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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230356/assessment-of-particle-pollution-from-jetliners-from-smoke-visibility-to-nanoparticle-counting
#1
Lukas Durdina, Benjamin T Brem, Ari Setyan, Frithjof Siegerist, Theo Rindlisbacher, Jing Wang
Aviation is a substantial and a fast growing emissions source. Besides greenhouse gases, aircraft engines emit black carbon (BC), a climate forcer and air pollutant. Aviation BC emissions have been regulated and estimated through exhaust smoke visibility (smoke number). Their impacts are poorly understood because emission inventories lack representative data. Here, we measured BC mass and number-based emissions of the most popular airliner's engines according to a new emission standard. We used a calibrated engine performance model to determine the emissions on the ground, at cruise altitude, and over entire flight missions...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218700/comparative-study-of-different-methods-for-soot-sensing-and-filter-monitoring-in-diesel-exhausts
#2
Markus Feulner, Gunter Hagen, Kathrin Hottner, Sabrina Redel, Andreas Müller, Ralf Moos
Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared...
February 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166626/in-use-nox-emissions-from-diesel-and-liquefied-natural-gas-refuse-trucks-equipped-with-scr-and-twc-respectively
#3
Chandan Misra, Chris Ruehl, John Francis Collins, Don Chernich, Jorn Herner
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166462/comparison-of-personal-diesel-and-biodiesel-exhaust-exposures-in-an-underground-mine
#4
Eric A Lutz, Rustin J Reed, Vivien S T Lee, Jefferey L Burgess
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare personal exposures to diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend exhaust in an underground mine. METHODS: Personal exposure monitoring was performed in a non-operational, hard rock underground mine during use of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) exposure concentrations of ultra-low sulfur diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75) fuels were compared. RESULTS: Compared to diesel, use of B75 was associated with relative percent reductions of 22 and 28% in median respirable (r) diesel particulate matter (DPM) and nitrogen dioxide and 25 and 23% increases in median total DPM and nitric oxide TWA8 exposure concentrations, respectively...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152992/absence-of-multiplicative-interactions-between-occupational-lung-carcinogens-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-involving-asbestos-crystalline-silica-and-diesel-engine-exhaust-emissions
#5
Mohamad El Zoghbi, Pascale Salameh, Isabelle Stücker, Patrick Brochard, Fleur Delva, Aude Lacourt
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. METHODS: Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time...
February 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129777/diesel-exhaust-alters-the-response-of-cultured-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-to-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#6
Maria C Zarcone, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Evert Duistermaat, Pieter S Hiemstra, Ingeborg M Kooter
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both bacterial infections, such as those with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and exposures to diesel engine emissions are known to contribute to exacerbations in COPD patients. However, the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on the epithelial response to microbial stimulation is incompletely understood, and possible differences in the response to DE of epithelial cells from COPD patients and controls have not been studied...
January 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124139/biomarkers-of-endothelial-activation-and-thrombosis-in-tunnel-construction-workers-exposed-to-airborne-contaminants
#7
Dag G Ellingsen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Yngvar Thomassen, Magny Thomassen, Berit Bakke, Bente Ulvestad
OBJECTIVES: The aims were to study biomarkers of systemic inflammation, platelet/endothelial activation and thrombosis in tunnel construction workers (TCW). METHODS: Biomarkers and blood fatty acids were measured in blood of 90 TCW and 50 referents before (baseline) and towards the end (follow-up) of a 12 days work period. They had been absent from work for 9 days at baseline. Air samples were collected by personal sampling. RESULTS: Personal thoracic air samples showed geometric mean (GM) particulate matter and α-quartz concentrations of 604 and 74 µg/m(3), respectively...
