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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#1
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632688/high-quality-3-dimensional-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-of-the-prostate-without-endorectal-receive-coil-using-a-semi-laser-sequence
#2
Nassim Tayari, Isabell K Steinseifer, Kirsten M Selnæs, Tone F Bathen, Marnix C Maas, Arend Heerschap
OBJECTIVES: Inclusion of 3-dimensional H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-H-MRSI) in routine multiparametric MRI of the prostate requires good quality spectra and easy interpretable metabolite maps of the whole organ obtained without endorectal coil in clinically feasible acquisition times. We evaluated if a semi-LASER pulse sequence with gradient offset independent adiabaticity refocusing pulses (GOIA-sLASER) for volume selection can meet these requirements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with suspicion of prostate cancer and 1 patient known to have prostate cancer were examined at 3 T with a multichannel body-receive coil...
June 19, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625045/the-size-dependent-heating-of-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#3
Sheng Tong, Christopher A Quinto, Linlin Zhang, Priya Mohindra, Gang Bao
The ability to generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) makes magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) an ideal heat source for biomedical applications including cancer thermoablative therapy, tissue preservation and remote control of cell function. However, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the mechanisms governing heat generation of MIONs, and the optimal nanoparticle size for magnetic fluid heating (MFH) applications. Here we show that MIONs with large sizes (> 20nm) have significantly higher specific absorption rate (SAR) than that predicted by the widely used linear theory of MFH...
June 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622249/dynamic-liver-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-free-breathing-feasibility-of-a-cartesian-t1-weighted-acquisition-technique-with-compressed-sensing-and-additional-self-navigation-signal-for-hard-gated-and-motion-resolved-reconstruction
#4
Benjamin Kaltenbach, Andreas M Bucher, Julian L Wichmann, Dominik Nickel, Christoph Polkowski, Renate Hammerstingl, Thomas J Vogl, Boris Bodelle
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a free-breathing dynamic liver imaging technique using a prototype Cartesian T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence with compressed sensing and simultaneous acquisition of a navigation signal for hard-gated and motion state-resolved reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 43 consecutive oncologic patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years; 44% female) underwent free-breathing dynamic liver imaging for the evaluation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer using a prototype Cartesian VIBE sequence (field of view, 380 × 345 mm; image matrix, 320 × 218; echo time/repetition time, 1...
June 16, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618012/metabolomic-signature-of-brain-cancer
#5
Renu Pandey, Laura Caflisch, Alessia Lodi, Andrew J Brenner, Stefano Tiziani
Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumours represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumours, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which characterizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumour biology...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609204/surveillance-of-women-with-the-brca1-or-brca2-mutation-by-using-biannual-automated-breast-us-mr-imaging-and-mammography
#6
Jan C M van Zelst, Roel D M Mus, Gwendolyn Woldringh, Matthieu J C M Rutten, Peter Bult, Suzan Vreemann, Mathijn de Jong, Nico Karssemeijer, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Ritse M Mann
Purpose To evaluate a multimodal surveillance regimen including yearly full-field digital (FFD) mammography, dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and biannual automated breast (AB) ultrasonography (US) in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Materials and Methods This prospective multicenter trial enrolled 296 carriers of the BRCA mutation (153 BRCA1 and 128 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 women with first-degree untested relatives) between September 2010 and November 2012, with follow-up until November 2015...
June 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607652/simulation-of-therapeutic-electron-beam-tracking-through-a-non-uniform-magnetic-field-using-finite-element-method
#7
Mohammad Javad Tahmasebibirgani, Reza Maskani, Mohammad Ali Behrooz, Mansour Zabihzadeh, Hojatollah Shahbazian, Jafar Fatahiasl, Nahid Chegeni
INTRODUCTION: In radiotherapy, megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons are employed for treatment of superficial cancers. Magnetic fields can be used for deflection and deformation of the electron flow. A magnetic field is composed of non-uniform permanent magnets. The primary electrons are not mono-energetic and completely parallel. Calculation of electron beam deflection requires using complex mathematical methods. In this study, a device was made to apply a magnetic field to an electron beam and the path of electrons was simulated in the magnetic field using finite element method...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604617/targeted-magnetic-nanotheranostics-of-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Irina Belyanina, Olga Kolovskaya, Sergey Zamay, Ana Gargaun, Tatiana Zamay, Anna Kichkailo
Current advances in targeted magnetic nanotheranostics are summarized in this review. Unique structural, optical, electronic and thermal properties of magnetic materials in nanometer scale are attractive in the field of biomedicine. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with therapeutic molecules, ligands for targeted delivery, fluorescent and other chemical agents can be used for cancer diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High selectivity, small size, and low immunogenicity of synthetic nucleic acid aptamers make them attractive delivery agents for therapeutic purposes...
