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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#1
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706240/gasoline-cars-produce-more-carbonaceous-particulate-matter-than-modern-filter-equipped-diesel-cars
#2
S M Platt, I El Haddad, S M Pieber, A A Zardini, R Suarez-Bertoa, M Clairotte, K R Daellenbach, R-J Huang, J G Slowik, S Hellebust, B Temime-Roussel, N Marchand, J de Gouw, J L Jimenez, P L Hayes, A L Robinson, U Baltensperger, C Astorga, A S H Prévôt
Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699010/chemical-characterization-of-size-segregated-pm-from-different-public-transport-modes-and-implications-of-source-specific-contribution-to-public-exposure
#3
Sabrina Yanan Jiang, Nirmal Kumar Gali, Fenhuan Yang, Junke Zhang, Zhi Ning
To investigate the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in different public transport microenvironments in Hong Kong, the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) PM samples were collected in three different types of transport modes including Mass Transit Railway (MTR)-Aboveground (AG), MTR Underground (UG), and Bus routes from October 2013 to April 2014. Average PM2.5 concentrations through UG, AG, and Bus routes were 47.9, 86.8, and 43.8 μg m(-3), respectively, whereas the coarse PM concentrations were 4-5 folds less...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697424/peak-exposures-to-main-components-of-ash-and-gaseous-diesel-exhausts-in-closed-and-open-ash-loading-stations-at-biomass-fuelled-power-plants
#4
Juha Laitinen, Hanna Koponen, Olli Sippula, Kirsi Korpijärvi, Mika Jumpponen, Sirpa Laitinen, Marjaleena Aatamila, Jarkko Tissari, Tommi Karhunen, Kari Ojanen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Leena Korpinen
Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696913/linking-physiological-parameters-to-perturbations-in-the-human-exposome-environmental-exposures-modify-blood-pressure-and-lung-function-via-inflammatory-cytokine-pathway
#5
Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus, Tina Stevens, Michael C Madden
Human biomonitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluating the systemic effects derived from external stressors including environmental pollutants, chemicals from consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore consequences of environmental exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) and ultimately to interpret these parameters from the perspective of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. In particular, the objective was to use cytokine expression at the cellular level as a biomarker for physiological systemic responses such as blood pressure and lung function at the systemic level...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674953/a-comparative-analysis-of-in-vitro-toxicity-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-combustion-of-1st-and-2nd-generation-biodiesel-fuels-in-relation-to-their-physicochemical-properties-the-fuelhealth-project
#6
Anna Lankoff, Kamil Brzoska, Joanna Czarnocka, Magdalena Kowalska, Halina Lisowska, Remigiusz Mruk, Johan Øvrevik, Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk, Mariusz Zuberek, Marcin Kruszewski
Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671299/distribution-and-source-of-rees-in-pm2-5-in-xiamen-china
#7
Shanshan Wang, Ruilian Yu, Gongren Hu, Qichao Hu, Quan Zheng
PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) is a serious atmospheric pollutant. Composition and source analyses are essential for controlling PM2.5 . Rare earth elements (REEs) have received little attention as a component of PM2.5 . In the present study, PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and suburban areas in Xiamen, and analyzed for REEs. The concentration range of total REEs (∑REE) is 12.07 to 98.45 mg/kg with the mean of 38.53 mg/kg in urban PM2.5 , and 16.44 to 160.62 mg/kg with the mean of 42...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666172/chemical-characterization-and-toxicity-assessment-of-fine-particulate-matters-emitted-from-the-combustion-of-petrol-and-diesel-fuels
#8
Di Wu, Fei Zhang, Wenhao Lou, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659715/advanced-collaborative-emissions-study-auxiliary-findings-on-2007-compliant-diesel-engines-a-comparison-with-diesel-exhaust-genotoxicity-effects-prior-to-2007
#9
REVIEW
Lance M Hallberg, Jonathan B Ward, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Bill T Ameredes
Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658636/emission-factors-and-congener-specific-characterization-of-pcdd-fs-pcbs-pbdd-fs-and-pbdes-from-an-off-road-diesel-engine-using-waste-cooking-oil-based-biodiesel-blends
#10
Shui-Jen Chen, Jen-Hsiung Tsai, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Kuo-Lin Huang, Lin-Chi Wang, Wen-Yinn Lin, Chih-Chung Lin, C Kuei-Jyum Yeh
Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655636/diesel-exhaust-particulate-associated-chemicals-attenuate-expression-of-cxcl10-in-human-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Kirsty Meldrum, Timothy W Gant, Martin O Leonard
Air pollution affects a large proportion of the population particularly in urban areas, with diesel particulates recognised as particular causes for concern in respiratory conditions such as asthma. In this study we examined the response of human primary airway epithelial cells to diesel particulate chemical extracts (DE) and characterised gene expression alterations using RNA-SEQ. Using the antagonist CH223191, DE induced CYP1A1 and attenuation of CXCL10 among other genes were observed to be aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent...
