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Precision medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#1
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160867/protocols-and-characterization-data-for-2d-3d-and-slice-based-tumor-models-from-the-predect-project
#2
Ronald de Hoogt, Marta F Estrada, Suzana Vidic, Emma J Davies, Annika Osswald, Michael Barbier, Vítor E Santo, Kjersti Gjerde, Hanneke J A A van Zoggel, Sami Blom, Meng Dong, Katja Närhi, Erwin Boghaert, Catarina Brito, Yolanda Chong, Wolfgang Sommergruber, Heiko van der Kuip, Wytske M van Weerden, Emmy W Verschuren, John Hickman, Ralph Graeser
Two-dimensional (2D) culture of cancer cells in vitro does not recapitulate the three-dimensional (3D) architecture, heterogeneity and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required that better reflect key aspects of tumor biology. These are essential studies of cancer biology and immunology as well as for target validation and drug discovery. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) consortium PREDECT (www.predect.eu) characterized in vitro models of three solid tumor types with the goal to capture elements of tumor complexity and heterogeneity...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159886/radiomics-in-lung-cancer-its-time-is-here
#3
Mannudeep Kalra, Ge Wang, Colin G Orton
Of the 8.8 million deaths from cancer in 2015, per the World Health Organization, lung cancer was the most common cause of death (1.69 million). With the introduction of low-dose CT for lung cancer screening and emergence of precision medicine for often-fatal lung cancer, there is a need for deep access to critical information, i.e. radiomics, not possible with conventional subjective interpretation of CT images. Quantitative image analyses for radiomics have been applied in lung cancers to determine their spatial complexity, genomic composition, viability or aggressiveness, and responses to targeted therapies...
November 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158376/leukemia-specific-delivery-of-mutant-notch1-targeted-therapy
#4
Giovanni Roti, Jun Qi, Samuel Kitara, Marta Sanchez-Martin, Amy Saur Conway, Anthony C Varca, Angela Su, Lei Wu, Andrew L Kung, Adolfo A Ferrando, James E Bradner, Kimberly Stegmaier
On-target drug delivery remains a challenge in cancer precision medicine; it is difficult to deliver a targeted therapy to cancer cells without incurring toxicity to normal tissues. The SERCA (sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase) inhibitor thapsigargin inhibits mutant NOTCH1 receptors compared with wild type in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but its administration is predicted to be toxic in humans. Leveraging the addiction of ALL to folic acid, we conjugated folate to an alcohol derivative of thapsigargin via a cleavable ester linkage...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158373/revisiting-expectations-in-an-era-of-precision-oncology
#5
Emily J Marchiano, Andrew C Birkeland, Paul L Swiecicki, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Andrew G Shuman
As we enter an era of precision medicine and targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancer, we face new challenges for patients and providers alike as we establish clear guidelines, regulations, and strategies for implementation. At the crux of this challenge is the fact that patients with advanced cancer may have disproportionate expectations of personal benefit when participating in clinical trials designed to generate generalizable knowledge. Patient and physician goals of treatment may not align, and reconciliation of their disparate perceptions must be addressed...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158372/enhancing-next-generation-sequencing-guided-cancer-care-through-cognitive-computing
#6
Nirali M Patel, Vanessa V Michelini, Jeff M Snell, Saianand Balu, Alan P Hoyle, Joel S Parker, Michele C Hayward, David A Eberhard, Ashley H Salazar, Patrick McNeillie, Jia Xu, Claudia S Huettner, Takahiko Koyama, Filippo Utro, Kahn Rhrissorrakrai, Raquel Norel, Erhan Bilal, Ajay Royyuru, Laxmi Parida, H Shelton Earp, Juneko E Grilley-Olson, D Neil Hayes, Stephen J Harvey, Norman E Sharpless, William Y Kim
BACKGROUND: Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to guide cancer therapy has created challenges in analyzing and reporting large volumes of genomic data to patients and caregivers. Specifically, providing current, accurate information on newly approved therapies and open clinical trials requires considerable manual curation performed mainly by human "molecular tumor boards" (MTBs). The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of cognitive computing as performed by Watson for Genomics (WfG) compared with a human MTB...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157977/cell-type-specific-pharmacological-kinase-inhibition-for-cancer-chemoprevention
#7
Manjeet Deshmukh, Shigeki Nakagawa, Takaaki Higashi, Adam Vincek, Anu Venkatesh, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Anna P Koh, Nicolas Goossens, Hadassa Hirschfield, C Billie Bian, Naoto Fujiwara, Atsushi Ono, Hiroki Hoshida, Mohamed El-Abtah, Noor B Ahmad, Amaia Lujambio, Roberto Sanchez, Bryan C Fuchs, Klaas Poelstra, Jai Prakash, Yujin Hoshida
Safety is prerequisite for preventive medicine, but non-toxic agents are generally ineffective as clinical chemoprevention. Here we propose a strategy overcoming this challenge by delivering molecular-targeted agent specifically to the effector cell type to achieve sufficient potency, while circumventing toxicity in the context of cancer chemoprevention. Hepatic myofibroblasts drive progressive fibrosis that results in cirrhosis and liver cancer. In a rat model of cirrhosis-driven liver cancer, a small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, erlotinib, was delivered specifically to myofibroblasts by a versatile nanoparticle-based system, targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta uniquely expressed on their surface in the liver...
