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Diesel exhaust

Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
January 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Shantanu H Jathar, Beth Friedman, Abril A Galang, Michael F Link, Patrick Brophy, John Volckens, Sailaja Eluri, Delphine K Farmer
Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Young Suk Choi, Il-Hoon Sung, Ji Yun Lim, A Hyun Kyun, Eui Dong Yeo, Sun Geun Lee, Young Koo Lee
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution containing fine dust particles is gaining attention worldwide, little is known about the effects of such pollutants on diabetic wounds. Air pollutants from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause inflammation, resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemo- kines, which attract monocytes and T cells to the sites of inflamma- tion. The authors evaluated the effects of air pollutants on diabetic wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cells were derived from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 29, 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Vilhelm Berg Malmborg, Axel Christian Eriksson, Mengqin Shen, Patrik Nilsson, Yann Gallo, Björn Waldheim, Johan Martinsson, Oivind Andersson, Joakim Pagels
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled on-line measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Il-Ho Park, Ju-Hyung Kang, Jin Ah Kim, Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the major contributors to air pollution, induce inflammatory responses in the nasal epithelium. Overproduction of airway mucins is an important pathogenic finding in inflammatory airway diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of DEPs on the expression of the mucin gene MUC4 and to investigate the underlying mechanism of DEP-induced MUC4 expression in NCI-H292 cells and primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs)...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Diep Vu, Daniel Z Short, Georgios Karavalakis, Thomas D Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku
The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
J Ravikumar, S Saravanan
Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) free from suspended food particles with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jhih-Syuan Wang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Ming-Wei Chao
Epidemiological studies suggest that an increase of PM2.5 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in ambient air corresponds to increased myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis. When exposed to DEP, endothelial cells exhibit increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the role of autophagy in this DEP-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we suggest that acute DEP exposure produces intracellular ROS leading to induction of DEP internalization, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-inflammation in an in vitro HUVEC model...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Justin P Miller-Schulze, Michael Paulsen, Takayuki Kameda, Akira Toriba, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Brandon Cassidy, Luke Naeher, Manuel Aguilar Villalobos, Christopher D Simpson
The assessment of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is important from an epidemiological perspective. Urinary biomarkers of exposure have been proposed as a novel approach for measuring exposure to DE. In this study, we measured the concentrations of two urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene (1NP), a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has been suggested as a molecular marker of diesel particulate matter. These two metabolites, 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene and 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, were determined in urine samples (10mL) from a small group of workers who were occupationally-exposed to vehicle exhaust in Trujillo, Peru, before and after their workshifts...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yoshito Kumagai, Yumi Abiko, Nho Luong Cong
Air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to cause pulmonary diseases such as asthma as a result of oxidative stress. While DEP contain a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have focused on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) and 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) because of their chemical properties based on their oxidative and chemical modification capabilities. We have found that 9,10-PQ interacts with electron donors such as NADPH (in the presence of enzymes) and dithiols, resulting in generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) through redox cycling...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
J Øvrevik, M Refsnes, M Låg, B Brinchmann, P E Schwarze, J A Holme
A number of biological responses may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of combustion-derived particulate matter (CPM). Here, we focus on mechanisms that trigger CPM-induced pro-inflammatory responses. Inflammation has both genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic implications and is considered to play a central role in development of various health outcomes associated with CPM exposure, including cancer. Chronic, low-grade inflammation may cause DNA damage through a persistent increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and released by activated immune cells...