June 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649043/the-effects-of-biodiesels-on-semivolatile-and-nonvolatile-particulate-matter-emissions-from-a-light-duty-diesel-engine
#12
Yuan Cheng, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Yuemei Han, Craig Stroud, Tak Chan, Marie-Josée Poitras
Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637328/diesel-engine-exhaust-basis-for-occupational-exposure-limit-value
#13
Piia Taxell, Tiina Santonen
Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#14
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628664/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-particle-exposure-on-a-murine-model-of-asthma-due-to-soybean
#15
Daniel Alvarez-Simón, Xavier Muñoz, Susana Gómez-Ollés, Miquel de Homdedeu, María-Dolores Untoria, María-Jesús Cruz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to soybean allergens has been linked to asthma outbreaks. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with an increase in the risk of asthma and asthma exacerbation; however, in both cases the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, as does the possible interaction between the two entities. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the combination of soybean allergens and DEP can affect the induction or exacerbation of asthma in a murine model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#16
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609786/gravimetric-measurements-of-filtering-facepiece-respirators-challenged-with-diesel-exhaust
#17
Swathi Satish, Jacob J Swanson, Kai Xiao, Andrew S Viner, David B Kittelson, David Y H Pui
Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603656/simultaneous-no-x-and-particulate-matter-removal-from-diesel-exhaust-by-hierarchical-fe-doped-ce-zr-oxide
#18
Ying Cheng, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Huiling Zheng, Zhen Zhao, Chunming Xu, Yuechang Wei, Emiel J M Hensen
Particulate matter and NO x emissions from diesel exhaust remains one of the most pressing environmental problems. We explore the use of hierarchically ordered mixed Fe-Ce-Zr oxides for the simultaneous capture and oxidation of soot and reduction of NO x by ammonia in a single step. The optimized material can effectively trap the model soot particles in its open macroporous structure and oxidize the soot below 400 °C while completely removing NO in the 285-420 °C range. Surface characterization and DFT calculations emphasize the defective nature of Fe-doped ceria...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592103/-association-of-etheno-dna-adduct-and-dna-methylation-level-among-workers-exposed-to-diesel-engine-exhaust
#19
M L Shen, Z N He, X Zhang, H W Duan, Y Niu, P Bin, M Ye, T Meng, Y F Dai, S F Yu, W Chen, Y X Zheng
Objective: To investigate the association between etheno-DNA adduct and the promoter of DNA methylation levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16), Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in workers with occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: We recruited 124 diesel engine testing workers as DEE exposure group and 112 water pump operator in the same area as control group in Henan province in 2012 using cluster sampling. The demographic data were obtained by questionnaire survey; urine after work and venous blood samples were collected from each subject...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585123/occupational-exposure-to-diesel-motor-exhaust-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-by-histological-subtype-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-swedish-men
#20
Anna Ilar, Nils Plato, Marie Lewné, Göran Pershagen, Per Gustavsson
We investigated occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME) and the risk of lung cancer by histological subtype among men, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of DME exposure. 993 cases and 2359 controls frequency-matched on age and year of study inclusion were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression in this Swedish case-control study. Work and smoking histories were collected by a questionnaire and telephone interviews. DME was assessed by a job-exposure matrix. We adjusted for age, year of study inclusion, smoking, occupational exposure to asbestos and combustion products (other than motor exhaust), residential exposure to radon and exposure to air pollution from road traffic...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
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