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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166576/the-beneficial-health-aspects-of-sea-buckthorn-elaeagnus-rhamnoides-l-a-nelson-oil
#1
REVIEW
Beata Olas
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL CONTEXT: Plant oils are known to have biological activity. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of the composition of sea buckthorn (Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson) seed and pulp oil and its beneficial health aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies on humans and animals have found sea buckthorn oil to have a variety of beneficial properties to human health, and indicate that it may be a valuable component of human and animal nutrition...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166560/analytical-challenges-and-recent-advances-in-mass-spectrometry-based-lipidomics
#2
Yepy Hardi Rustam, Gavin Edmund Reid
Although no internationally accepted consensus definition exists, lipids can be broadly defined as "fatty acids and their derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds". Lipids play critical roles as (i) the major structural components of biological membranes, and as functional and regulatory components of membrane protein signaling, (ii) bioactive intra- and inter-cellular signaling molecules, and (iii) energy storage molecules for the maintenance of energy homeostasis...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166379/bcfa-enriched-vernix-monoacylglycerol-reduces-lps-induced-inflammatory-markers-in-human-enterocytes-in-vitro
#3
Yuanyuan Yan, Zhen Wang, Donghao Wang, Peter Lawrence, Xingguo Wang, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Jacelyn Greenwald, Ruijie Liu, Hui Gyu Park, J Thomas Brenna
BACKGROUND: Excess vernix caseosa produced by the fetal skin appears as particles suspended in the amniotic fluid in late gestation, is swallowed by the fetus and is found throughout the newborn GI tract as the first organisms are arriving to colonize the gut. Lipid rich vernix contains an unusually high 29% branched chain fatty acid (BCFA). BCFA reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in an animal model, recently found predominantly in the sn-2 position of human milk triacylglycerols...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166372/placental-lipid-processing-in-response-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-diabetes-in-rats
#4
Eli J Louwagie, Tricia D Larsen, Angela L Wachal, Michelle L Baack
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity during pregnancy impact the health of both mothers and developing babies. Prevention focuses on glycemic control, but increasing evidence implicates a role for lipids. Using a rat model, we showed that a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but lipid processing across the maternal-placental-fetal triad remained unstudied. We hypothesized that HF diet would disrupt placental lipid processing to exaggerate fuel-mediated consequences of diabetic pregnancy...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166320/exercise-alters-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-lean-and-obese-humans
#5
Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Grace M Niemiro, Rachel Moore, Mark D Cook, Bryan A White, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods
PURPOSE: Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection. METHODS: Thirty-two lean (n=18 [9 female]) and obese (n=14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in six weeks of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 days/wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 minutes/day and from moderate (60% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) to vigorous intensity (75% HRR)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166264/relationship-between-ph-of-ruminal-fluid-during-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-and-physiological-response-of-the-polish-holstein-friesian-dairy-cows
#6
B Stefańska, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, K Stajek, P Stefański, M Gehrke, W Nowak
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ruminal fluid pH depression on biochemical indices of blood, urine, feces, and milk, and to determine which of them may be helpful as a marker for the diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Ruminal fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis from 305 cows representing 13 commercial dairy herds. The herds were selected based on percentages of cows with an assigned value of ruminal fluid pH segregated into three groups as: SARA-positive herd, if at least 25% of the ruminal fluid samples indicated a pH < 5...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166164/a-physiological-signature-of-the-cost-of-reproduction-associated-with-parental-care
#7
Melinda A Fowler, Tony D Williams
Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166128/the-oxylipin-pathways-biochemistry-and-function
#8
Claus Wasternack, Ivo Feussner
Plant oxylipins form a constantly growing group of signaling molecules that comprise oxygenated fatty acids and metabolites derived therefrom. In the last decade, the understanding of biosynthesis, metabolism, and action of oxylipins, especially jasmonates, has dramatically improved. Additional mechanistic insights into the action of enzymes and insights into signaling pathways have been deepened for jasmonates. For other oxylipins, such as the hydroxy fatty acids, individual signaling properties and cross talk between different oxylipins or even with additional phytohormones have recently been described...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#9
