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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812885/ecological-risk-assessment-of-nano-enabled-pesticides-a-perspective-on-problem-formulation
#2
Glen W Walker, Rai S Kookana, Natalie E Smith, Melanie Kah, Casey Doolette, Philip Reeves, Wess Lovell, Darren J Anderson, Terence W Turney, Divina A Navarro
Plant protection products containing nanomaterials that alter the functionality or risk profile of active ingredients (nano-enabled pesticides) promise many benefits over conventional pesticide products. These benefits may include improved formulation characteristics, easier application, better targeting of pest species, increased efficacy, lower application rates, and enhanced environmental safety. After many years of research and development, nano-enabled pesticides are starting to make their way onto the market...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812286/occupational-exposures-and-health-outcomes-among-immigrants-in-the-usa
#3
REVIEW
Sally C Moyce, Marc Schenker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immigrants experience higher rates of occupational injury and fatality than their native-born counterparts. This review summarizes the current data related to occupational/environmental exposures and explores potential reasons for the disparities. RECENT FINDINGS: Immigrant workers are employed in sectors that expose them to dangerous working conditions. They experience increased risk for exposure to heat, pesticides, hazardous chemicals, and cleaning agents, as well as physical hazards such as falls...
August 15, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811504/complementarity-among-natural-enemies-enhances-pest-suppression
#4
Matteo Dainese, Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Natural enemies have been shown to be effective agents for controlling insect pests in crops. However, it remains unclear how different natural enemy guilds contribute to the regulation of pests and how this might be modulated by landscape context. In a field exclusion experiment in oilseed rape (OSR), we found that parasitoids and ground-dwelling predators acted in a complementary way to suppress pollen beetles, suggesting that pest control by multiple enemies attacking a pest during different periods of its occurrence in the field improves biological control efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811221/is-the-hype-around-the-reproductive-health-claims-of-maca-lepidium-meyenii-walp-justified
#5
REVIEW
Shruti Beharry, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811173/prenatal-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides-and-childhood-behavior-and-executive-functioning
#6
Melissa A Furlong, Dana Boyd Barr, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
Several previous studies of pyrethroid biomarkers and behavior have reported associations between concurrent pyrethroid levels and adverse behavioral problems in children. One geospatial study reported associations between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and autism. However, the association between prenatal pyrethroid biomarkers and childhood behavior is unknown. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Center is a prospective birth cohort with urinary pyrethroid biomarkers during pregnancy and behavioral measurements at 4, 6, and 7-9 years of age...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811032/recent-advancements-and-future-trends-in-environmental-analysis-sample-preparation-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#7
REVIEW
Virginia Pérez-Fernández, Lucia Mainero Rocca, Pierpaolo Tomai, Salvatore Fanali, Alessandra Gentili
Among the thousands of chemicals having potential to enter the environment, the NORMAN network has identified at least 700 substances categorized into 20 classes in the European surface waters. Pesticides, pharmaceuticals, disinfection by-products, wood preservation and industrial chemicals are the prominent classes. Since the impact of these substances on aquatic life and human health might be dramatic, action is urgently required at multiple levels; one of them is just related to the development of more and more sensible and selective analytical methods...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811031/bayesian-approach-to-peak-deconvolution-and-library-search-for-high-resolution-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#8
A Barcaru, H G J Mol, M Tienstra, G Vivó-Truyols
A novel probabilistic Bayesian strategy is proposed to resolve highly coeluting peaks in high-resolution GC-MS (Orbitrap) data. Opposed to a deterministic approach, we propose to solve the problem probabilistically, using a complete pipeline. First, the retention time(s) for a (probabilistic) number of compounds for each mass channel are estimated. The statistical dependency between m/z channels was implied by including penalties in the model objective function. Second, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) is used as Occam's razor for the probabilistic assessment of the number of components...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810201/the-association-between-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-organophosphate-pesticides-exposure-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Liqin Hu, Dan Luo, Tingting Zhou, Yun Tao, Jingwen Feng, Surong Mei
