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Diesel exhaust

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637328/diesel-engine-exhaust-basis-for-occupational-exposure-limit-value
#1
Piia Taxell, Tiina Santonen
Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#2
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628664/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-particle-exposure-on-a-murine-model-of-asthma-due-to-soybean
#3
Daniel Alvarez-Simón, Xavier Muñoz, Susana Gómez-Ollés, Miquel de Homdedeu, María-Dolores Untoria, María-Jesús Cruz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to soybean allergens has been linked to asthma outbreaks. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with an increase in the risk of asthma and asthma exacerbation; however, in both cases the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, as does the possible interaction between the two entities. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the combination of soybean allergens and DEP can affect the induction or exacerbation of asthma in a murine model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#4
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609786/gravimetric-measurements-of-filtering-facepiece-respirators-challenged-with-diesel-exhaust
#5
Swathi Satish, Jacob J Swanson, Kai Xiao, Andrew S Viner, David B Kittelson, David Y H Pui
Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603656/simultaneous-no-x-and-particulate-matter-removal-from-diesel-exhaust-by-hierarchical-fe-doped-ce-zr-oxide
#6
Ying Cheng, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Huiling Zheng, Zhen Zhao, Chunming Xu, Yuechang Wei, Emiel J M Hensen
Particulate matter and NO x emissions from diesel exhaust remains one of the most pressing environmental problems. We explore the use of hierarchically ordered mixed Fe-Ce-Zr oxides for the simultaneous capture and oxidation of soot and reduction of NO x by ammonia in a single step. The optimized material can effectively trap the model soot particles in its open macroporous structure and oxidize the soot below 400 °C while completely removing NO in the 285-420 °C range. Surface characterization and DFT calculations emphasize the defective nature of Fe-doped ceria...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592103/-association-of-etheno-dna-adduct-and-dna-methylation-level-among-workers-exposed-to-diesel-engine-exhaust
#7
M L Shen, Z N He, X Zhang, H W Duan, Y Niu, P Bin, M Ye, T Meng, Y F Dai, S F Yu, W Chen, Y X Zheng
Objective: To investigate the association between etheno-DNA adduct and the promoter of DNA methylation levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16), Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in workers with occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: We recruited 124 diesel engine testing workers as DEE exposure group and 112 water pump operator in the same area as control group in Henan province in 2012 using cluster sampling. The demographic data were obtained by questionnaire survey; urine after work and venous blood samples were collected from each subject...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585123/occupational-exposure-to-diesel-motor-exhaust-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-by-histological-subtype-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-swedish-men
#8
Anna Ilar, Nils Plato, Marie Lewné, Göran Pershagen, Per Gustavsson
We investigated occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME) and the risk of lung cancer by histological subtype among men, using elemental carbon (EC) as a marker of DME exposure. 993 cases and 2359 controls frequency-matched on age and year of study inclusion were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression in this Swedish case-control study. Work and smoking histories were collected by a questionnaire and telephone interviews. DME was assessed by a job-exposure matrix. We adjusted for age, year of study inclusion, smoking, occupational exposure to asbestos and combustion products (other than motor exhaust), residential exposure to radon and exposure to air pollution from road traffic...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576263/numerical-analysis-of-ammonia-homogenization-for-selective-catalytic-reduction-application
#9
Jakov Baleta, Matija Martinjak, Milan Vujanović, Klaus Pachler, Jin Wang, Neven Duić
Selective catalytic reduction based on urea water solution as ammonia precursor is a promising method for the NOx abatement form exhaust gasses of mobile diesel engine units. It consists of injecting the urea-water solution in the hot flue gas stream and reaction of its products with the NOx over the catalyst surface. During this process flue gas enthalpy is used for the urea-water droplet heating and for the evaporation of water content. After water evaporates, thermolysis of urea occurs, during which ammonia, a known NOx reductant, and isocyanic acid are generated...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570923/4-nitrophenol-pnp-inhibits-the-expression-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-disrupts-steroidogenesis-during-the-ovarian-development-in-female-rats
#10
Haolin Zhang, Kazuyoshi Taya, Kentaro Nagaoka, Midori Yoshida, Gen Watanabe
4-nitrophenol (PNP), isolated from diesel exhaust particles, has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities, and affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in male rats. However, the effect of PNP on the reproduction of the female rats is still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of neonatal PNP exposure on the ovarian function of female rats. The neonatal female rats were exposed to PNP (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously injection), the ovary and serum samples were collected at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14 and 21...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567673/diesel-reformulation-using-bio-derived-propanol-to-control-toxic-emissions-from-a-light-duty-agricultural-diesel-engine
#11
Muthukkumar Thillainayagam, Krishnamoorthy Venkatesan, Rana Dipak, Saravanan Subramani, Balaji Sethuramasamyraja, Rajesh Kumar Babu
In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540736/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-on-cardiovascular-function-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Simon Wilson, Mark R Miller, David E Newby