November 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157489/nmr-based-pharmacometabonomics-a-new-paradigm-for-personalised-or-precision-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy R Everett
Metabolic profiling by NMR spectroscopy or hyphenated mass spectrometry, known as metabonomics or metabolomics, is an important tool for systems-based approaches in biology and medicine. The experiments are typically done in a diagnostic fashion where changes in metabolite profiles are interpreted as a consequence of an intervention or event; be that a change in diet, the administration of a drug, physical exertion or the onset of a disease. By contrast, pharmacometabonomics takes a prognostic approach to metabolic profiling, in order to predict the effects of drug dosing before it occurs...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154368/precision-medicine-in-alcohol-dependence-a-controlled-trial-testing-pharmacotherapy-response-among-reward-and-relief-drinking-phenotypes
#9
Karl Mann, Corey R Roos, Sabine Hoffmann, Helmut Nakovics, Tagrid Leménager, Andreas Heinz, Katie Witkiewitz
Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT Study tested acamprosate and naltrexone versus placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment. PREDICT proposed individuals whose drinking was driven by positive reinforcement (ie, reward drinkers) would have a better treatment response to naltrexone, whereas individuals whose drinking was driven by negative reinforcement (ie, relief drinkers) would have a better treatment response to acamprosate...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153977/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-haematological-malignancies
#10
Jean-Pierre Bourquin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153976/image-based-ex-vivo-drug-screening-for-patients-with-aggressive-haematological-malignancies-interim-results-from-a-single-arm-open-label-pilot-study
#11
Berend Snijder, Gregory I Vladimer, Nikolaus Krall, Katsuhiro Miura, Ann-Sofie Schmolke, Christoph Kornauth, Oscar Lopez de la Fuente, Hye-Soo Choi, Emiel van der Kouwe, Sinan Gültekin, Lukas Kazianka, Johannes W Bigenzahn, Gregor Hoermann, Nicole Prutsch, Olaf Merkel, Anna Ringler, Monika Sabler, Georg Jeryczynski, Marius E Mayerhoefer, Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp, Katharina Ocko, Franz Felberbauer, Leonhard Müllauer, Gerald W Prager, Belgin Korkmaz, Lukas Kenner, Wolfgang R Sperr, Robert Kralovics, Heinz Gisslinger, Peter Valent, Stefan Kubicek, Ulrich Jäger, Philipp B Staber, Giulio Superti-Furga
BACKGROUND: Patients with refractory or relapsed haematological malignancies have few treatment options and short survival times. Identification of effective therapies with genomic-based precision medicine is hampered by intratumour heterogeneity and incomplete understanding of the contribution of various mutations within specific cancer phenotypes. Ex-vivo drug-response profiling in patient biopsies might aid effective treatment identification; however, proof of its clinical utility is limited...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153736/defining-precision-medicine
#12
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152907/hierarchical-multicomponent-inorganic-metamaterials-intrinsically-driven-self-assembly-at-the-nanoscale
#13
REVIEW
Igor Levchenko, Kateryna Bazaka, Michael Keidar, Shuyan Xu, Jinghua Fang
Increasingly intricate in their composition and structural organization, hierarchical multicomponent metamaterials with nonlinear spatially reconfigurable functionalities challenge the intrinsic constraints of natural materials, revealing tremendous potential for the advancement of biochemistry, nanophotonics, and medicine. Recent breakthroughs in high-resolution nanofabrication utilizing ultranarrow, precisely controlled ion or laser beams have enabled assembly of architectures of unprecedented structural and functional complexity, yet costly, time- and energy-consuming high-resolution sequential techniques do not operate effectively at industry-required scale...
