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Chorioamnionitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095812/maternal-sepsis-complicating-arabin-cervical-pessary-placement-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-birth-a-case-report
#1
Begoña Martinez de Tejada
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is a major health problem and contributes to more than 50% of all neonatal and infant deaths. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of cervical pessaries as a safe and effective intervention with few maternal side-effects for the prevention of preterm birth in both single and twin pregnancies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old gravida 5, para 1 (previous preterm birth at 24 weeks) patient with an in vitro fertilization twin pregnancy had an Arabin cervical pessary placed at 19 weeks of pregnancy due to the presence of cervical funneling identified by ultrasound screening...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094842/impact-of-microbial-invasion-of-amniotic-cavity-and-the-type-of-microorganisms-on-short-term-neonatal-outcome-in-women-with-preterm-labor-and-intact-membranes
#2
Teresa Cobo, Irene Vives, Adriano Rodríguez-Trujillo, Clara Murillo, Martina A Ángeles, Jordi Bosch, Andrea Vergara, Eduard Gratacós, Montse Palacio
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate the impact of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and the type of microorganisms on pregnancy and short-term neonatal outcomes in women with preterm labor (PTL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study including women with PTL from 22.0-36.0 weeks. MIAC was defined based on amniotic fluid aerobic/anaerobic/mycoplasmas cultures and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) based on amniotic fluid Interleukin-6 levels...
January 17, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077516/early-onset-invasive-candidiasis-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-perinatal-acquisition-predicts-poor-outcome
#3
Michelle Barton, Alex Shen, Karel O'Brien, Joan L Robinson, H Dele Davies, Kim Simpson, Elizabeth Asztalos, Joanne Langley, Nicole Le Saux, Reginald Sauve, Anne Synnes, Ben Tan, Louis de Repentigny, Earl Rubin, Chuck Hui, Lajos Kovacs, Yvonne Cw Yau, Susan E Richardson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC)presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features and disease outcomeshave not been studied in early onset disease (EOD, ≤7d) or compared to late onset disease (LOD, >7d). METHODS: All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000g) cases with IC and controls froma multicentre study of neonatal candidiasisenrolledfrom 2001 to 2003were included in this study...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072390/a-molecular-portrait-of-maternal-sepsis-from-byzantine-troy
#4
Alison M Devault, Tatum D Mortimer, Andrew Kitchen, Henrike Kiesewetter, Jacob M Enk, G Brian Golding, John Southon, Melanie Kuch, Ana T Duggan, William Aylward, Shea N Gardner, Jonathan E Allen, Andrew M King, Gerard Wright, Makoto Kuroda, Kengo Kato, Derek Eg Briggs, Gino Fornaciari, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar, Caitlin S Pepperell
Pregnancy complications are poorly represented in the archeological record, despite their importance in contemporary and ancient societies. While excavating a Byzantine cemetery in Troy, we discovered calcified abscesses among a woman's remains. Scanning electron microscopy of the tissue revealed 'ghost cells', resulting from dystrophic calcification, which preserved ancient maternal, fetal and bacterial DNA of a severe infection, likely chorioamnionitis. Gardnerella vaginalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus dominated the abscesses...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065815/neonatal-outcomes-following-preterm-birth-classified-according-to-placental-features
#5
Janet M Catov, Christina M Scifres, Steve N Caritis, Marnie Bertolet, Jacob Larkin, W Tony Parks
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth has staggering health implications, and yet the causes of most cases are still unknown. Placental features have been understudied as an etiology for preterm birth, and the association between placental pathologic lesions and neonatal outcomes are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize births according to placental pathology and relate these to adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 20,091 births (15,710 term and 4,381 preterm) with placental evaluations...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050900/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-waiting-for-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-at-term-37-weeks-or-more
#6
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Vicki Flenady, Rosemary D McBain, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045214/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-acute-chorioamnionitis-a%C3%A2-mechanism-of-host-defense
#7
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yaozhu Leng, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Sonia S Hassan
PROBLEM: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were recently described as a mechanism for microbial killing in the amniotic cavity of women with intra-amniotic infection. Such a clinical condition can result in acute chorioamnionitis, a placental lesion characterized by the infiltration of maternal neutrophils in the chorioamniotic membranes. Herein, we investigated whether these infiltrating neutrophils form NETs in the chorioamniotic membranes from women who underwent spontaneous term or preterm labor with acute chorioamnionitis...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044385/current-concepts-in-maternal-fetal-immunology-recognition-and-response-to-microbial-pathogens-by-decidual-stromal-cells
#8
REVIEW
Anjali P Anders, Jennifer A Gaddy, Ryan S Doster, David M Aronoff
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033536/cohort-study-of-the-incidence-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth-and-septic-abortion-referred-by-pathological-examination-in-gifu-prefecture-in-japan
#10
Yuichiro Takahashi, Shigenori Iwagaki, Mitsuaki Itoh, Hiromi Nakamura, Kazuo Kuwabara, Yuka Hiraku, Masashi Hori, Ryo Misao, Tatsuro Furui, Kenichiro Morishige
AIMS: To clarify the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (PB) and septic abortion (sab) in Gifu prefecture in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, population-based cohort study was approved by our hospital's Institutional Review Board. All 36 hospitals (100%) in Gifu prefecture offering obstetrical services participated in the study. Patient enrollment criteria were: sab and PB from 22 to <37weeks gestation (WG), excluding for maternal and fetal indications...
