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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803348/effect-of-small-proportion-of-butanol-additive-on-the-performance-emission-and-combustion-of-australian-native-first-and-second-generation-biodiesel-in-a-diesel-engine
#1
Md Mofijur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Nur Md Sayeed Hassan, Abul Kalam Azad, Md Nasir Uddin
This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0)...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798526/environmental-pollution-and-allergies
#2
REVIEW
Hirohisa Takano, Ken-Ichiro Inoue
Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751527/in-utero-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particulates-is-associated-with-an-altered-cardiac-transcriptional-response-to-transverse-aortic-constriction-and-altered-dna-methylation
#3
Jamie M Goodson, Chad S Weldy, James W MacDonald, Yonggang Liu, Theo K Bammler, Wei-Ming Chien, Michael T Chin
In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution has been associated with increased adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice, but the mechanisms by which this exposure promotes susceptibility to heart failure are poorly understood. To identify the potential transcriptional effects that mediate this susceptibility, we have performed RNA sequencing analysis on adult hearts from mice that were exposed to diesel exhaust in utero and that have subsequently undergone transverse aortic constriction. We identified 3 target genes, Mir133a-2, Ptprf, and Pamr1, which demonstrate dysregulation after exposure and aortic constriction...
July 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741108/automated-clean-up-separation-and-detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-particulate-matter-extracts-using-a-2d-lc-2d-gc-system-a-method-translation-from-two-fids-to-two-ms-detectors
#4
Hwanmi Lim, Trifa M Ahmed, Christoffer Bergvall, Roger Westerholm
An online two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography/2D gas chromatography system with two mass-selective detectors has been developed on the basis of a previous system with two flame ionization detectors. The method translation involved the change of carrier gas from hydrogen to helium, column dimension and detectors. The 2D system with two mass-selective detectors was validated with use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards and two standard reference materials from air and diesel exhaust. Furthermore, the system was applied to a real sample, wood smoke particulates...
July 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735361/concentrations-source-identification-and-lung-cancer-risk-associated-with-springtime-pm2-5-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nanjing-china
#5
Chong Chen, Zhonghuan Xia, Minmin Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Tao Wang, Liping Wang, Hao Yang
This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spring in Nanjing, China. The PM2.5 samples were collected in spring of the year 2016 in Nanjing. Sixteen United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 3.98 ± 1.01 and 0.29 ± 0.08 ng/m(3), respectively, which is a low level among results from regions worldwide. The diurnal variations of PAHs and BaPeq concentrations showed a relatively high level in the early morning, at the morning rush time of work and traffic transportation, and in the evening traffic peak hours...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728133/zebrafish-have-an-ethanol-inducible-hepatic-4-nitrophenol-hydroxylase-that-is-not-cyp2e1-like
#6
Jessica H Hartman, Jordan S Kozal, Richard T Di Giulio, Joel N Meyer
Zebrafish are an attractive model organism for toxicology; however, an important consideration in translating between species is xenobiotic metabolism/bioactivation. CYP2E1 metabolizes small hydrophobic molecules, e.g. ethanol, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust components. CYP2E1 is thought to only be conserved in mammals, but recent reports identified homologous zebrafish cytochrome P450s. Herein, ex vivo biochemical measurements show that unlike mammals, zebrafish possess a low-affinity 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (Km ∼0...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#7
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706240/gasoline-cars-produce-more-carbonaceous-particulate-matter-than-modern-filter-equipped-diesel-cars
#8
S M Platt, I El Haddad, S M Pieber, A A Zardini, R Suarez-Bertoa, M Clairotte, K R Daellenbach, R-J Huang, J G Slowik, S Hellebust, B Temime-Roussel, N Marchand, J de Gouw, J L Jimenez, P L Hayes, A L Robinson, U Baltensperger, C Astorga, A S H Prévôt
Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699010/chemical-characterization-of-size-segregated-pm-from-different-public-transport-modes-and-implications-of-source-specific-contribution-to-public-exposure
#9
Sabrina Yanan Jiang, Nirmal Kumar Gali, Fenhuan Yang, Junke Zhang, Zhi Ning
