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Diesel exhaust

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761364/-low-emission-zones-in-germany-a-reliable-measure-for-keeping-current-air-quality-standards
#1
REVIEW
Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751765/lipophilic-components-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-induce-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-human-endothelial-cells-through-ahr-dependent-pathway-s
#2
Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748474/lipophilic-chemicals-from-diesel-exhaust-particles-trigger-calcium-response-in-human-endothelial-cells-via-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-non-genomic-signalling
#3
Bendik C Brinchmann, Eric Le Ferrec, Normand Podechard, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Kenji F Shoji, Aubin Penna, Klara Kukowski, Alena Kubátová, Jørn A Holme, Johan Øvrevik
Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) affects endothelial function and may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and vasomotor dysfunction. As intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+ ] i is considered important in myoendothelial signalling, we explored the effects of extractable organic matter from DEPs (DEP-EOM) on [Ca2+ ] i and membrane microstructure in endothelial cells. DEP-EOM of increasing polarity was obtained by pressurized sequential extraction of DEPs with n -hexane ( n -Hex-EOM), dichloromethane (DCM-EOM), methanol, and water...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721797/a-review-on-the-engine-performance-and-exhaust-emission-characteristics-of-diesel-engines-fueled-with-biodiesel-blends
#4
Natalina Damanik, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Chong Wen Tong, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, Arridina Susan Silitonga
Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721795/topsis-based-parametric-optimization-of-compression-ignition-engine-performance-and-emission-behavior-with-bael-oil-blends-for-different-egr-and-charge-inlet-temperature
#5
Krishnamoorthi Muniappan, Malayalamurthi Rajalingam
The demand for higher fuel energy and lesser exhaust emissions of diesel engines can be achieved by fuel being used and engine operating parameters. In the present work, effects of engine speed (RPM), injection timing (IT), injection pressure (IP), and compression ratio (CR) on performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine were investigated. The ternary test fuel of 65% diesel + 25% bael oil + 10% diethyl ether (DEE) was used in this work and test was conducted at different charge inlet temperature (CIT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716632/multi-cellular-human-bronchial-models-exposed-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-assessment-of-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-macrophage-polarization
#6
Jie Ji, Swapna Upadhyay, Xiaomiao Xiong, Maria Malmlöf, Thomas Sandström, Per Gerde, Lena Palmberg
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of outdoor air pollution. DEP mediated pulmonary effects are plausibly linked to inflammatory and oxidative stress response in which macrophages (MQ), epithelial cells and their cell-cell interaction plays a crucial role. Therefore, in this study we aimed at studying the cellular crosstalk between airway epithelial cells with MQ and MQ polarization following exposure to aerosolized DEP by assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, and MQ polarization response markers...
May 2, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714328/wavelength-dependent-excess-permittivity-as-indicator-of-kerosene-in-diesel-oil
#7
Boniphace Kanyathare, Kai-Erik Peiponen
Adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene is a serious problem because of air pollution resulting from car exhaust gases. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively simple optical measurement and data analysis method to screen low-adulterated diesel oils. For this purpose, we introduce the utilization of refractive index measurement with a refractometer, scanning of visible-near-infrared transmittance, transmittance data inversion using the singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relation, and exploitation of so-called wavelength-dependent relative excess permittivity...
April 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709837/ultrafine-particle-emissions-from-modern-gasoline-and-diesel-vehicles-an-electron-microscopic-perspective
#8
Anthi Liati, Daniel Schreiber, Yadira Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
Ultrafine (<100 nm) particles related to traffic are of high environmental and human health concern, as they are supposed to be more toxic than larger particles. In the present study transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to obtain a concrete picture on the nature, morphology and chemical composition of non-volatile ultrafine particles in the exhaust of state-of-the-art, Euro 6b, Gasoline and Diesel vehicles. The particles were collected directly on TEM grids, at the tailpipe, downstream of the after-treatment system, during the entire duration of typical driving cycles on the chassis dynamometer...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705772/burden-of-lung-cancer-attributable-to-occupational-diesel-engine-exhaust-exposure-in-canada
#9
Joanne Kim, Cheryl E Peters, Victoria H Arrandale, France Labrèche, Calvin B Ge, Christopher B McLeod, Chaojie Song, Jérôme Lavoué, Hugh W Davies, Anne-Marie Nicol, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of incident and fatal lung cancers in Canada from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). METHODS: DEE exposure prevalence and level estimates were used with Canadian Census and Labour Force Survey data to model the exposed population across the risk exposure period (REP, 1961-2001). Relative risks of lung cancer were calculated based on a meta-regression selected from the literature...