December 26, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029461/-prevention-of-preterm-birth-by-uterine-cervical-cerclage
#11
L Marcellin
OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on cervical insufficiency and indications of cervical cerclage cervix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and international obstetrical societies between 1972 and June 2016 have been consulted. RESULTS: Cervical insufficiency is a pathophysiological concept and to date no consensual definition is available: the diagnosis is clinical and discussed retrospectively in case of patients with a history of late miscarriages and/or spontaneous preterm delivery, with asymptomatic dilatation of the cervix (professional consensus)...
October 29, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995540/high-mobility-group-box-1-and-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-preterm-infants-with-brain-injury
#12
Hong-Yan Lu, Jiang-Lin Ma, Ji-Yan Shan, Jie Zhang, Qiu-Xia Wang, Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein acts as an important pro-infl ammatory mediator, which is capable of activating inflammation and tissue repair. HMGB1 can bind to its receptor such as advanced glycation end products (RAGE). RAGE, in turn, can promote the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) is a truncated form of the receptor comprising the extracellular domain of RAGE and can inhibit RAGE-activation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether HMGB1 and RAGE are involved in the development of brain injury in preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994922/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-presepsin-for-subclinical-chorioamnionitis-in-pregnancies-between-23-28-week-with-preterm-premature-rupture-of-the-membranes
#13
Erbil Çakar, Şule Eren Çakar, Habibe Ayvacı Taşan, Deniz Karçaaltıncaba, Mehmet Baki Şentürk, Nermin Koç, Ramazan Uluhan
BACKGROUND: Presepsin is an inflammatory marker released from monocytes and macrophages as an acute reaction to microbial infection. We hypothesized that it may be useful in pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) for early diagnosis of subclinical chorioamnionitis. AIMS: To determine whether the plasma presepsin level has any diagnostic or prognostic value for subclinical chorioamnionitis in pregnancies complicated with PPROM. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974410/the-human-ureaplasma-species-as-causative-agents-of-chorioamnionitis
#14
REVIEW
Emma L Sweeney, Samantha J Dando, Suhas G Kallapur, Christine L Knox
The human Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms from the amniotic fluid and placentae of women who deliver preterm and are also associated with spontaneous abortions or miscarriages, neonatal respiratory diseases, and chorioamnionitis. Despite the fact that these microorganisms have been habitually found within placentae of pregnancies with chorioamnionitis, the role of Ureaplasma species as a causative agent has not been satisfactorily explained. There is also controversy surrounding their role in disease, particularly as not all women infected with Ureaplasma spp...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958622/comparison-of-two-different-antibiotic-regimens-for-the-prophylaxisis-of-cases-with-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Ilker Kahramanoglu, Merve Baktiroglu, Taylan Senol, Ozge Kahramanoglu, Enis Ozkaya, Olcay Ilhan, Fatma Ferda Verit, Seyda Baydogan, Oguz Yucel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of 1 g ampicillin prophylactic dosage whether it is as effective as the dosage of 2 g to prevent maternal and neonatal morbidity in a randomized manner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fourty eight singleton pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes between 21 and 33 weeks of gestation were followed-up during the study period in our institution. We com-pared the efficacy of two different different dosages of ampicillin...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936476/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-growth-in-preterm-infants-fed-predominantly-maternal-milk-pasteurized-donor-milk-or-preterm-formula-a-retrospective-study
#16
Paula M Sisk, Tinisha M Lambeth, Mario A Rojas, Teisha Lightbourne, Maria Barahona, Evelyn Anthony, Sam T Auringer
Objective To evaluate the association between necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and feeding. Methods This is a retrospective study of 551 infants (birth weight ≤ 1,500 g, ≤32 weeks' gestation). NEC, Bell's stage ≥ 2, was confirmed by independent review of sentinel radiographs. Feeding type was defined as ≥ 50% maternal milk (MM), pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM), or preterm formula (PF). Demographic and clinical characteristics including growth were compared between the three groups...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926655/maternal-morbidity-after-previable-prelabor-rupture-of-membranes
#17
Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Alexis Panzer, Matthew R Grace, Marcela C Smid, J Adeolu Keku, Catherine J Vladutiu, Kim A Boggess, Tracy A Manuck
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for maternal morbidity after previable prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of singleton and twin pregnancies complicated by previable PROM (14.0-22.9 weeks of gestation) at a single tertiary care referral institution, 2000-2015. Pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies, previable PROM within 2 weeks of chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, and those with contraindications to expectant management (eg, chorioamnionitis) were excluded...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923165/outpatient-versus-inpatient-cervix-priming-with-foley-catheter-a-randomized-trial
#18
Catarina Policiano, Mariana Pimenta, Diana Martins, Nuno Clode
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical efficacy between outpatient and inpatient cervix priming with Foley catheter. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized trial including term pregnancies with a single fetus in cephalic presentation, Bishop score<6, gestational age>41 weeks or medical indication for induction of labor. Patients were randomized to outpatient (n=65) or inpatient (n=65) priming with Foley catheter. Primary outcome was Bishop score change between outpatient and inpatient groups...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#19
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904309/robot-assisted-abdominal-cerclage-during-pregnancy
#20
Burak Zeybek, Amanda Hill, Gulden Menderes, Mostafa A Borahay, Masoud Azodi, Gokhan Sami Kilic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016...
October 2016: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
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