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Precision medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644958/translating-cancer-epigenomics-into-the-clinic-focus-on-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Josep Mari-Alexandre, Angel Diaz-Lagares, Maria Villalba, Oscar Juan, Ana B Crujeiras, Alfonso Calvo, Juan Sandoval
Epigenetic deregulation is increasingly being recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Recent studies have identified many new epigenetic biomarkers, some of which are being introduced into clinical practice for diagnosis, molecular classification, prognosis or prediction of response to therapies. O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene is the most clinically advanced epigenetic biomarker as it predicts the response to temozolomide and carmustine in gliomas. Therefore, epigenomics may represent a novel and promising tool for precision medicine, and in particular, the detection of epigenomic biomarkers in liquid biopsies will be of great interest for monitoring diseases in patients...
June 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643930/moving-towards-precision-orthodontics-an-evolving-paradigm-shift-in-the-planning-and-delivery-of-customized-orthodontic-therapy
#2
REVIEW
A H Jheon, S Oberoi, R C Solem, S Kapila
Advances in precision medicine portend similar progress in orthodontics and will be increasingly harnessed to achieve customized treatment approaches and enhance treatment efficiencies. Our goal is to provide a background on emerging advances in computer technologies and biomedicine and highlight their current and likely future applications to precision orthodontics. A review of orthodontically relevant technologies and advances in pertinent biological research was undertaken. Innovations in computer hardware and software, and 3D imaging technologies offer the ability for customized treatment and biomechanical planning that will be more fully realized within the next few decades...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643680/-towards-precision-medicine-in-myeloma-new-evidence-and-challenges
#3
Verónica González-Calle, Rafael Fonseca
In the last few years, next-generation sequencing studies have provided insights into the mutational landscape of multiple myeloma. The identification of actionable mutations might give a precious opportunity for exploring new targeted therapies. Thus, the implementation of promising precision medicine strategies seems to be closer than ever. Throughout this review we describe the main challenges that should to be dealt with in this new era, in order to achieve the main goal of precision medicine, namely matching patients with their right drug...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643383/multiecho-pseudo-golden-angle-stack-of-stars-thermometry-with-high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-using-k-space-weighted-image-contrast
#4
Bryant T Svedin, Allison Payne, Bradley D Bolster, Dennis L Parker
PURPOSE: Implement and evaluate a 3D MRI method to measure temperature changes with high spatial and temporal resolution and large field of view. METHODS: A multiecho pseudo-golden angle stack-of-stars (SOS) sequence with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) reconstruction was implemented to simultaneously measure multiple quantities, including temperature, initial signal magnitude M(0), transverse relaxation time ( T2*), and water/fat images. Respiration artifacts were corrected using self-navigation...
June 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641699/-quantitative-imaging-assessment-of-tumor-response-to-chemoradiation-%C3%A2-in-lung-cancer
#5
Yuxin Jiao, Yanping Ren, Xiangpeng Zheng
Precision medicine demands accurate assessment of tumor response to therapies with the purpose of timely optimization or adjustment of the given treatment regimens. Chemoradiation remains the standard of care in advanced lung cancers and imaging-based noninvasive response evaluation could improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce treatment-related severe side effects. In this review, we overviewed the applications and pitfalls of major imaging modalities in response evaluation in lung cancer from a quantitative perspective...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#6
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640869/development-of-an-automated-size-based-filtration-system-for-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-lung-cancer-patients
#7
Satomi Yagi, Yasuhiro Koh, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Kuninobu Kanai, Atsushi Hayata, Nahomi Tokudome, Keiichiro Akamatsu, Katsuya Endo, Seita Nakamura, Masayuki Higuchi, Hisashige Kanbara, Masanori Nakanishi, Hiroki Ueda, Nobuyuki Yamamoto
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), defined as tumor cells circulating in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors, are relatively rare. Diagnosis using CTCs is expected to help in the decision-making for precision cancer medicine. We have developed an automated microcavity array (MCA) system to detect CTCs based on the differences in size and deformability between tumor cells and normal blood cells. Herein, we evaluated the system using blood samples from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#8
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640681/crowdsourced-health-data-comparability-to-a-us-national-survey-2013-2015
#9
Veronica Yank, Sanjhavi Agarwal, Pooja Loftus, Steven Asch, David Rehkopf
OBJECTIVES: To determine the generalizability of crowdsourced, electronic health data from self-selected individuals using a national survey as a reference. METHODS: Using the world's largest crowdsourcing platform in 2015, we collected data on characteristics known to influence cardiovascular disease risk and identified comparable data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used age-stratified logistic regression models to identify differences among groups...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639105/towards-efficiency-in-rare-disease-research-what-is-distinctive-and-important
#10
REVIEW
Jinmeng Jia, Tieliu Shi
Characterized by their low prevalence, rare diseases are often chronically debilitating or life threatening. Despite their low prevalence, the aggregate number of individuals suffering from a rare disease is estimated to be nearly 400 million worldwide. Over the past decades, efforts from researchers, clinicians, and pharmaceutical industries have been focused on both the diagnosis and therapy of rare diseases. However, because of the lack of data and medical records for individual rare diseases and the high cost of orphan drug development, only limited progress has been achieved...