November 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150002/gene-editing-and-crispr-therapeutics-strategies-taught-by-cell-and-gene-therapy
#14
Juan C Ramirez
A few years ago, we assisted in the demonstration for the first time of the revolutionary idea of a type of adaptive-immune system in the bacteria kingdom. This system, named CRISPR, and variants engineered in the lab, have been demonstrated as functional with extremely high frequency and fidelity in almost all eukaryotic cells studied to date. The capabilities of this RNA-guided nuclease have added to the interest that was announced with the advent of previous technologies for genome editing tools, such as ZFN and TALEN...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149735/carbamazepine-lamotrigine-levetiracetam-and-valproic-acid-in-dried-blood-spots-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-development-and-validation
#15
Camilla Linder, Anna Hansson, Sara Sadek, Lars L Gustafsson, Anton Pohanka
Monitoring of antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy require multiple visits at a clinic for blood collection. Dried blood spot sampling is an alternative way of collection, performed at home by self-collection and can save time and costs for patients and family members. The aim was to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS dried blood spot method for carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and valproic acid with the requirements of using standard equipment and material in a routine laboratory setting. Whatman-903 filter paper was utilized, and discs were punched into a 96 well plate with an automated puncher and barcode reading...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149267/taiwan-biobank-making-cross-database-convergence-possible-in-the-big-data-era
#16
Jui-Chu Lin, Chien-Te Fan, Chia-Cheng Liao, Yao-Sheng Chen
The Taiwan Biobank (TWB) is a biomedical research database of biopsy data from 200,000 participants. Access to this database has been granted to research communities taking part in the development of precision medicines; however, this has raised issues surrounding TWB's access to electronic medical records (EMR). The Personal Data Protection Act of Taiwan restricts access to EMR for purposes not covered by patients' original consent. This commentary explores possible legal solutions to help ensure that the access TWB has to EMR abides with legal obligations, and with governance frameworks associated with ethical, legal and social implications...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149126/pharmacogenomics-principles-and-relevance-to-oncology-nursing%C3%A2
#17
Crystal H Dodson
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenomics is the fastest growing field in precision medicine. Based on current use, oncology encompasses the largest share of the precision medicine market, necessitating that oncology nurses understand the principles of pharmacogenomics and how it affects clinical practice.
. OBJECTIVES: This article will define precision medicine and pharmacogenomics and will provide examples of pharmacogenomic tests, including those associated with tumor markers, and nursing implications...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149123/precision-medicine-accelerating-the-science-to-revolutionize-cancer-care%C3%A2
#18
Jeannine M Brant, Deborah K Mayer
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine in cancer care uses specific information about a person's tumor to help diagnose, plan treatment, prognosticate, and surveil throughout the cancer trajectory. Applications exist for cancer prevention, early detection, cancer treatment, and supportive care. Several national initiatives (e.g., National Cancer Moonshot Initiative) support these efforts to accelerate this science forward.
. OBJECTIVES: This article presents an overview of the way in which precision medicine is revolutionizing cancer care...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149109/targeted-therapies-precision-medicine-for-atc-braf-and-mek-inhibition-shows-promise
#19
David Killock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149039/growth-of-anisotropic-gold-nanoparticle-assemblies-via-liposome-fusion
#20
Kouta Sugikawa, Tatsuya Kadota, Kotaro Matsuo, Kazuma Yasuhara, Atsushi Ikeda
Anisotropic assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted extensive attention because of the potential applications in materials science, biology, and medicine. However, assembly control (e.g., the number of assembled NPs) has not been adequately studied. Here, the growth of anisotropic gold NP assemblies on a liposome surface is reported. Citrate-coated gold NPs adsorbed on liposome surfaces were assembled in one dimension at temperatures above the phase transition temperature of the lipid bilayer. Growth of the anisotropic assemblies depended on the heating time...
November 17, 2017: Materials
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