To investigate the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in different public transport microenvironments in Hong Kong, the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) PM samples were collected in three different types of transport modes including Mass Transit Railway (MTR)-Aboveground (AG), MTR Underground (UG), and Bus routes from October 2013 to April 2014. Average PM2.5 concentrations through UG, AG, and Bus routes were 47.9, 86.8, and 43.8 μg m(-3), respectively, whereas the coarse PM concentrations were 4-5 folds less...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697424/peak-exposures-to-main-components-of-ash-and-gaseous-diesel-exhausts-in-closed-and-open-ash-loading-stations-at-biomass-fuelled-power-plants
#10
Juha Laitinen, Hanna Koponen, Olli Sippula, Kirsi Korpijärvi, Mika Jumpponen, Sirpa Laitinen, Marjaleena Aatamila, Jarkko Tissari, Tommi Karhunen, Kari Ojanen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Leena Korpinen
Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696913/linking-physiological-parameters-to-perturbations-in-the-human-exposome-environmental-exposures-modify-blood-pressure-and-lung-function-via-inflammatory-cytokine-pathway
#11
Matthew A Stiegel, Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus, Tina Stevens, Michael C Madden
Human biomonitoring is an indispensable tool for evaluating the systemic effects derived from external stressors including environmental pollutants, chemicals from consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore consequences of environmental exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) and ultimately to interpret these parameters from the perspective of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. In particular, the objective was to use cytokine expression at the cellular level as a biomarker for physiological systemic responses such as blood pressure and lung function at the systemic level...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674953/a-comparative-analysis-of-in-vitro-toxicity-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-combustion-of-1st-and-2nd-generation-biodiesel-fuels-in-relation-to-their-physicochemical-properties-the-fuelhealth-project
#12
Anna Lankoff, Kamil Brzoska, Joanna Czarnocka, Magdalena Kowalska, Halina Lisowska, Remigiusz Mruk, Johan Øvrevik, Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk, Mariusz Zuberek, Marcin Kruszewski
Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671299/distribution-and-source-of-rees-in-pm2-5-in-xiamen-china
#13
Shanshan Wang, Ruilian Yu, Gongren Hu, Qichao Hu, Quan Zheng
PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) is a serious atmospheric pollutant. Composition and source analyses are essential for controlling PM2.5 . Rare earth elements (REEs) have received little attention as a component of PM2.5 . In the present study, PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and suburban areas in Xiamen, and analyzed for REEs. The concentration range of total REEs (∑REE) is 12.07 to 98.45 mg/kg with the mean of 38.53 mg/kg in urban PM2.5 , and 16.44 to 160.62 mg/kg with the mean of 42...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666172/chemical-characterization-and-toxicity-assessment-of-fine-particulate-matters-emitted-from-the-combustion-of-petrol-and-diesel-fuels
#14
Di Wu, Fei Zhang, Wenhao Lou, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659715/advanced-collaborative-emissions-study-auxiliary-findings-on-2007-compliant-diesel-engines-a-comparison-with-diesel-exhaust-genotoxicity-effects-prior-to-2007
#15
REVIEW
Lance M Hallberg, Jonathan B Ward, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Bill T Ameredes
Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658636/emission-factors-and-congener-specific-characterization-of-pcdd-fs-pcbs-pbdd-fs-and-pbdes-from-an-off-road-diesel-engine-using-waste-cooking-oil-based-biodiesel-blends
#16
Shui-Jen Chen, Jen-Hsiung Tsai, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien, Kuo-Lin Huang, Lin-Chi Wang, Wen-Yinn Lin, Chih-Chung Lin, C Kuei-Jyum Yeh
Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655636/diesel-exhaust-particulate-associated-chemicals-attenuate-expression-of-cxcl10-in-human-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Kirsty Meldrum, Timothy W Gant, Martin O Leonard
Air pollution affects a large proportion of the population particularly in urban areas, with diesel particulates recognised as particular causes for concern in respiratory conditions such as asthma. In this study we examined the response of human primary airway epithelial cells to diesel particulate chemical extracts (DE) and characterised gene expression alterations using RNA-SEQ. Using the antagonist CH223191, DE induced CYP1A1 and attenuation of CXCL10 among other genes were observed to be aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent...
June 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649043/the-effects-of-biodiesels-on-semivolatile-and-nonvolatile-particulate-matter-emissions-from-a-light-duty-diesel-engine
#18
Yuan Cheng, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Yuemei Han, Craig Stroud, Tak Chan, Marie-Josée Poitras
Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637328/diesel-engine-exhaust-basis-for-occupational-exposure-limit-value
#19
Piia Taxell, Tiina Santonen
Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#20
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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