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Diesel exhaust

Md Aynul Bari, Warren B Kindzierski
Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m3 and 39μg/m3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena, Piyush Rai, Aashish Bhardwaj
Currently, diesel engines are more preferred over gasoline engines due to their higher torque output and fuel economy. However, diesel engines confront major challenge of meeting the future stringent emission norms (especially soot particle emissions) while maintaining the same fuel economy. In this study, nanosize range soot particle emission characteristics of a stationary (non-road) diesel engine have been experimentally investigated. Experiments are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm for three compression ratios and nozzle opening pressures at different engine loads...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Particles exhausted from petrol and diesel consumptions are major components of urban air pollution that can be exposed to human via direct inhalation or other routes due to atmospheric deposition into water and soil. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to modern health care. However, how the petrol and diesel exhaust particles affect the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in various environments remain largely unknown. This study investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of four representative petrol and diesel exhaust particles, namely 97 octane petrol, 93 octane petrol, light diesel oil, and marine heavy diesel oil, on the horizontal transfer of ARGs between two opportunistic Escherichia coli (E...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Akbar Sharip, Wenes Reis, Yong Zhao, Ryan Sinclair, Lawrence Beeson
Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Johanna Sigaux, Jérôme Biton, Emma André, Luca Semerano, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Pollution has long been incriminated in many cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. More recently, studies evaluated the potential role for particulate pollutants in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of RA was found to be higher in urban areas. Living near air pollution emitters was associated with higher risks of developing RA and of producing RA-specific autoantibodies. Nevertheless, no strong epidemiological evidence exists to link one or more specific air pollution particles to RA...
March 7, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Romina M Lasagni Vitar, Julia Tau, Natasha S Janezic, Agustina I Tesone, Ailen G Hvozda Arana, Claudia G Reides, Alejandro Berra, Sandra M Ferreira, Susana F Llesuy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory mediators in human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) for 1, 3, and 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid and protein oxidation, Nrf2 pathway activation, enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) levels and synthesis, as well as cytokine release and cell proliferation were analyzed. Cells exposed to DEP showed an increase in ROS at all time points...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ellen T Chang, Edmund C Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S Crump, Roger O McClellan, Suresh H Moolgavkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Chih-Ming Weng, Meng-Jung Lee, Jung-Re He, Ming-Wei Chao, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
IL-17A is implicated in many aspects of pathogenesis of severe asthma, including inducing neutrophilic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, steroid insensitivity and airway remodeling. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) emission from vehicles has been shown to expand Th17 cells to increase IL-17A release that contributes to DEP-mediated exacerbation of asthma severity. It is not known whether non-immune cells in airways may also release IL-17A in response to DEP exposure. In this study, We found IL-17A expression was upregulated in the epithelium of severe allergic asthma patients from high road traffic pollution areas compared to those in low...
February 27, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Naserddine Hamadi, Badreldin H Ali
Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects...
February 26, 2018: Nutrients
Caitlin L Maikawa, Naomi Zimmerman, Manuel Ramos, Mittal Shah, James S Wallace, Krystal J Godri Pollitt
Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group). Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Karthickeyan Viswanathan
In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mark A Rothstein, Heather L Harrell, Gary E Marchant
Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Ashley A Lowe, Bruce Bender, Andrew H Liu, Teshia Solomon, Aaron Kobernick, Wayne Morgan, Lynn B Gerald
RATIONALE: Navajo children living on the reservation have high rates of asthma prevalence and severity. Environmental influences may contribute to asthma on the Navajo Nation and are inadequately understood. OBJECTIVES: We performed a comprehensive, integrative literature review to determine the environmental factors that may contribute to increased asthma prevalence and severity among Navajo children living on the reservation. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in 4 databases regarding the environmental risk factors for asthma in Navajo children living on the reservation...
February 27, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Arulprakasajothi Mahalingam, Dinesh Babu Munuswamy, Yuvarajan Devarajan, Santhanakrishnan Radhakrishnan
In this study, the effect of blending pentanol to biodiesel derived from mahua oil on emissions and performance pattern of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mode was examined and compared with diesel. The purpose of this study is to improve the feasibility of employing biofuels as a potential alternative in an unmodified diesel engine. Two pentanol-biodiesel blends denoted as MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20 which matches to 10 and 20 vol% of pentanol in biodiesel, respectively, were used as fuel in research engine at 10 and 20% EGR rates...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Luisa V Giles, Scott J Tebbutt, Christopher Carlsten, Michael S Koehle
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to air pollution impairs aspects of endothelial function such as flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Outdoor exercisers are frequently exposed to air pollution, but how exercising in air pollution affects endothelial function and how these effects are modified by exercise intensity are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of low-intensity and high-intensity cycling with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on FMD, blood pressure, plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1...
2018: PloS One
Won-Ju Lee, Seul-Hyun Park, Se-Hyun Jang, Hwajin Kim, Sung Kuk Choi, Kwon-Hae Cho, Ik-Soon Cho, Sang-Min Lee, Jae-Hyuk Choi
Diesel soot particles were sampled from 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines that burned two different fuels (Bunker A and C, respectively), and the effects of the engine and fuel types on the structural characteristics of the soot particle were analyzed. The carbon nanostructures of the sampled particles were characterized using various techniques. The results showed that the soot sample collected from the 4-stroke engine, which burned Bunker C, has a higher degree of order of the carbon nanostructure than the sample collected from the 2-stroke engine, which burned Bunker A...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Although several global/regional studies have detailed the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban areas worldwide, unfortunately, Nepal has never been part of any global/regional regular monitoring plan. Despite few sporadic studies exist, the systematic monitoring and integrated concentration of PAHs in urban region of Nepal are lacking. In this study, the concentrations, sources, and health risk assessment of 16 PAHs in air (n = 34) were investigated in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions of Nepal...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Hyun-Ki Cho, Chang-Gyun Park, Han-Jae Shin, Ki-Hong Park, Heung-Bin Lim
Ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 2.5 µm) in air pollutants have been identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, since they can affect the lung alveoli through the bronchus. In particular, if toxicants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in UFPs, they can cause diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. This study compared in vitro toxicity of various particulate matter including UFPs from combustion particles of diesel (diesel exhaust particles (DEP)), rice straw (RS), pine stem (PS) and coal (CC), and road dust particles from tunnel (TD) and roadside (RD)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
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