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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932948/analysis-of-the-performance-emission-and-combustion-characteristics-of-a-turbocharged-diesel-engine-fuelled-with-jatropha-curcas-biodiesel-diesel-blends-using-kernel-based-extreme-learning-machine
#1
Arridina Susan Silitonga, Masjuki Haji Hassan, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Fitranto Kusumo
The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a four-cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends. A kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM) model is developed in this study using MATLAB software in order to predict the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. To acquire the data for training and testing the KELM model, the engine speed was selected as the input parameter, whereas the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were chosen as the output parameters of the KELM model...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916279/the-role-of-il-6-released-from-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-in-diesel-ufp-induced-endothelial-activation
#2
Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Sara Marchetti, Maria C Proverbio, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their ultrafine fraction (UFP) are known to induce cardiovascular effects in exposed subjects. The mechanisms leading to these outcomes are still under investigation, but the activation of respiratory endothelium is likely to be involved. Particles translocation through the air-blood barrier and the release of mediators from the exposed epithelium have been suggested to participate in the process. Here we used a conditioned media in vitro model to investigate the role of epithelial-released mediators in the endothelial cells activation...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912506/role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-its-receptors-in-diesel-exhaust-particle-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#3
Smitha Kumar, Guy Joos, Louis Boon, Kurt Tournoy, Sharen Provoost, Tania Maes
Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces an inflammatory reaction in the lung. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that operates by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2). The role of TNF-α signaling and the importance of either TNFR1 or TNFR2 in the DEP-induced inflammatory response has not yet been elucidated. TNF-α knockout (KO), TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, TNFR1/TNFR2 double KO (TNFR-DKO) and wild type (WT) mice were intratracheally exposed to saline or DEP...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890839/dpm-dispersion-inside-a-single-straight-entry-using-dynamic-mesh-model
#4
Yi Zheng, Ying Li, Magesh Thiruvengadam, Hai Lan, Jerry C Tien
Three-dimensional simulations of diesel particulate matter (DPM) distribution inside a single straight entry for the Load-Haul-Dump loader (LHD)-truck loading and truck hauling operations were conducted by using ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics software. The loading operation was performed for a fixed period of 3 min. The dynamic mesh technique in FLUENT was used to study the impact of truck motion on DPM distribution. The resultant DPM distributions are presented for the cases when the truck were driving upstream and downstream of the loading face...
2017: International Journal of Coal Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889235/genotoxic-potential-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-the-combustion-of-first-and-second-generation-biodiesel-fuels-the-fuelhealth-project
#5
Magdalena Kowalska, Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk, Kamil Brzoska, Maria Wojewodzka, Sylwia Meczynska-Wielgosz, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Remigiusz Mruk, Johan Øvrevik, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff
Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886109/radon-induced-lung-cancer-deaths-may-be-overestimated-due-to-failure-to-account-for-confounding-by-exposure-to-diesel-engine-exhaust-in-beir-vi-miner-studies
#6
Xiaodong Cao, Piers MacNaughton, Jose Cedeno Laurent, Joseph G Allen
BACKGROUND: EPA reported that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, killing 21,100 people per year. EPA relies on the BEIR VI models, based on an evaluation of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in studies of miners. But these models did not account for co-exposure to diesel exhaust, a known human carcinogen recently classified by IARC. It is probable then that a portion of the lung cancer deaths in the miner cohorts are originally attributable to the exposure to diesel rather than radon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861557/diesel-particulate-matter-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-fire-stations
#7
Raymond C Bott, Katherine M Kirk, Michael B Logan, Damien A Reid
Firefighters are known to be exposed to a wide variety of combustion products during operational and training firefighting activities. However, the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust emissions, recently classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, also exists within the fire station environment. In this study, concentrations of diesel particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the engine bays, duty offices and dormitory areas of eight fire stations in Queensland, Australia...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854940/diesel-engine-exhaust-accelerates-plaque-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Maja Hullmann, Catrin Albrecht, Damiën van Berlo, Miriam E Gerlofs-Nijland, Tina Wahle, Agnes W Boots, Jean Krutmann, Flemming R Cassee, Thomas A Bayer, Roel P F Schins
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate air pollution in urban environments, can aggravate Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like effects in female 5X Familial AD (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type female littermates. Following 3 and 13 weeks exposures to diluted DEE (0...
