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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335254/quaternized-chitosan-capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-nanocarriers-for-controlled-pesticide-release
#1
Lidong Cao, Huirong Zhang, Chong Cao, Jiakun Zhang, Fengmin Li, Qiliang Huang
Nanotechnology-based pesticide formulations would ensure effective utilization of agricultural inputs. In the present work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with particle diameters of ~110 nm and pore sizes of ~3.7 nm were synthesized via a liquid crystal templating mechanism. A water-soluble chitosan (CS) derivative (N-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium CS chloride, HTCC) was successfully capped on the surface of pyraclostrobin-loaded MSNs. The physicochemical and structural analyses showed that the electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding were the major forces responsible for the formation of HTCC-capped MSNs...
June 28, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334957/quechers-based-method-for-pesticides-analysis-in-adipose-tissue-associated-with-rat-ovaries
#2
Nathalie Zamariola, Pedro Toledo Netto, Carla Adriene da Silva Franchi, João Lauro Viana de Camargo, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
The concomitant exposure to low doses of various pesticides is one of the most relevant issues in human toxicology today. An experimental toxicology study was developed to evaluate the effects of this type of exposure on the reproductive capacity of females of three species of rats that were exposed to mixtures of dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan and permethrin at low doses (LOAEL and NOAEL). In this context, we have developed a method for determining pesticides in adipose tissue (0.5 g, 49% lipid) associated with the ovaries, based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) strategy...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334674/organochlorine-pesticides-in-soil-air-and-vegetation-at-and-around-a-contaminated-site-in-southwestern-china-concentration-transmission-and-risk-evaluation
#3
Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Qingqi Die, Yajun Tian, Feng Liu, Jie He, Qifei Huang
Remediation and management of contaminated sites have become a prevalent problem under the current situation in China. The present study was conducted to investigate the concentration, transmission, and health risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a typical pesticide-contaminated site located in southwestern China. Exchange flux between soil and air was calculated to investigate the transmission of OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs, top soil: 19.1 mg/kg d.w., air: 52...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334673/presence-of-the-%C3%AE-triketone-herbicide-tefuryltrione-in-drinking-water-sources-and-its-degradation-product-in-drinking-waters
#4
Motoyuki Kamata, Mari Asami, Yoshihiko Matsui
Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334528/why-prodrugs-and-propesticides-succeed
#5
John E Casida
What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales with corresponding values of 20, 37 and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides and profungicides...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#6
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334297/the-knight-stick-trap-and-knight-stick-sticky-wraps-new-tools-for-stable-fly-diptera-muscidae-management
#7
Jerome A Hogsette, Daniel L Kline
Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334210/assessment-of-habitat-modification-and-varied-planting-dates-to-enhance-potential-natural-enemies-of-anasa-tristis-hemiptera-coreidae-in-squash
#8
C G Fair, S K Braman
The squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is an indigenous pest of squash and other cucurbits. Pesticides can control squash bug populations although many small-scale growers in the Southeast seek alternative methods of management. Cultural control methods, including varying the planting date and farmscaping, are not well understood under southeastern conditions. The goal of farmscaping is to increase natural ecosystem functions to aid in the control of pest populations. In the summers of 2014 and 2015, field plots of squash, separated by a minimum of 150 m were organized in a split-split plot design, with floral resources at the whole-plot level and varied planting date at the subplot level...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334150/monitoring-trends-in-insecticide-resistance-of-field-populations-of-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-in-guizhou-province-china-2012-2015
#9
Jian-Xue Jin, Dao-Chao Jin, Wen-Hong Li, Ying Cheng, Feng-Liang Li, Zhao-Chun Ye
Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012-2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334066/effect-of-drive-row-ground-covers-on-hop-rosales-cannabaceae-yard-arthropod-pests-in-vermont-usa
#10
L Calderwood, J Cubins, D Vesty, H Darby
Alternatives to pesticides are necessary for the management of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) arthropod pests. The three major arthropod pests in northeastern US hop production include two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris. This 3-yr study (2012-2014) in Vermont investigated the effect of flowering ground covers on arthropod pest abundance. Hop cultivars 'Nugget' and 'Cascade' were evaluated under a strip-split plot experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334064/insecticide-susceptibility-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-and-implications-for-wild-honey-bees-in-asia
#11
Mika Yasuda, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Koichi Goka, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu, Hisatomo Taki
To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332723/evidence-for-persistent-organochlorine-pollutants-in-the-human-adrenal-cortex
#12
Enza Fommei, Roberta Turci, Andrea Ripoli, Silvana Balzan, Fabrizio Bianchi, Luca Morelli, Alessio Coi
Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332649/epidemiological-surveillance-in-dairy-farms-in-the-pastaza-province-of-ecuador
#13
M Perez Ruano, F V Lam Romero, D Benítez Jiménez, S Ríos Núñez, J C Vargas Burgos, R Quinteros Pozo, X Rodríguez Villafuerte
A survey was carried out on dairy cattle farms in Pastaza province to analyse the degree of compliance with epidemiological surveillance activities (based on the main technical aspects in Ecuador's Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practices) and to assess the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy cattle. Visits were made to 70 dairy and dual-purpose beef/dairy farms, where the survey was conducted to evaluate technical aspects relating to epidemiological surveillance and the risk of introducing disease...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332087/boswellia-ovalifoliolata-burseraceae-essential-oil-as-an-eco-friendly-larvicide-toxicity-against-six-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-importance-non-target-mosquito-fishes-backswimmers-and-water-bugs
#14
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Periasamy Vijayan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Marimuthu Govindarajan
The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331551/environmental-costs-and-benefits-of-growing-miscanthus-for-bioenergy-in-the-uk
#15
REVIEW
Jon P McCalmont, Astley Hastings, Niall P McNamara, Goetz M Richter, Paul Robson, Iain S Donnison, John Clifton-Brown
Planting the perennial biomass crop Miscanthus in the UK could offset 2-13 Mt oil eq. yr(-1), contributing up to 10% of current energy use. Policymakers need assurance that upscaling Miscanthus production can be performed sustainably without negatively impacting essential food production or the wider environment. This study reviews a large body of Miscanthus relevant literature into concise summary statements. Perennial Miscanthus has energy output/input ratios 10 times higher (47.3 ± 2.2) than annual crops used for energy (4...
