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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#1
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938608/use-of-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-with-a-fluorescently-labeled-fatty-acid-to-diagnose-colorectal-neoplasms
#2
Feihong Deng, Yuan Fang, Zhiyong Shen, Wei Gong, Tao Liu, Jing Wen, Wanling Zhang, Xianjun Zhu, Hui Zhong, Tong Wang, Fachao Zhi, Biao Nie
Endoscopic treatment for early colorectal cancer closely correlates with patient prognosis. However, endoscopic differentiation between carcinomas and non-neoplastic lesions remains difficult. Here, we topically stained colorectal neoplasms with a fatty acid analogue (BODIPY-FA) and quantified the fluorescent signals using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and fluorescence microscopy. We also analyzed protein expression in colorectal cancer tissues. We found that expression of fatty acid synthase was elevated, while the expression of fatty acid transporters was reduced in colorectal cancer...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938561/preventive-effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-tofogliflozin-on-diethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-tumorigenesis-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#3
Koki Obara, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Takayasu Ideta, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Lepr (db) /+Lepr (db) obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#4
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#5
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938428/glp-1-receptor-activation-inhibits-palmitate-induced-apoptosis-via-ceramide-in-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#6
Anna Leonardini, Rossella D'Oria, Maria Angela Incalza, Cristina Caccioppoli, Valentina Andrulli Buccheri, Angelo Cignarelli, Domenico Paparella, Vito Margari, Annalisa Natalicchio, Sebastio Perrini, Francesco Giorgino, Luigi Laviola
Context: Increased apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in response to saturated fatty acids (SFA) can lead to myocardial damage and dysfunction. Ceramides mediate lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis. GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists exert beneficial effects on cardiac cells in experimental models. Objective: To investigate the protective effects of GLP1R activation on SFA-mediated apoptotic death of human CPCs. Design: Human CPCs were isolated from cardiac appendages of non-diabetic donors and then exposed to palmitate with or without pre-treatment with the GLP1R agonist exendin-4...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938404/the-transcriptome-of-estrogen-independent-mammary-growth-in-female-mice-reveals-that-not-all-mammary-glands-are-created-equally
#7
Grace E Berryhill, Danielle G Lemay, Josephine F Trott, Lucila Aimo, Adam L Lock, Russell C Hovey
Allometric growth of ducts in the mammary glands (MG) is widely-held to be estrogen (E)-dependent. We previously discovered that the dietary fatty acid trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulates E-independent allometric growth and TEB formation in ovariectomized mice. Given the similar phenotype induced by E and CLA, we investigated the shared and/or divergent mechanisms underlying these changes. We confirmed MG growth induced by CLA is temporally distinct from that elicited by E, then used RNA-Sequencing to compare the transcriptome of the MG during similar proliferative and morphological states...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938138/continued-sar-exploration-of-1-2-4-thiadiazole-containing-scaffolds-in%C3%A2-the-design-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-1-gpr40-agonists
#8
Mikhail Krasavin, Alexei Lukin, Anna Bakholdina, Nikolay Zhurilo, Oleksandra Onopchenko, Petro Borysko, Sergey Zozulya, Daniel Moore, Irina G Tikhonova
An earlier reported series of 1,2,4-thiadiazole-based agonists of FFA1 (GPR40) was evolved into two structurally distinct series of compounds. One of the series (structurally related to known FFA1 agonist GW9508) displayed low micromolar potency while the other (representing a truncated version of the earlier reported potent FFA1 agonists) was, surprisingly, found to be devoid of agonist potency. In silico docking of representative compounds into the crystal structure of FFA1 revealed possible structural grounds for the observed SAR...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937988/differential-effects-of-rice-bran-cultivars-to-limit-salmonella-typhimurium-in-chicken-cecal-in-vitro-incubations-and-impact-on-the-cecal-microbiome-and-metabolome
#9
Peter M Rubinelli, Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Stephanie M Roto, Nora Jean Nealon, Elizabeth P Ryan, Steven C Ricke
In this study, rice brans from different cultivars (Calrose, Jasmine, and Red Wells) were assessed for their ability to inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota obtained from broilers of different ages. Salmonella Typhimurium was added to controls (feed only, cecal only, and feed + cecal material) and treatments (feed + cecal + different rice brans) and S. Typhimurium populations were enumerated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Two experimental conditions were applied 1) unadapted condition in which S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937966/malusides-novel-glucosylceramides-isolated-from-apple-pomace-malus-domestica
#10
Mathias Reisberg, Norbert Arnold, Andrea Porzel, Reinhard H H Neubert, Birgit Dräger
Three new glucosylceramides (GluCers) named malusides I-III (1-3) were isolated from apple (cultivars of Malus domestica) pomace (fruit material remaining after juice extraction). An unusual oxo/hydroxy group pattern within the sphingadienine (d18:2) type sphingoid base was observed. All compounds contained the same α-hydroxylated fatty acid (h16:0) and a β-D-glucose moiety. Their structures were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) measurements...