June 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603956/activatable-t1-relaxivity-recovery-nanoconjugates-for-kinetic-and-sensitive-analysis-of-matrix-metalloprotease-2
#9
Xianglong Zhu, Hongyu Lin, Lirong Wang, Xiaoxue Tang, Lengceng Ma, Zhong Chen, Jinhao Gao
Sensitive detection of Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, an important cancer marker associated with tumor invasion and metastasis) activity in vitro and at cellular level is of great significance to clinical diagnosis and medical treatment. With unique physical properties, nanoparticles are emerging as a platform to construct conjugates of various biological molecules, which can be expected to generate new types of biosensors. In this work, Fe3O4 NPs were modified with Gd chelates via linking peptides to construct NP-substrate (Fe3O4-pep-Gd) conjugates for kinetic MMP-2 activity assessment in vitro, at cellular level and in vivo...
June 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603419/in-situ-preparation-of-water-soluble-ginsenoside-rh2-entrapped-bovine-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-in-vitro-cytocompatibility-studies
#10
Priyanka Singh, Yeon Ju Kim, Hina Singh, Sungeun Ahn, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Deok Chun Yang
The present study investigates a simple and convenient one-step procedure for the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Rh2 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. In this work, ginsenoside Rh2 was entrapped within the BSA protein to form BSA-Rh2 NPs to enhance the aqueous solubility, stability, and therapeutic efficacy of Rh2. The physiochemical characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared BSA-Rh2 NPs were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in aqueous systems...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590117/nanotechnology-enhanced-no-wash-biosensors-for-in-vitro-diagnostics-of-cancer
#11
Xiaolin Huang, Yijing Liu, Bryant Yung, Yonghua Xiong, Xiaoyuan Chen
In vitro biosensors have been an integral component for early diagnosis of cancer in the clinic. Among them, no-wash biosensors, which only depend on the simple mixing of the signal generating probes and the sample solution without additional washing and separation steps, have been found to be particularly attractive. The outstanding advantages of facile, convenient, and rapid response of no-wash biosensors are especially suitable for point of care testing (POCT). One fast-growing field of no-wash biosensor design involves the usage of nanomaterials as signal amplification carriers or direct signal generating elements...
June 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587317/designed-synthesis-of-nanostructured-magnetic-hydroxyapatite-based-drug-nanocarrier-for-anti-cancer-drug-delivery-toward-the-treatment-of-human-epidermoid-carcinoma
#12
Bharath Govindan, Beeseti Swarna Latha, Ponpandian Nagamony, Faheem Ahmed, Muheet Alam Saifi, Abdel Halim Harrath, Saleh Alwasel, Lamjed Mansour, Edreese H Alsharaeh
Superparamagnetic Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe₃O₄/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe₃O₄/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM)...
June 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587119/trigger-responsive-gene-transporters-for-anticancer-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Santhosh Kalash Rajendrakumar, Saji Uthaman, Chong Su Cho, In-Kyu Park
In the current era of gene delivery, trigger-responsive nanoparticles for the delivery of exogenous nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), mRNA, siRNAs, and miRNAs, to cancer cells have attracted considerable interest. The cationic gene transporters commonly used are typically in the form of polyplexes, lipoplexes or mixtures of both, and their gene transfer efficiency in cancer cells depends on several factors, such as cell binding, intracellular trafficking, buffering capacity for endosomal escape, DNA unpacking, nuclear transportation, cell viability, and DNA protection against nucleases...
