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Diesel exhaust

Sakthivel Rajamohan, Ramesh Kasimani
This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans...
January 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Li Zhang, Lianglin Qiu, Sufang Chen, Ziying Hu, Yanyi Xu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors that encounter in early-life and cause abnormal fetal and/or neonatal development may increase susceptibility to non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. Maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with various fetal abnormalities, suggesting that it may program offspring's susceptibility to diabetes. In the present study, we therefore examined whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust PM2.5 (DEP), one of the major sources of ambient PM2...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
A D Bugarski, J A Hummer, S E Vanderslice
The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs)...
December 2017: Mining Engineering
Jason Curran, Rachel Cliff, Nadine Sinnen, Michael Koehle, Chris Carlsten
Recent epidemiological evidence connects ambient air pollutants to adverse neurobehavioural effects in adults. In animal models, subchronic controlled exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) have also showed evidence of neuroinflammation. Evidence suggests that DE not only affects outcomes commonly associated with cognitive dysfunction, but also balance impairment. We conducted a controlled human exposure experiment with 28 healthy subjects (average age = 28 years (SD = 7.1; range = 21-49); and 40% female) who were exposed to two conditions, filtered air (FA) and DE (300 μg PM2...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Jessica L Burger, Tara M Lovestead, Mark LaFollette, Thomas J Bruno
Although they are amongst the most efficient engine types, compression-ignition engines have difficulties achieving acceptable particulate emission and NOx formation. Indeed, catalytic after-treatment of diesel exhaust has become common and current efforts to reformulate diesel fuels have concentrated on the incorporation of oxygenates into the fuel. One of the best ways to characterize changes to a fuel upon the addition of oxygenates is to examine the volatility of the fuel mixture. In this paper, we present the volatility, as measured by the advanced distillation curve method, of a prototype diesel fuel with novel diesel fuel oxygenates: 2,5,7,10-tetraoxaundecane (TOU), 2,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane (TOD), and ethanol/fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures...
August 17, 2017: Energy & Fuels: An American Chemical Society Journal
Thierry Douki, Cécile Corbière, David Preterre, Perrine J Martin, Valérie Lecureur, Véronique André, Yann Landkocz, Ivannah Pottier, Veronika Keravec, Olivier Fardel, Silvestre Moreira-Rebelo, Didier Pottier, Cathy Vendeville, Frédéric Dionnet, Pierre Gosset, Sylvain Billet, Christelle Monteil, François Sichel
The contribution of diesel exhaust to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for public health, especially in terms of occurrence of lung cancers. The present study aimed at addressing the toxic effects of a repeated exposure to these emissions in an animal study performed under strictly controlled conditions. Rats were repeatedly exposed to the exhaust of diesel engine. Parameters such as the presence of a particle filter or the use of gasoil containing rapeseed methyl ester were investigated. Various biological parameters were monitored in the lungs to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of the exposure...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiankun Huang, Han Yuan, Jian Zhao, Ning Mei
Low-speed marine diesel flue gas denitrification is in great demand in the ship transport industry. This research proposes an ammonia supply system which can be used for flue gas denitrification of low-speed marine diesel. In this proposed ammonia supply system, ammonium bicarbonate is selected as the ammonia carrier to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide by thermal decomposition. The diesel engine exhaust heat is used as the heating source for ammonium bicarbonate decomposition and ammonia gas desorption. As the ammonium bicarbonate decomposition is critical to the proper operation of this system, effects have been observed to reveal the performance of the thermal decomposition chamber in this paper...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yun-Fang An, Xiao-Rui Geng, Li-Hua Mo, Jiang-Qi Liu, Li-Teng Yang, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Gang Liu, Chang-Qing Zhao, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is recognized that the air pollution is associated with the pathogenesis of airway diseases. This study aims to elucidate the role of the 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), one of the components of diesel-exhaust particles, in compromising the airway epithelial barrier integrity. METHODS: A549 cells, an airway epithelial cell line, were cultured to monolayers to be used as an in vitro epithelial barrier model. BALB/c mice were treated with nasal drops containing PNMC to test the effects of PNMC on alternating the airway epithelial barrier functions...
January 4, 2018: Toxicology
Erin A Riley, Emily E Carpenter, Joemy Ramsay, Emily Zamzow, Christopher Pyke, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Terry M Spear, Noah S Seixas, Dale J Stephenson, Christopher D Simpson
We investigated the viability of particle bound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) air concentration measurements as a surrogate of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure, as compared with industry-standard elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) measurements. Personal exposures are reported for 18 employees at a large underground metal mine during four different monitoring campaigns. Full-shift personal air exposure sampling was conducted using a Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) compliant diesel particulate matter (DPM) impactor cassette downstream of a GS-1 cyclone pre-selector...