December 21, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Drew R Gentner, Shantanu H Jathar, Timothy D Gordon, Roya Bahreini, Douglas A Day, Imad El Haddad, Patrick L Hayes, Simone M Pieber, Stephen M Platt, Joost de Gouw, Allen H Goldstein, Robert A Harley, Jose L Jimenez, André S H Prévôt, Allen L Robinson
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed from the atmospheric oxidation of gas-phase organic compounds leading to the formation of particle mass. Gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles, both on/off-road, are important sources of SOA precursors. They emit complex mixtures of gas-phase organic compounds that vary in volatility and molecular structure-factors that influence their contributions to urban SOA. However, the relative importance of each vehicle type with respect to SOA formation remains unclear due to conflicting evidence from recent laboratory, field, and modeling studies...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hui Wang, Zhenping Qu, Shicheng Dong, Hongbin Xie, Chen Tang
Novel iron-tungsten catalysts were first developed for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 in diesel exhaust, achieving an excellent performance with a wide operating temperature window above 90% NOx conversion from 225 or 250 to 450 °C (GHSVs of 30 000 or 50 000 h(-1)). It also exhibited a pronounced stability and relatively high NOx conversion in the presence of H2O, SO2 and CO2. The introduction of W resulted in the formation of α-Fe2O3 and FeWO4 species obtained by HRTEM directly. The synergic effect of two species contributed to the high SCR activity, because of the increased surface acidity and electronic property...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Emanuela Corsini, Senem Ozgen, Angela Papale, Valentina Galbiati, Giovanni Lonati, Paola Fermo, Lorenza Corbella, Gianluigi Valli, Vera Bernardoni, Manuela Dell'Acqua, Silvia Becagli, Donatella Caruso, Roberta Vecchi, Corrado L Galli, Marina Marinovich
This study aimed to collect, characterize ultrafine particles (UFP) generated from the combustion of wood pellets and logs (softwood and hardwood) and to evaluate their pro-inflammatory effects in THP-1 and A549 cells. Both cell lines responded to UFP producing interleukin-8 (IL-8), with wood log UFP being more active compared to pellet UFP. With the exception of higher effect observed with beech wood log UFP in THP-1, the ability of soft or hard woods to induce IL-8 release was similar. In addition, on weight mass, IL-8 release was similar or lower compared to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), arguing against higher biological activity of smaller size particles...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Maximilien Debia, Marie-Claude Trachy-Bourget, Charles Beaudry, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Stéphane Perron, Caroline Lapointe
Diesel exhaust (DE) emissions from a parking garage located in the basement of a school were characterized during spring and winter using direct reading devices and integrated sampling methods. Concentrations of CO and NO2 were evaluated using electrochemical sensors and passive colorimetric tubes, respectively. Elemental and total carbon concentrations were measured using the NIOSH 5040 method. Particle number concentrations (PNCs), respirable particulate matter (PMresp) mass concentrations, and size distributions were evaluated using direct reading devices...
December 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ines Tomašek, Claire J Horwell, David E Damby, Hana Barošová, Christoph Geers, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Martin J D Clift
BACKGROUND: There are justifiable health concerns regarding the potential adverse effects associated with human exposure to volcanic ash (VA) particles, especially when considering communities living in urban areas already exposed to heightened air pollution. The aim of this study was, therefore, to gain an imperative, first understanding of the biological impacts of respirable VA when exposed concomitantly with diesel particles. METHODS: A sophisticated in vitro 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier was exposed to either a single or repeated dose of dry respirable VA (deposited dose of 0...
December 12, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Yetkin Dumanoglu, Eftade O Gaga, Elif Gungormus, Sait C Sofuoglu, Mustafa Odabasi
Atmospheric and concurrent soil samples were collected during winter and summer of 2014 at 41 sites in Kutahya, Turkey to investigate spatial and seasonal variations, sources, air-soil exchange, and associated carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest atmospheric and soil concentrations were observed near power plants and residential areas, and the wintertime concentrations were generally higher than ones measured in summer. Spatial distribution of measured ambient concentrations and results of the factor analysis showed that the major contributing PAH sources in Kutahya region were the coal combustion for power generation and residential heating (48...
December 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qifei Li, Mingjie Tang, Anhong Zhou
People are taking up antioxidants in their daily diet and being exposed to a potential diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-containing environment. Thus it is important to study in vitro cellular responses when cells are exposed to DEP with or without antioxidant treatment. The investigation of DEP and resveratrol (RES) on cellular biophysical and biochemical changes is needed to better understand the mechanisms of DEP and RES in mammalian cells. A combination of two non-invasive techniques (atomic force microscopy, AFM, and Raman spectroscopy, RM) and multimodal tools were applied to evaluate the biophysical, biochemical alterations and cytokine, membrane potential and cell cycle of cells with or without RES pretreatment to different times of DEP exposure...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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