June 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639069/the-application-of-3d-printing-technology-for-simultaneous-orthognathic-surgery-and-mandibular-contour-osteoplasty-in-the-treatment-of-craniofacial-deformities
#11
Yanju Xiao, Xiumei Sun, Lin Wang, Yaoyao Zhang, Kai Chen, Guomin Wu
BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of specific preoperative design and surgical templates, orthognathic surgery and mandibular contour osteoplasty are generally performed in two stages. Three-dimensional printing technology has improved the accuracy of the surgery and results in good surgical predictability easily. This study aims to confirm the effectiveness, feasibility and precision of simultaneous mandibular contour osteoplasty and orthognathic surgery with the assistance of 3D printing technology...
June 21, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638988/same-day-genomic-and-epigenomic-diagnosis-of-brain-tumors-using-real-time-nanopore-sequencing
#12
Philipp Euskirchen, Franck Bielle, Karim Labreche, Wigard P Kloosterman, Shai Rosenberg, Mailys Daniau, Charlotte Schmitt, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Franck Bourdeaut, Caroline Dehais, Yannick Marie, Jean-Yves Delattre, Ahmed Idbaih
Molecular classification of cancer has entered clinical routine to inform diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. At the same time, new tumor entities have been identified that cannot be defined histologically. For central nervous system tumors, the current World Health Organization classification explicitly demands molecular testing, e.g., for 1p/19q-codeletion or IDH mutations, to make an integrated histomolecular diagnosis. However, a plethora of sophisticated technologies is currently needed to assess different genomic and epigenomic alterations and turnaround times are in the range of weeks, which makes standardized and widespread implementation difficult and hinders timely decision making...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638892/in-vivo-effect-of-guiding-herb-radix-platycodonis-and-radix-cyathulae-on-paeoniflorin-pharmacokinetics-of-xuefu-zhuyu-tang-in-rats
#13
Song-Qi Tang, Yun-Hui Chen, Xi-Ping Chen, Xiao-Dan Zhang, Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT), first recorded in Correction of Errors in Medical Works by Qing-ren Wang, has been proven reliable and effective for curing various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris. It consists of 11 herbs and two of them, Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, have been traditionally considered as guiding herbs and deeply valued by tens of millions of Chinese medicine practitioners. Do Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae affect the pharmacokinetics of the effective constituent-paeoniflorin of XFZYT? If yes, in what way? This study aims to answer these questions...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638781/bioinspired-mechano-sensitive-macroporous-ceramic-sponge-for-logical-drug-and-cell-delivery
#14
Changlu Xu, Zhihao Wei, Huajian Gao, Yanjie Bai, Huiling Liu, Huilin Yang, Yuekun Lai, Lei Yang
On-demand, ultrahigh precision delivery of molecules and cells assisted by scaffold is a pivotal theme in the field of controlled release, but it remains extremely challenging for ceramic-based macroporous scaffolds that are prevalently used in regenerative medicine. Sea sponges (Phylum Porifera), whose bodies possess hierarchical pores or channels and organic/inorganic composite structures, can delicately control water intake/circulation and therefore achieve high precision mass transportation of food, oxygen, and wastes...