March 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330765/hsp90-and-pcreb-alterations-are-linked-to-mancozeb-dependent-behavioral-and-neurodegenerative-effects-in-a-marine-teleost
#16
Merylin Zizza, Mariana Di Lorenzo, Vincenza Laforgia, Emilia Furia, Giovanni Sindona, Marcello Canonaco, Rosa Maria Facciolo
The pesticide mancozeb (mz) is recognized as a potent inducer of oxidative stress due to its ability to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species plus inhibiting mitochondrial respiration thus becoming an environmental risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Despite numerous toxicological studies on mz have been directed to mammals, attention on marine fish is still lacking. Thus, it was our intention to evaluate neurobehavioral activities of ornate wrasses (Thalassoma pavo) exposed to 0.2mg/l of mz after a preliminary screening test (0...
March 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330527/validation-of-multiresidue-method-for-analysis-of-31-pesticides-in-rice-using-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Rahul Mondal, Ramen Kumar Kole, Anjan Bhattacharyya
Five modified QuEChERS were tested for the multiresidue analysis of 31 pesticides in rice. Rice was spiked with mixturesolution of pesticides at 10 ng/g. Method selection was based on the LODs (sensitivity) and recovery tests (accuracy) of the pesticides. Analysis was done in GC-tandem MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode with a total run time of approximately 37 min. The selected method was validated after spiking rice at 20 and 100 ng/g in rice. The performance characteristics of the method impacted for all selected pesticides were acceptable according to the guidelines for method validation (recovery of 70-120% with an RSD of <20% and r<sup>2</sup> value of ≥0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330297/differential-expression-and-characterization-of-cypermethrin-degrading-potential-proteins-in-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-sg4
#18
Pankaj, Geeta Negi, Saurabh Gangola, Priyanka Khati, Govind Kumar, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma
A cypermethrin-degrading bacterium (SG4) was isolated from the pesticide-contaminated soil in the agricultural field of the crop research centre of the University, and characterized as Bacillus thuringiensis strain, SG4. The bacterium degraded 78.9 % of cypermethrin (50 ppm) in 15 days when grown in a minimal medium. To understand the functional proteins of cypermethrin degradation in Bacillus thuringiensis strain SG4, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the presence/absence of cypermethrin after 5 days of incubation in minimal medium...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330219/effect-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-microbial-diversity-and-its-biotransformation-by-streptomyces-sp-hp-11
#19
M Supreeth, M A Chandrashekar, N Sachin, N S Raju
The application of pesticides in agricultural fields not only reaches the target pests but also with soil where it interacts with soil microorganisms resulting in change of microbial diversity. Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one such organophosphorous insecticide most widely used against various insects, termites, and beetles throughout the globe. In the present work, the effect of CP on soil microbial population was assessed by the cultivable method. The fertile soil which does not have a history of any pesticide application was treated with 100 and 200 µg/g of CP along with control which received only sterile water and incubated for 1, 7, and 14 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330200/use-of-ca-alginate-immobilized-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-for-repeated-batch-and-continuous-degradation-of-endosulfan
#20
Vijayalakshmi Pradeep, Usha Malavalli Subbaiah
The current investigation is taken up with the aim of studying repeated batch and continuous degradation of Endosulfan, using Ca-alginate immobilized cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from an agricultural soil. The work involves the study of genes and enzymes involved in the degradation of the pesticide and was carried out with an objective of reducing the toxicity of Endosulfan by degrading it to less toxic metabolites. The long-term stability of Endosulfan degradation was studied during its repeated batch degradation, carried out over a period of 35 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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