September 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937796/delay-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-lac-1-development-in-mice-by-dietary-oleic-acid
#11
Mariana Piegari, Elio A Soria, Aldo R Eynard, Mirta A Valentich
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer, and is a major sanitary concern worldwide. Some nutrients, such as ω-9 fatty acids, have been proposed as anticancer agents. Thus, an olein-enriched diet was assayed in a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma (LAC-1) to evaluate neoplastic and paraneoplastic evolution in BALB/c mice. The organic assimilation of dietary fatty acids was confirmed in liver by gas chromatography. This experimental oleic acid-containing diet increased animal survival and tumour latency (analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method), improving neoplastic evolution and general status, with weak effects on the paraneoplastic syndrome (thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, splenocyte response to mitogen, blood anaemia, and leucocytosis)...
September 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937788/lipid-extracts-from-the-brains-of-silver-carp-hypophthalmichthys-molitrix-induce-apoptosis-in-mcf-7-cells-through-the-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#12
Caixia Wang, Wenshui Xia, Qixing Jiang, Yanshun Xu, Peipei Yu
Previous studies have verified the protective role of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cancer. Fish brain lipids are rich in n3 PUFAs. However, the action and mechanism of their potent anticancer activities remain unclear. In this study, polar lipids (PLs) and neutral lipids (NLs) were isolated from the total lipids (TLs) of the silver carp brain, and the anticancer effects of the lipid fractions (LFs) were examined in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The LFs effectively inhibited the cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by cell cycle arrest at the S stage and induction of apoptosis...
September 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937704/a-high-concentration-of-fatty-acids-induces-tnf-%C3%AE-as-well-as-no-release-mediated-by-the-p2x4-receptor-and-the-protective-effects-of-puerarin-in-raw264-7-cells
#13
Yun-Ming Tu, Cheng-Xin Gong, Lu Ding, Xing-Zi Liu, Tao Li, Fang-Fang Hu, Shuo Wang, Chao-Peng Xiong, Shang-Dong Liang, Hong Xu
Circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are often found to be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS). High plasma FFA levels may give rise to maladaptive macrophage activation and promote inflammatory responses, which has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the development of DM and MS. P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a ligand-gated cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), plays a primary role in the regulation of inflammatory responses...
September 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#14
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937250/role-of-exercise-induced-calmodulin-protein-kinase-camk-ii-activation-in-the-regulation-of-omega-6-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#15
J S Joseph, A O Ayeleso, E Mukwevho
Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936467/peroxisome-motility-measurement-and-quantification-assay
#16
Jeremy Metz, Inês G Castro, Michael Schrader
Organelle movement, distribution and interaction contribute to the organisation of the eukaryotic cell. Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism and ROS homeostasis. They distribute uniformly in mammalian cells and move along microtubules via kinesin and dynein motors. Their metabolic cooperation with mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936206/an-in-vitro-fermentation-study-on-the-effects-of-gluten-friendly-tm-bread-on-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-of-fecal-samples-from-healthy-and-celiac-subjects
#18
Adele Costabile, Triana Bergillos-Meca, Loretta Landriscina, Antonio Bevilacqua, Isidro Gonzalez-Salvador, Maria R Corbo, Leonardo Petruzzi, Milena Sinigaglia, Carmela Lamacchia
Recently, an innovative gluten detoxification method called Gluten Friendly(TM) (GF) has been developed. It induces structural modifications, which abolish the antigenic capacity of gluten and reduce the in vitro immunogenicity of the most common epitopes involved in celiac disease, without compromising the nutritional and technological properties. This study investigated the in vitro effects of GF bread (GFB) on the fecal microbiota from healthy and celiac individuals by a three-stage continuous fermentative system, which simulates the colon (vessel 1, proximal colon; vessel 2, transverse colon; and vessel 3, distal colon), as well as on the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935979/intergrative-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-unveil-nutrient-remobilization-events-in-leaf-senescence-of-tobacco
#19
Wei Li, Hailiang Zhang, Xiaoxu Li, Fengxia Zhang, Cheng Liu, Yongmei Du, Xiaoming Gao, Zenglin Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Zhihui Hou, Hui Zhou, Xiaofei Sheng, Guodong Wang, Yongfeng Guo
Leaf senescence in plants is a coordinated process that involves remobilization of nutrients from senescing leaves to sink tissues. The molecular events associated with nutrient remobilization are however not well understood. In this study the tobacco system with a source-sink relationship between different leaf positions was used in analyzing the spatiotemporal changes of 76 metabolites from leaves at 3 different stalk positions and 8 developmental stages. The metabolomic data was then compared with RNA-seq data from the same samples to analyze the activities of the metabolic pathways that are important for nutrient remobilization...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935827/short-term-dietary-curcumin-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-barrier-damage-and-physiological-strain-responses-during-exertional-heat-stress
#20
Mandy C Szymanski, Trevor L Gillum, Lacey M Gould, David S Morin, Matthew R Kuennen
PURPOSE: This work investigated the effect of 3d of 500mg/d dietary curcumin supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) barrier damage and systems-physiology responses to exertional heat stress in non-heat acclimated humans. METHODS: Eight participants ran (65%VO2max) for 60min in a Darwin® chamber (37°C/25%RH) two times (Curcumin/Placebo). Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and associated pro-inflammatory (MCP-1, TNFα, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1RA, IL-10) cytokines were assayed from plasma collected before (Pre), after (Post), 1hr (1-Post), and 4hrs after (4-Post) exercise...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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