Several epidemiological studies show the association between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), yet various research results remain controversial. To explore the hazard of OPs exposure to human health, three kinds of OPs (Terbufos, Malathion, and Diazinon) that are non-halogenated aliphatic compounds were included in the meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Web of Science Databases for articles published from 1985 to February 2017. The databases were also searched for eligible studies through a manual references search...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808317/bumblebee-colony-development-following-chronic-exposure-to-field-realistic-levels-of-the-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-under-laboratory-conditions
#10
Dara A Stanley, Nigel E Raine
Neonicotinoid pesticides are used in agriculture to reduce damage from crop pests. However, beneficial insects such as bees can come into contact with these pesticides when foraging in treated areas, with potential consequences for bee declines and pollination service delivery. Honeybees are typically used as a model organism to investigate insecticide impacts on bees, but relatively little is known about impacts on other taxa such as bumblebees. In this experiment, we chronically exposed whole mature bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (2...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807588/regulatory-control-of-highly-hazardous-pesticides-to-prevent-self-poisoning
#11
Kevin Chien-Chang Wu, Ying-Yeh Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807587/prevention-of-suicide-with-regulations-aimed-at-restricting-access-to-highly-hazardous-pesticides-a-systematic-review-of-the-international-evidence
#12
David Gunnell, Duleeka Knipe, Shu-Sen Chang, Melissa Pearson, Flemming Konradsen, Won Jin Lee, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14-20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. METHODS: We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries...
August 11, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807537/learning-from-a-negative-trial-of-lockable-pesticide-storage
#13
Paul Yip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807536/effectiveness-of-household-lockable-pesticide-storage-to-reduce-pesticide-self-poisoning-in-rural-asia-a-community-based-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Melissa Pearson, Chris Metcalfe, Shaluka Jayamanne, David Gunnell, Manjula Weerasinghe, Ravi Pieris, Chamil Priyadarshana, Duleeka W Knipe, Keith Hawton, Andrew H Dawson, Palitha Bandara, Dhammika deSilva, Indika Gawarammana, Michael Eddleston, Flemming Konradsen
BACKGROUND: Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. METHODS: We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual practice (control) groups...
August 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806690/occurrence-and-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-an-urban-watershed-comparison-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-organochlorine-pesticides
#15
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806676/occurrence-and-air-soil-exchange-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-at-a-cawnet-background-site-in-central-china-implications-for-influencing-factors-and-fate
#16
Lingxi Zhan, Tian Lin, Zuwu Wang, Zhineng Cheng, Gan Zhang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng
Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m(3) in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806601/influence-of-sublethal-doses-of-acetamiprid-and-halosulfuron-methyl-on-metabolites-of-zebra-fish-brachydanio-rerio
#17
Hong Zhang, Lijuan Zhao
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, is reported to have adverse sublethal effects on non-target beneficial organisms. Halosulfuron-methyl (HM), one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the toxicity of acetamiprid and HM. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) software program and the retention index method were used to identify 51 metabolites in zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio)...
August 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806580/the-eco-toxic-effects-of-pesticide-and-heavy-metal-mixtures-towards-earthworms-in-soil
#18
REVIEW
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806565/implications-of-biological-factors-on-accumulation-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-antarctic-notothenioid-fish
#19
J M Ríos, N B Lana, N F Ciocco, A Covaci, E Barrera-Oro, E Moreira, J C Altamirano
In the present study, the possible associations between selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biological factors were assessed in different tissues of two Antarctic notothenioid fish: Notothenia rossii (NOR) and Trematomus newnesi (TRN) collected at Potter Cove, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands. Specifically, association patterns between biological factors (body size, lipid content, body condition) and POP concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs)), were explored by using two approaches: multivariate analyses (principal component analysis: PCA) and intraspecific correlations...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806564/tissue-distribution-and-toxicity-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-lizards-eremias-argus
#20
Li Chen, Ruiting Li, Jinling Diao, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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