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165906/noninvasive-high-speed-near-infrared-imaging-of-the-biomolecular-distribution-and-molecular-mechanism-of-embryonic-development-in-fertilized-fish-eggs
#10
Mika Ishigaki, Takashi Nishii, Paralee Puangchit, Yui Yasui, Christian W Huck, Yukihiro Ozaki
In the present study, the distribution of biomaterials and its molecular mechanism of embryonic development in Japanese medaka fish were analyzed nondestructively and noninvasively without staining using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. The microscope NIR imaging system used in this research was a device capable of ultra-high-speed imaging; using this system, one can acquire microscopic imaging data in a few seconds. Therefore, the medaka eggs remained alive throughout measurements and were successfully monitored in vivo...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165623/effects-of-pharmacologic-and-nonpharmacologic-interventions-on-insomnia-symptoms-and-subjective-sleep-quality-in-women-with-hot-flashes-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-from-4-msflash-trials
#11
Katherine A Guthrie, Joseph C Larson, Kristine E Ensrud, Garnet L Anderson, Janet S Carpenter, Ellen W Freeman, Hadine Joffe, Andrea Z LaCroix, JoAnn E Manson, Charles M Morin, Katherine M Newton, Julie Otte, Susan D Reed, Susan M McCurry
Study Objectives: The Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health network conducted three randomized clinical trials (RCT) testing six interventions treating vasomotor symptoms (VMS), and also collected self-reported sleep outcomes. A fourth RCT assessed an intervention for insomnia symptoms among women with VMS. We describe these seven interventions' effects relative to control in women with comparably severe insomnia symptoms and VMS. Methods: We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 546 peri- and postmenopausal women with Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) >12, and ≥14 bothersome VMS/week across the four RCTs...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165477/barley-beta-glucans-varying-in-molecular-mass-and-oligomer-structure-affect-cecal-fermentation-and-microbial-composition-but-not-blood-lipid-profiles-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#12
Mette S Mikkelsen, Morten G Jensen, Tina S Nielsen
There is an unmet need for appealing and functional barley β-glucan (BG) food matrices that can provide sufficient and active BG doses to consumers. We investigated how molecular mass and oligomer structure important for BG food and health properties affected plasma lipids and gut parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Following 3 weeks on a high-cholestrol diet, rats were given a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with either cellulose (control) or purified barley BGs with low (100 or 150 kDa; glucagel or lowBG, respectively) or medium (530 kDa; mediumBG) molecular masses varying in cellotriosyl/cellotetraosyl oligomer ratio for 4 weeks...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165404/benefits-of-nut-consumption-on-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-multiple-potential-mechanisms-of-actions
#13
REVIEW
Yoona Kim, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter M Clifton
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies...
November 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165130/determinants-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-in-erythrocytes-of-pregnant-japanese-women-from-a-birth-cohort-study-study-protocol-and-baseline-findings-of-an-adjunct-study-of-the-japan-environment-children-s-study
#14
Shoji Saito, Terue Kawabata, Nozomi Tatsuta, Fumiko Kimura, Teruo Miyazawa, Satoshi Mizuno, Hidekazu Nishigori, Takahiro Arima, Yasuo Kagawa, Kouichi Yoshimasu, Kanami Tsuno, Yuki Ito, Michihiro Kamijima, Kunihiko Nakai, Nobuo Yaegashi
BACKGROUND: N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have multiple beneficial effects on the outcome of pregnancy, maternal health and child development. The present study introduced the protocol of a birth cohort study to examine the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA status in pregnant Japanese women as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). METHODS: The JECS participants in the coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture were further invited to participate in this adjunct study, and 1,878 pregnant women were enrolled prior to delivery...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165050/functional-properties-of-anti-inflammatory-substances-from-quercetin-treated-bifidobacterium-adolescentis
#15
Kyuichi Kawabata, Nobuyuki Baba, Taiken Sakano, Yoshimitsu Hamano, Shu Taira, Akira Tamura, Seigo Baba, Midori Natsume, Takeshi Ishii, Shigeru Murakami, Hajime Ohigashi
The genus Bifidobacterium is well known to have beneficial health effects. We discovered that quercetin and related polyphenols enhanced the secretion of anti-inflammatory substances by Bifidobacterium adolescentis. This study investigated characteristics of the anti-inflammatory substances secreted by B. adolescentis. The culture supernatant of B. adolescentis with quercetin reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators in activated macrophages. Spontaneous quercetin degradant failed to increase anti-inflammatory activity, while the enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity by quercetin was sustained after washout of quercetin...