April 28, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704831/the-first-sustainable-material-designed-for-air-particulate-matter-capture-an-introduction-to-azure-chemistry
#10
A Zanoletti, F Bilo, L E Depero, D Zappa, E Bontempi
This work presents a new porous material (SUNSPACE) designed for air particulate matter (PM) capture. It was developed in answer to the European Commission request of an innovative, affordable, and sustainable solution, based on design-driven material, to reduce the concentration of air particulate matter in urban areas. SUNSPACE material was developed from by-products and low-cost materials, such as silica fume and sodium alginate. Its capability to catch ultrafine PM was evaluated by different ad-hoc tests, considering diesel exhaust fumes and incense smoke PM...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703138/transcriptional-profiling-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-beas-2b-exposed-to-diesel-and-biomass-ultrafine-particles
#11
Andrea Grilli, Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Laura Capasso, Maria Carla Proverbio, Mattia Forcato, Silvio Bicciato, Maurizio Gualtieri, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
BACKGROUND: Emissions from diesel vehicles and biomass burning are the principal sources of primary ultrafine particles (UFP). The exposure to UFP has been associated to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer. Although many aspects of the toxicology of ambient particulate matter (PM) have been unraveled, the molecular mechanisms activated in human cells by the exposure to UFP are still poorly understood. Here, we present an RNA-seq time-course experiment (five time point after single dose exposure) used to investigate the differential and temporal changes induced in the gene expression of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by the exposure to UFP generated from diesel and biomass combustion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692198/nasal-dna-methylation-is-associated-with-childhood-asthma
#12
Xue Zhang, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, J D Burleson, Ashley Ulm, Kelly S Bryan, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Theresa A Baker, Melinda S Butsch Kovacic, Hong Ji
AIM: We aim to study DNA methylation (DNAm) variations associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: Nasal DNAm was compared between sibling pairs discordant for asthma, 29 sib pairs for genome-wide association studies and 54 sib pairs for verification by pyrosequencing. Associations of methylation with asthma symptoms, allergy and environmental exposures were evaluated. In vitro experiments and functional genomic analyses were performed to explore biologic relevance...
April 25, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691749/determination-of-size-segregated-elements-in-diesel-biodiesel-blend-exhaust-emissions
#13
Luiz Diego Silva Rocha, Sergio Machado Corrêa
This study was based on the determination of metals in particulate matter emitted by a typical diesel engine used by busses and trucks in Brazil. Emissions were sampled using a cascade impactor, and the engine was operated using diesel with 5% (B5), 10% (B10), 15% (B15), and 20% (B20) of biodiesel. The particulate matter was stratified in different sizes, i.e., 18, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.560, 0.320, 0.180, 0.100, and 0.056 μm. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn with concentrations within 10 to 1000 ng m-3 were determined...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686778/comparison-of-mutagenic-activities-of-various-ultra-fine-particles
#14
Chang Gyun Park, Hyun Ki Cho, Han Jae Shin, Ki Hong Park, Heung Bin Lim
Air pollution is increasing, along with consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and diesel gas. Air pollutants are known to be a major cause of respiratory-related illness and death, however, there are few reports on the genotoxic characterization of diverse air pollutants in Korea. In this study, we investigated the mutagenic activity of various particles such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), combustion of rice straw (RSC), pine stem (PSC), and coal (CC), tunnel dust (TD), and road side dust (RD). Ultra-fine particles (UFPs) were collected by the glass fiber filter pad...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684877/toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-exhaust-from-compressed-natural-gas-could-this-be-a-clean-solution-for-megacities-with-mixed-traffic-conditions
#15
Avinash K Agarwal, Bushra Ateeq, Tarun Gupta, Akhilendra P Singh, Swaroop K Pandey, Nikhil Sharma, Rashmi A Agarwal, Neeraj K Gupta, Hemant Sharma, Ayush Jain, Pravesh C Shukla
Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678176/prenatal-and-early-life-diesel-exhaust-exposure-causes-autism-like-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#16
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676639/effects-of-controlled-diesel-exhaust-and-allergen-exposure-on-microrna-and-gene-expression-in-humans-modulation-of-lung-inflammatory-markers-associated-with-asthma
#17
Christopher F Rider, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Oliver P Günther, Amrit Singh, Jeremy A Hirota, Scott J Tebbutt, Christopher Carlsten
RATIONALE: Air pollution may contribute to the development of allergic diseases, including asthma, by enhancing immune responses to allergen, but the effects on microRNA, messenger RNA, and inflammatory markers remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if acute exposure to diesel exhaust and/or allergen alters expression of microRNA and genes with effects on inflammatory markers associated with asthma. METHODS: Fifteen atopic participants were exposed in a crossover trial to inhaled filtered air or diesel exhaust (DE; 300 μg particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676619/cysteinyl-leukotriene-receptor-1-and-health-effects-of-particulate-exposure-in-asthma
#18
Nathan Rabinovitch, Meaghan J Jones, Anna Faino, Matthew Strand, Alexander M Morin, Julia MacIsaac, Paul R Reynolds, Amrit Singh, Michael S Kobor, Erwin W Gelfand, Christopher Carlsten
RATIONALE: Acute exposure to ambient particle matter is associated with increased levels of the cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) biomarker, urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4 ), in subjects with asthma. OBJECTIVES: The role of CysLTs in mediating asthma worsening after particulate matter exposures was explored. METHODS: Daily concentrations of particulate matter of 2.5 μm and smaller diameter (PM2.5 ) and repeated measurements of albuterol use over a 5-month period were collected in 44 urban school children with persistent asthma...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672862/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-by-diesel-exhaust-particles-mediates-epithelium-derived-cytokines-expression-in-severe-allergic-asthma
#19
Chih-Ming Weng, Chun-Hua Wang, Meng-Jung Lee, Jung-Re He, Hsin-Yu Huang, Ming-Wei Chao, Kian Fan Chung, Han-Pin Kuo
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental pollutants promotes Th2 cell responses. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation aggravates allergic responses. Epithelium-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33 are implicated in the dysregulation of Th2 immune responses in severe allergic asthma. METHODS: Bronchial biopsies of 28 allergic severe asthma and 6 mild asthma subjects from highly polluted areas were analyzed for AhR nuclear translocation (NT), cytokine expression and gene activation...
April 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671233/studies-on-the-effects-of-storage-stability-of-bio-oil-obtained-from-pyrolysis-of-calophyllum-inophyllum-deoiled-seed-cake-on-the-performance-and-emission-characteristics-of-a-direct-injection-diesel-engine
#20
Sakthivel Rajamohan, Ramesh Kasimani
The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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