August 30, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846918/a-new-3dom-ce-fe-ti-material-for-simultaneously-catalytic-removal-of-pm-and-nox-from-diesel-engines
#9
Ying Cheng, Jian Liu, Zhen Zhao, Weiyu Song, Yuechang Wei
A new 3DOM material was designed and synthesized for the simultaneous removal of PM (soot particulates) and NOx from diesel engine exhausts. The catalytic purification taking place over the material with double efficacy is cost-efficient. The contact between solid PM and catalyst active site has been process intensified by 3DOM unique structure. 3DOM Ce0.7Fe0.2Ti0.1O2 catalyst possess a high SCR activity and an excellent selectivity to N2, giving a maximum concentration of CO2 at 385°C for PM combustion and 100% NO conversion in the temperature range of 281-425°C...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841707/a-qualitative-study-of-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-of-people-exposed-to-diesel-exhaust-at-the-workplace-in-british-columbia-canada
#10
Mandy Pui, Anne-Marie Nicol, Michael Brauer, Farshad Palad, Christopher Carlsten
PURPOSE: To identify exposure-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of individuals occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust (DE); to reveal strengths, knowledge gaps and misperceptions therein. METHODS: A Mental Models approach was used to gather information about current scientific understanding of DE exposure hazards and the ways in which exposure can be reduced. Thirty individuals in British Columbia who were regularly exposed to occupational DE were interviewed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840441/performance-emission-and-combustion-characteristics-of-twin-cylinder-common-rail-diesel-engine-fuelled-with-butanol-diesel-blends
#11
Venkatesh Tavareppa Lamani, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Kumar Narayanappa Gottekere
Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836085/real-world-vehicle-emissions-as-measured-by-in-situ-analysis-of-exhaust-plumes
#12
Christian Peitzmeier, Carmen Loschke, Hanna Wiedenhaus, Otto Klemm
We conducted a 60-day roadside measurement campaign on a busy street in Münster, Germany, during summer 2016. We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NO x /CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios for size-resolved particle numbers per carbon dioxide (d(PN CO2(-1))/dlogD) for about 10,000 plumes. The real-world fleet passing by the measurement station consisted of passenger cars (85%), buses (5...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816559/the-role-of-the-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-lox-1-in-traffic-generated-air-pollution-exposure-mediated-alteration-of-the-brain-microvasculature-in-apolipoprotein-apo-e-knockout-mice
#13
JoAnn Lucero, Usa Suwannasual, Lindsay M Herbert, Jacob D McDonald, Amie K Lund
Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between air pollution-exposure and detrimental outcomes in the central nervous system, including alterations in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms mediating these pathologies have not yet been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that exposure to traffic-generated air pollution results in increased circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), associated with alterations in BBB integrity, in atherosclerotic Apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
August 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814068/the-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammsome-by-stimulation-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-in-lung-tissues-from-emphysema-model-and-raw-264-7-cell-line
#14
Soo-Taek Uh, So My Koo, Yangki Kim, Kiup Kim, Sungwoo Park, An Soo Jang, Dojin Kim, Yong Hoon Kim, Choon-Sik Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation. METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells and ex vivo lung tissues explants obtained from elastase-induced emphysema animal models were stimulated with cigarette smoking extract (CSE), DEPs, and lipopolysaccharide, and levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), caspase-1 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain (NLRP3)-inflammasome were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810204/characteristics-of-black-carbon-emissions-from-in-use-light-duty-passenger-vehicles
#15
Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, K Max Zhang, Xian Wu, Zhenhua Li, Jiming Hao
Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803348/effect-of-small-proportion-of-butanol-additive-on-the-performance-emission-and-combustion-of-australian-native-first-and-second-generation-biodiesel-in-a-diesel-engine
#16
Md Mofijur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Nur Md Sayeed Hassan, Abul Kalam Azad, Md Nasir Uddin
This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0)...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798526/environmental-pollution-and-allergies
#17
REVIEW
Hirohisa Takano, Ken-Ichiro Inoue
Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751527/in-utero-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particulates-is-associated-with-an-altered-cardiac-transcriptional-response-to-transverse-aortic-constriction-and-altered-dna-methylation
#18
Jamie M Goodson, Chad S Weldy, James W MacDonald, Yonggang Liu, Theo K Bammler, Wei-Ming Chien, Michael T Chin
In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution has been associated with increased adult susceptibility to heart failure in mice, but the mechanisms by which this exposure promotes susceptibility to heart failure are poorly understood. To identify the potential transcriptional effects that mediate this susceptibility, we have performed RNA sequencing analysis on adult hearts from mice that were exposed to diesel exhaust in utero and that have subsequently undergone transverse aortic constriction. We identified 3 target genes, Mir133a-2, Ptprf, and Pamr1, which demonstrate dysregulation after exposure and aortic constriction...
July 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741108/automated-clean-up-separation-and-detection-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-particulate-matter-extracts-using-a-2d-lc-2d-gc-system-a-method-translation-from-two-fids-to-two-ms-detectors
#19
Hwanmi Lim, Trifa M Ahmed, Christoffer Bergvall, Roger Westerholm
An online two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography/2D gas chromatography system with two mass-selective detectors has been developed on the basis of a previous system with two flame ionization detectors. The method translation involved the change of carrier gas from hydrogen to helium, column dimension and detectors. The 2D system with two mass-selective detectors was validated with use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards and two standard reference materials from air and diesel exhaust. Furthermore, the system was applied to a real sample, wood smoke particulates...
July 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735361/concentrations-source-identification-and-lung-cancer-risk-associated-with-springtime-pm2-5-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nanjing-china
#20
Chong Chen, Zhonghuan Xia, Minmin Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Tao Wang, Liping Wang, Hao Yang
This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spring in Nanjing, China. The PM2.5 samples were collected in spring of the year 2016 in Nanjing. Sixteen United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 3.98 ± 1.01 and 0.29 ± 0.08 ng/m(3), respectively, which is a low level among results from regions worldwide. The diurnal variations of PAHs and BaPeq concentrations showed a relatively high level in the early morning, at the morning rush time of work and traffic transportation, and in the evening traffic peak hours...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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