November 22, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164883/raspberry-ketone-reduced-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-ovariectomy-induced-obesity-in-wistar-rats-by-regulating-autophagy-mechanisms
#16
Sy-Ying Leu, Yi-Chen Chen, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Yao-Wen Hung, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of raspberry ketone (RK), one of the major aromatic compounds contained in raspberry, and its underlying mechanisms. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, RK (300 μM) significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). RK also reduced the expression of light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related protein 12 (Atg12), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and phosphorylated-tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), whereas it increased the level of p62 and phosphorylated-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164820/dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-saroglitazar-improves-liver-histopathology-and-biochemistry-in-experimental-nash-models
#17
Mukul R Jain, Suresh R Giri, Bibhuti Bhoi, Chitrang Trivedi, Akshyaya Rath, Rohan Rathod, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Hiren Patel, Prabodha Swain, Sib Sankar Roy, Nabanita Das, Eshani Karmakar, Walter Wahli, Pankaj R Patel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common clinico-pathological conditions that affect millions of patients worldwide. In this study, the efficacy of saroglitazar, a novel PPARα/γ agonist, was assessed in models of NAFLD/NASH. METHODS & RESULTS: HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA;0.75 mM) showed decreased expression of various antioxidant biomarkers (SOD1, SOD2, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and increased expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα,IL1β and IL6)...
November 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164790/comparative-study-of-fatty-acids-profile-in-eleven-wild-mushrooms-of-boletacea-and-russulaceae-families
#18
Marija V Dimitrijevic, Violeta D Mitic, Olga P Jovanovic, Vesna P Stankov Jovanovic, Jelena S Nikolic, Goran M Petrovic, Gordana S Stojanovic
Eleven species of wild mushrooms which belong to Boletaceae and Russulaceae families were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for the presence of fatty acids. As far as we know, the fatty acid profiles of B. purpureus and B. rhodoxanthus were described for the first time. Twenty-six fatty acids were determined. Linoleic (19.5 - 72%), oleic (0.11 - 64%), palmitic (5.9 - 22%) and stearic acids (0.81 - 57%) were present in the highest contents. In all samples, unsaturated fatty acids dominate...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164366/contrasting-survival-and-physiological-responses-of-sub-arctic-plant-types-to-extreme-winter-warming-and-nitrogen
#19
Stef Bokhorst, Laura Jaakola, Katja Karppinen, Guro K Edvinsen, Hanne K Mæhre, Jarle W Bjerke
Evergreen plants are more vulnerable than grasses and birch to snow and temperature variability in the sub-Arctic. Most Arctic climate impact studies focus on single factors, such as summer warming, while ecosystems are exposed to changes in all seasons. Through a combination of field and laboratory manipulations, we compared physiological and growth responses of dominant sub-Arctic plant types to midwinter warming events (6 °C for 7 days) in combination with freezing, simulated snow thaw and nitrogen additions...
November 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163775/loss-of-sun2-promotes-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer-by-regulating-fatty-acid-oxidation
#20
Cheng Yajun, Ye Chen, Li Xiaosa, Wang Xiao, Chen Jia, Wang Zhong, Xu Bin
The role of Sun2 has been described by previous studies in various types of cancers, including breast cancer and lung cancer. However, its role and potential molecular mechanism in the progression of prostate cancer have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that Sun2 expression was reduced in prostate cancer tissues compared with paired normal tissues, and that low expression of Sun2 was significantly correlated with Higher Gleason scores, postoperative T stage (pT), Lymph nodal invasion and Clinical pathological stages...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
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