar effects were observed in oysters Crassostrea gigas, given their economic and ecological importance and worldwide distribution. Oysters were exposed for 1, 4 and 7 days to two different sublethal PAR concentrations (0, 1 and 100μgL(-1))...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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