May 26, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585406/mr-safe-personal-radiation-dosimeters
#14
E Tchistiakova, A Kim, W Y Song, G Pang
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being rapidly integrated for cancer treatments-such systems are referred to as MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT). As the magnet of an MRI scanner is always on, the presence of a strong static magnetic field from the MRI scanner during radiotherapy delivery presents new challenges. One of the challenges is that a personal radiation dosimeter used to estimate the radiation dose deposited in an individual wearing the device must be MR-safe. No such devices, however, are currently available...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585348/synthesis-of-magnetic-nanoparticle-ansamitocin-conjugates-inductive-heating-leads-to-decreased-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-attenuation-of-tumour-growth-in-vivo
#15
Andreas Kirschning, Liang Liang Wang, Katja Seidel, Michael Ott, Asha Balakrishnan, Ronja Komoll, Christina Janko, Christoph Alexiou
Conjugates based on nanostructured, superparamagnetic particles, a thermolabile linker and a cytotoxic maytansinoid were developed to serve as a model for tumour selective drug delivery and release. It combines chemo- with thermal therapy. The linker-modified toxin was prepared by a combination of biotechnology and semisynthesis.Drug release was achieved by hyperthermia through an external oscillating electromagnetic field that induces heat inside the particles. Efficacy of this release concept was demonstrated both for cancer cell proliferation in vitro, and for tumour growth in vivo, in a xenograft mouse model...
June 6, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585229/tomoelastography-of-the-prostate-using-multifrequency-mr-elastography-and-externally-placed-pressurized-air-drivers
#16
Florian Dittmann, Rolf Reiter, Jing Guo, Matthias Haas, Patrick Asbach, Thomas Fischer, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the prostate using externally placed drivers. METHODS: Three pressurized-air drivers were used to excite shear waves within the prostate at vibration frequencies of 60, 70, and 80 Hz. Full 3D wave fields were acquired by multislice spin-echo echo-planar imaging in conjunction with tomoelastography wave speed recovery for generating full field-of-view stiffness maps...
June 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581834/updates-on-smart-polymeric-carrier-systems-for-protein-delivery
#17
Ibrahim El-Sherbiny, Islam Khalil, Isra Ali, Magdi Yacoub
Smart materials are those materials that are responsive to chemical (organic molecules, chemical agents or specific agents), biochemical (protein, enzymes, growth factors, substrates or ligands), physical (electric field, magnetic field, temperature, pH, ionic strength or radiation) or mechanical (pressure or mechanical stress) signals. These responsive materials interact with the stimuli by changing their properties or conformational structures in a predictable manner. Recently, smart polymers have been utilized in various biomedical applications...
June 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580659/ex-vivo-mri-evaluation-of-prostate-cancer-localization-and-margin-status-prediction-of-prostate-cancer-in-fresh-radical-prostatectomy-specimens
#18
Jan Heidkamp, Martijn Hoogenboom, Iringo E Kovacs, Andor Veltien, Arie Maat, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Jurgen J Fütterer
PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of high field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize prostate cancer (PCa) and to predict the margin status in fresh radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens using histology as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study had written informed consent. Patients with biopsy-proved PCa and a diagnostic multiparametric 3T MRI examination of the prostate prior to undergoing RP were prospectively included...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580034/the-effect-of-co0-2mn0-8fe2o4-ferrite-nanoparticles-on-the-c2-canine-mastocytoma-cell-line-and-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-ascs-cultured-under-a-static-magnetic-field-possible-implications-in-the-treatment-of-dog-mastocytoma
#19
K Marycz, M Marędziak, D Lewandowski, E Zachanowicz, A Zięcina, R J Wiglusz, R Pązik
Cobalt manganese ferrite nanoparticles have application potential in the biomedical field, however there is limited information concerning the biological response. The aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of cobalt-manganese ferrite nanoparticles in canine mastocytoma tumor cells (C2) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) cultured under a static magnetic field (MF). In this study, we investigated the viability and proliferation rate of ASC and C2 cells cultured with Co0...
2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579794/diagnostic-applications-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-urinary-metabolomics
#20
REVIEW
Ana Capati, Omkar B Ijare, Tedros Bezabeh
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field with potential applications in various disciplines. In particular, metabolomics has received special attention in the discovery of biomarkers and diagnostics. This is largely due to the fact that metabolomics provides critical information related to the downstream products of many cellular and metabolic processes which could provide a snapshot of the health/disease status of a particular tissue or organ. Many of these cellular products eventually find their way to urine; hence, analysis of urine via metabolomics has the potential to yield useful diagnostic and prognostic information...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
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