December 30, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Emma M Stapleton, Patrick T O'Shaughnessy, Sarah J Locke, Ralph W Altmaier, Jonathan N Hofmann, Laura E Beane Freeman, Peter S Thorne, Rena R Jones, Melissa C Friesen
Diesel exhaust has been associated with adverse human health effects. Farmers are often exposed to diesel exhaust; however, their diesel exposure has not been well characterized. In this descriptive study, we measured black carbon concentrations as a proxy for diesel exhaust exposure in 16 farmers over 20 sampling days during harvest in southeast Iowa. Farmers wore a personal aethalometer which measured real-time black carbon levels throughout the working day, and their activities were recorded by a field researcher...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Hossein Soukht Saraee, Samad Jafarmadar, Javad Kheyrollahi, Alireza Hosseinpour
In this study, methyl ester of Sisymbrium plant seed oil with the chemical formula of C18H34O2 is produced for the first time, with the aid of ultrasonic waves and in the presence of a nanocatalyst. After measuring its characteristics and comparing with ASTM standard, it is tested and evaluated with different ratios of diesel fuel in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The reactions are accomplished in a flask by an ultrasonic processor unit and in the presence of CaO-MgO nanocatalyst. The engine tests were conducted based on the engine short time experiment...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum issue addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter, mental stress / loneliness as well as the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system...
December 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Genny Carrillo, Maria J Perez Patron, Natalie Johnson, Yan Zhong, Rose Lucio, Xiaohui Xu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and has been linked to high levels of ambient air pollution and certain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Outdoor pollutants such as benzene, released by car emissions, and organic chemicals found in diesel exhaust, as well as particles and irritant gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), contribute to an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) conduct a screening survey to identify high risk for asthma among school-age children in Hidalgo County, and, 2) study the potential health impact of school-related exposure to HAPs pertaining to asthma risk...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Research
Yanhua Wang, Huawei Duan, Tao Meng, Meili Shen, Qianpeng Ji, Jie Xing, Qingrong Wang, Ting Wang, Yong Niu, Tao Yu, Zhong Liu, Hongbing Jia, Yuliang Zhan, Wen Chen, Zhihu Zhang, Wenge Su, Yufei Dai, Xuchun Zhang, Yuxin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. However, few population-based studies have been conducted to assess the alterations in circulating pulmonary proteins due to long-term PM2.5 exposure. METHODS: We designed a two-stage study. In the first stage (training set), we assessed the associations between PM2.5 exposure and levels of pulmonary damage markers (CC16, SP-A and SP-D) and lung function in a coke oven emission (COE) cohort with 558 coke plant workers and 210 controls...
December 21, 2017: Environment International
Hadeesha Piyadasa, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Christopher Carlsten, Neeloffer Mookherjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
John Liggio, Craig A Stroud, Jeremy J B Wentzell, Junhua Zhang, Jacob Sommers, Andrea Darlington, Peter S K Liu, Samar G Moussa, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, Richard L Mittermeier, Ralf Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, Shao-Meng Li
Isocyanic acid (HNCO) is a known toxic species and yet the relative importance of primary and secondary sources to regional HNCO and population exposure remains unclear. Off-road diesel fuel combustion has previously been suggested to be an important regional source of HNCO, which implies that major industrial facilities such as the oil sands (OS), which consume large quantities of diesel fuel, can be sources of HNCO. The OS emissions of nontraditional toxic species such as HNCO have not been assessed. Here, airborne measurements of HNCO were used to estimate primary and secondary HNCO for the oil sands...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Nathan Kreisberg, Susanne Hering
The capacity of airborne particulate matter to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been correlated with the generation of oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. The cellular damage from oxidative stress, and by implication with ROS, is associated with several common diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and some neurological diseases. Yet currently available chemical and in vitro assays to determine the oxidative capacity of ambient particles require large samples, analyses are typically done offline, and the results are not immediate...
2017: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Haitao Wang, Huawei Duan, Tao Meng, Mo Yang, Lianhua Cui, Ping Bin, Yufei Dai, Yong Niu, Meili Shen, Liping Zhang, Yuxin Zheng, Shuguang Leng
Diesel exhaust (DE) as the major source of vehicle-emitted particle matter in ambient air impairs lung function. The objectives were to assess the contribution of local (e.g., the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO] and serum Club cell secretory protein [CC16]) and systemic (e.g., serum C-reaction protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) inflammation to DE induced lung function impairment using a unique cohort of diesel engine testers (DET, n = 137) and non-DETs (n = 127), made up of current and non-current smokers...
November 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Markus Dietrich, Gunter Hagen, Willibald Reitmeier, Katharina Burger, Markus Hien, Philippe Grass, David Kubinski, Jaco Visser, Ralf Moos
Current developments in exhaust gas aftertreatment led to a huge mistrust in diesel driven passenger cars due to their NOx emissions being too high. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia (NH₃) as reducing agent is the only approach today with the capability to meet upcoming emission limits. Therefore, the radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination to monitor the NH₃ loading on SCR catalysts has a huge potential in emission reduction. Recent work on this topic proved the basic capability of this technique under realistic conditions on an engine test bench...
November 28, 2017: Sensors
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