SIGNIFICANCE: Air pollution is a major global health concern with the particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with marked increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis and plaque stability...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532657/mechanistic-link-between-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-respiratory-reflexes
#13
Ryan K Robinson, Mark A Birrell, John J Adcock, Michael A Wortley, Eric D Dubuis, Shu Chen, Catriona M McGilvery, Sheng Hu, Milo S P Shaffer, Sara J Bonvini, Sarah A Maher, Ian S Mudway, Alexandra E Porter, Chris Carlsten, Teresa D Tetley, Maria G Belvisi
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of particulate matter in Europe's largest cities, and epidemiologic evidence links exposure with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory reflexes are responsible for symptoms and are regulated by vagal afferent nerves, which innervate the airway. It is not known how DEP exposure activates airway afferents to elicit symptoms, such as cough and bronchospasm. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the mechanisms involved in activation of airway sensory afferents by DEPs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530097/total-particle-number-emissions-from-modern-diesel-natural-gas-and-hybrid-heavy-duty-vehicles-during-on-road-operation
#14
Tianyang Wang, David C Quiros, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Saroj Pradhan, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Eon S Lee, Yifang Zhu
Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522830/inhibition-of-endocytic-lipid-antigen-presentation-by-common-lipophilic-environmental-pollutants
#15
Manju Sharma, Xiang Zhang, Shuangmin Zhang, Liang Niu, Shuk-Mei Ho, Aimin Chen, Shouxiong Huang
Environmental pollutants as non-heritable factors are now recognized as triggers for multiple human inflammatory diseases involving T cells. We postulated that lipid antigen presentation mediated by cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) proteins for T cell activation is susceptible to lipophilic environmental pollutants. To test this notion, we determined whether the common lipophilic pollutants benzo[a]pyrene and diesel exhaust particles impact on the activation of lipid-specific T cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of CD1a and CD1d proteins, and the activation of CD1a- and CD1d-restricted T cells were sensitively inhibited by benzo[a]pyrene even at the low concentrations detectable in exposed human populations...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512709/influence-of-low-temperature-combustion-and-dimethyl-ether-diesel-blends-on-performance-combustion-and-emission-characteristics-of-common-rail-diesel-engine-a-cfd-study
#16
Venkatesh Tavareppa Lamani, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Kumar Gottekere Narayanappa
Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495853/transgenerational-transmission-of-asthma-risk-after-exposure-to-environmental-particles-during-pregnancy
#17
David J Gregory, Lester Kobzik, Zhiping Yang, Connor C McGuire, Alexey V Fedulov
Exposure to environmental particles during pregnancy increases asthma susceptibility of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that this transmission continues to F2 and F3 generations and occurs via epigenetic mechanisms. We compared allergic susceptibility of three generations of BALB/c offspring after a single maternal exposure during pregnancy to diesel exhaust particles or concentrated urban air particles. After pregnant dams received intranasal instillations of particle suspensions or control, their F1, F2 and F3 offspring were tested in a low-dose ovalbumin protocol for allergy sensitivity...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495378/performance-of-biomorphic-silicon-carbide-as-particulate-filter-in-diesel-boilers
#18
M Pilar Orihuela, Aurora Gómez-Martín, José A Becerra, Ricardo Chacartegui, Joaquín Ramírez-Rico
Biomorphic Silicon Carbide (bioSiC) is a novel porous ceramic material with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that it may be a good candidate for its use as particle filter media of exhaust gases at medium or high temperature. In order to determine the filtration efficiency of biomorphic Silicon Carbide, and its adequacy as substrate for diesel particulate filters, different bioSiC-samples have been tested in the flue gases of a diesel boiler. For this purpose, an experimental facility to extract a fraction of the boiler exhaust flow and filter it under controlled conditions has been designed and built...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465192/lung-inflammation-and-genotoxicity-in-mice-lungs-after-pulmonary-exposure-to-candle-light-combustion-particles
#19
Astrid Skovmand, Ana Cecilia Damiao Gouveia, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Peter Møller, Steffen Loft, Martin Roursgaard
Candle burning produces a large amount of particles that contribute substantially to the exposure to indoor particulate matter. The exposures to various types of combustion particles, such as diesel exhaust particles, have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer by mechanisms that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and genotoxicity. The aim of this study was to compare pulmonary effects of candle light combustion particles (CP) with two benchmark diesel exhaust particles (A-DEP and SRM2975). Intratracheal (i...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457874/impact-of-after-treatment-devices-and-biofuels-on-diesel-exhausts-genotoxicity-in-a549-cells-exposed-at-air-liquid-interface
#20
C Barraud, C Corbière, I Pottier, E Estace, K Blanchard, C Logie, S Lagadu, V Kéravec, D Pottier, F Dionnet, J P Morin, D Préterre, V André, C Monteil, F Sichel
Using an air-liquid interface (ALI) device in dynamic conditions, we evaluated the efficiency of fuel after-treatment strategies (diesel oxidation catalysis, DOC, and diesel particulate filter, DPF, devices) and the impact of 7% and 30% rapeseed methyl esters (RME) blending on oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced in A549 lung cells after 3h exposure to whole Diesel exhausts. Oxidative stress was studied using assays of ROS production, glutathione level, catalase and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activities...
April 27, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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