January 25, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112928/transformation-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-from-a-diesel-fuel-additive-during-combustion-in-a-diesel-engine
#8
James G Dale, Steven S Cox, Marina E Vance, Linsey C Marr, Michael F Hochella
Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111596/chemical-content-and-estimated-sources-of-fine-fraction-of-particulate-matter-collected-in-krakow
#9
Lucyna Samek, Zdzislaw Stegowski, Leszek Furman, Joanna Fiedor
The monitored level of pollution remains high in Krakow, Poland. Alerts regarding increased levels of pollution, which advise asthmatics, the elderly, and children to limit their exposure to open air, continue to be issued on numerous days. In this work, seasonal variations in PM2.5 (particulate matter containing particles with aerodynamic diameter no higher than 2.5 μm) concentrations are shown. An increasing trend is reported, which is enhanced during the colder seasons. The mean PM2.5 concentrations in Krakow exceeded the target value of 25 μg/m(3) specified for 2015 in the spring, autumn, and winter seasons...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100227/prenatal-and-postnatal-mothering-by-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-exposed-dams-differentially-program-mouse-energy-metabolism
#10
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097517/in-utero-exposure-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-to-diesel-exhaust-lack-of-effects-on-atherosclerosis-in-adult-offspring-fed-a-regular-chow-diet
#11
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071047/linking-load-fuel-and-emission-controls-to-photochemical-production-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-a-diesel-engine
#12
Shantanu H Jathar, Beth Friedman, Abril A Galang, Michael F Link, Patrick Brophy, John Volckens, Sailaja Eluri, Delphine K Farmer
Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments, but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10...
January 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069968/diesel-exhaust-causes-lung-cancer-now-what
#13
Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054921/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-air-pollutants-on-diabetic-wounds
#14
Young Suk Choi, Il-Hoon Sung, Ji Yun Lim, A Hyun Kyun, Eui Dong Yeo, Sun Geun Lee, Young Koo Lee
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution containing fine dust particles is gaining attention worldwide, little is known about the effects of such pollutants on diabetic wounds. Air pollutants from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause inflammation, resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemo- kines, which attract monocytes and T cells to the sites of inflamma- tion. The authors evaluated the effects of air pollutants on diabetic wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cells were derived from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 29, 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051865/evolution-of-in-cylinder-diesel-engine-soot-and-emission-characteristics-investigated-with-online-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#15
V B Malmborg, A C Eriksson, M Shen, P Nilsson, Y Gallo, B Waldheim, J Martinsson, Ö Andersson, J Pagels
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled online measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049186/diesel-exhaust-particles-enhance-muc4-expression-in-nci-h292-cells-and-nasal-epithelial-cells-via-the-p38-creb-pathway
#16
Il-Ho Park, Ju-Hyung Kang, Jin Ah Kim, Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the major contributors to air pollution, induce inflammatory responses in the nasal epithelium. Overproduction of airway mucins is an important pathogenic finding in inflammatory airway diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of DEPs on the expression of the mucin gene MUC4 and to investigate the underlying mechanism of DEP-induced MUC4 expression in NCI-H292 cells and primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs)...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045504/will-aerosol-hygroscopicity-change-with-biodiesel-renewable-diesel-fuels-and-emission-control-technologies
#17
Diep Vu, Daniel Short, Georgios Karavalakis, Thomas D Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku
The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013468/performance-and-emission-analysis-on-blends-of-diesel-restaurant-yellow-grease-and-n-pentanol-in-direct-injection-diesel-engine
#18
J Ravikumar, S Saravanan
Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) free from suspended food particles with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013216/diesel-exhaust-particles-contribute-to-endothelia-apoptosis-via-autophagy-pathway
#19
Jhih-Syuan Wang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Ming-Wei Chao
Epidemiological studies suggest that an increase of PM2.5 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in ambient air corresponds to increased myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis. When exposed to DEP, endothelial cells exhibit increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the role of autophagy in this DEP-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we suggest that acute DEP exposure produces intracellular ROS leading to induction of DEP internalization, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-inflammation in an in vitro HUVEC model...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007177/nitro-pah-exposures-of-occupationally-exposed-traffic-workers-and-associated-urinary-1-nitropyrene-metabolite-concentrations
#20
Justin P Miller-Schulze, Michael Paulsen, Takayuki Kameda, Akira Toriba, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Brandon Cassidy, Luke Naeher, Manuel Aguilar Villalobos, Christopher D Simpson
The assessment of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is important from an epidemiological perspective. Urinary biomarkers of exposure have been proposed as a novel approach for measuring exposure to DE. In this study, we measured the concentrations of two urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene (1NP), a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has been suggested as a molecular marker of diesel particulate matter. These two metabolites, 6-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene and 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, were determined in urine samples (10mL) from a small group of workers who were occupationally-exposed to vehicle exhaust in Trujillo, Peru, before and after their workshifts...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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