June 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638489/harnessing-integrative-omics-to-facilitate-molecular-imaging-of-the-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-family-for-precision-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Martin Pool, H Rudolf de Boer, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Elisabeth G E de Vries
Cancer is a growing problem worldwide. The cause of death in cancer patients is often due to treatment-resistant metastatic disease. Many molecularly targeted anticancer drugs have been developed against 'oncogenic driver' pathways. However, these treatments are usually only effective in properly selected patients. Resistance to molecularly targeted drugs through selective pressure on acquired mutations or molecular rewiring can hinder their effectiveness. This review summarizes how molecular imaging techniques can potentially facilitate the optimal implementation of targeted agents...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638319/dynamiceuticals-the-next-stage-in-personalized-medicine
#16
Jose L Perez Velazquez
The surge in the interest in personalized medicine necessitates a corresponding rational approach for implementing such individualized therapies. Dynamiceuticals represents a natural extension of the Pharmaceutical and Electroceutical fields, where the precise determination of the dynamical regimes of the pathophysiology will guide to devise therapies that ameliorate the pathology in a well-controlled manner, thus being precisely tailored toward the implementation of individualized medicine. This approach foretells to lessen side-effects and achieve superior efficacy as compared with current trial-and-error or open-loop strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638171/3d-printed-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-phantom-for-image-guided-surgical-planning-with-a-patient-specific-fenestrated-endovascular-graft-system
#17
Karen M Meess, Richard L Izzo, Maciej L Dryjski, Richard E Curl, Linda M Harris, Michael Springer, Adnan H Siddiqui, Stephen Rudin, Ciprian N Ionita
Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638141/al-mena-a-comprehensive-resource-of-human-genetic-variants-integrating-genomes-and-exomes-from-arab-middle-eastern-and-north-african-populations
#18
Remya Koshy, Anop Ranawat, Vinod Scaria
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) encompass very unique populations, with a rich history and encompasses characteristic ethnic, linguistic and genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of MENA region has been largely unknown. The recent availability of whole-exome and whole-genome sequences from the region has made it possible to collect population-specific allele frequencies. The integration of data sets from this region would provide insights into the landscape of genetic variants in this region. We integrated genetic variants from multiple data sets systematically, available from this region to create a compendium of over 26 million genetic variations...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637019/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-ros1-and-ret-rearranged-nsclc-in-caucasian-patients-data-from-a-cohort-of-713-non-squamous-nsclc-lacking-kras-egfr-her2-braf-pik3ca-alk-alterations
#19
Frédéric Dugay, Francisco Llamas-Gutierrez, Marjory Gournay, Sarah Medane, François Mazet, Dan Christian Chiforeanu, Emmanuelle Becker, Régine Lamy, Hervé Léna, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Florian Cabillic
Targeted therapies have substantially changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with driver oncogenes. Given the high frequency, EGFR and ALK aberrations were the first to be detected and paved the way for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. Other kinases such as ROS1 and more recently RET have emerged as promising targets, and ROS1 and RET TKIs are already available for precision medicine.We screened a large cohort of 713 Caucasian non-squamous NSCLC patients lacking EGFR/KRAS/BRAF/HER2/PI3KCA/ALK aberrations for ROS1 and RET rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of ROS1- and RET-positive patients...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637000/precision-medicine-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-driver-mutations-and-targeted-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Xiao-Xiao Ding, Qing-Ge Zhu, Shi-Ming Zhang, Lei Guan, Ting Li, Lei Zhang, Shi-Yang Wang, Wan-Li Ren, Xue-Mei Chen, Jing Zhao, Song Lin, Zhi-Zhen Liu, Yan-Xia Bai, Bing He, Hu-Qin Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of tumor-related mortality and there are an estimated approximately 850,000 new cases annually. Most HCC patients are diagnosed at middle or advanced stage, losing the opportunity of surgery. The development of HCC is promoted by accumulated diverse genetic mutations, which confer selective growth advantages to tumor cells and are called "driver mutations". The discovery of driver mutations provides a novel precision medicine strategy for late stage HCC, called targeted therapy...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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