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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936293/effects-of-incentives-for-naltrexone-adherence-on-opiate-abstinence-in-heroin-dependent-adults
#1
Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Anthony DeFulio, Kelly E Dunn, Jeffrey J Everly, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Annie Umbricht, Michael Fingerhood, George E Bigelow, Kenneth Silverman
AIM: To test whether an incentive-based intervention that increased adherence to naltrexone also increased opiate abstinence. DESIGN: Post-hoc combined analysis of three earlier randomized controlled trials that individually showed that incentives for adherence to oral and to extended-release injection naltrexone dosing schedules increased naltrexone adherence but not opiate abstinence. SETTING: Outpatient therapeutic workplace in Baltimore, MD, USA...
December 9, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936284/utility-of-preclinical-drug-versus-food-choice-procedures-to-evaluate-candidate-medications-for-methamphetamine-use-disorder
#2
Matthew L Banks
Substance use disorders are diagnosed as a manifestation of inappropriate behavioral allocation toward abused drugs and away from other behaviors maintained by more adaptive nondrug reinforcers (e.g., money and social relationships). Substance use disorder treatment goals include not only decreasing drug-maintained behavior but also promoting behavioral reallocation toward these socially adaptive alternative reinforcers. Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that offer concurrent access to both drug and nondrug reinforcers provide a translationally relevant dependent measure of behavioral allocation that may be useful for candidate medication evaluation...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936112/genome-wide-association-of-heroin-dependence-in-han-chinese
#3
Gursharan Kalsi, Jack Euesden, Jonathan R I Coleman, Francesca Ducci, Fazil Aliev, Stephen J Newhouse, Xiehe Liu, Xiaohong Ma, Yingcheng Wang, David A Collier, Philip Asherson, Tao Li, Gerome Breen
Drug addiction is a costly and recurring healthcare problem, necessitating a need to understand risk factors and mechanisms of addiction, and to identify new biomarkers. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for heroin addiction have been limited; moreover they have been restricted to examining samples of European and African-American origin due to difficulty of recruiting samples from other populations. This is the first study to test a Han Chinese population; we performed a GWAS on a homogeneous sample of 370 Han Chinese subjects diagnosed with heroin dependence using the DSM-IV criteria and 134 ethnically matched controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#4
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929672/long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-examining-intermediary-processes
#5
Kerry M Green, Elaine E Doherty, Margaret E Ensminger
BACKGROUND: In the United States, perceptions of marijuana's acceptability are at an all-time high, risk perceptions among youth are low, and rates are rising among Black youth. Thus, it is imperative to increase the understanding of long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use and ways to mitigate adverse consequences. OBJECTIVES: To identify the midlife consequences of heavy adolescent marijuana use and the mechanisms driving effects among a Black, urban population...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927240/general-practice-patients-treated-for-substance-use-problems-a-cross-national-observational-study-in-belgium
#6
Nicole Boffin, Jerome Antoine, Sarah Moreels, Simeon Wanyama, Karin De Ridder, Lieve Peremans, Marc Vanmeerbeek, Viviane Van Casteren
BACKGROUND: General Practitioners (GPs) are well placed to care for patients with (chronic) substance use problems. This pilot was carried out to study the feasibility and usefulness of a continuous surveillance of substance use problems among general practice patients. The objectives were (i) to describe variables with missing values exceeding 1% and whether patients were reported without substance-related problems; (ii) the profile and the magnitude of the patient population that is treated for substance use problems...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#7
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical-personnel (lay person) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years, but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925346/hepatitis-c-infection-and-other-drug-related-harms-among-inpatients-who-injected-drugs-in-turkey
#8
Arash Alaei, Kamiar Alaei, Katherine Waye, Melissa Tracy, Marine Nalbandyan, Elif Mutlu, Mustafa Kemal Cetin
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is easily spread among those who share drug injection equipment. Due to the ease of contraction and growing prevalence of HCV in Eastern Europe, the aims of this study focused on describing risky injection practices as well as the prevalence of HCV, HIV, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) that were admitted to public and private drug treatment centers in Turkey from 2012 to 2013. Other aims included identifying correlates of needle sharing and HCV infection...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921312/the-prevalence-of-paraphernalia-found-at-the-scene-of-drug-related-deaths
#9
Jason G Lozano, Nicole L Healy, D Kimberley Molina
Many illicit drugs involve the use of paraphernalia, and the presence of paraphernalia found at the scene of death may suggest that the death is drug-related. Few sources of objective data are available regarding the prevalence of drug paraphernalia found at the scene of drug-related deaths or the likelihood of a death with drug paraphernalia found at the scene to be drug-related. This study reviews the deaths which were investigated by the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office in an attempt to provide objective data...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917870/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-blocks-compulsive-like-re-escalation-of-heroin-taking-in-rats
#10
Carrie L Wade, Marsida Kallupi, Daniel O Hernandez, Emmanuel Breysse, Giordano de Guglielmo, Elena Crawford, George F Koob, Paul Schweitzer, Christelle Baunez, Olivier George
Opioid addiction, including addiction to heroin, has dramatically increased in the last decade. The cost and pervasiveness of heroin addiction, including resistance to recovery from addiction, provide a compelling basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Deep brain stimulation may represent a viable alternative strategy for the treatment of intractable heroin addiction particularly in individuals who are resistant to traditional therapies. Here, we provide preclinical evidence of the therapeutic potential of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN HFS) for heroin addiction...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916216/endocarditis-as-a-marker-for-new-epidemics-of-injection-drug-use
#11
Susana Williams Keeshin, Judith Feinberg
BACKGROUND: We examined discharges for infective endocarditis (IE) at an academic teaching hospital for over 10 years to evaluate if an increase in hospitalizations for IE and increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with IE could predict a new epidemic of injection drug use (IDU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of discharged patients with the diagnosis of IE as defined by the modified Duke criteria. Student's t test, chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to calculate P values...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914974/nonmedical-use-of-prescription-opioids-and-heroin-use-among-adolescents-involved-in-competitive-sports
#12
Philip Veliz, Carol J Boyd, Sean Esteban McCabe
PURPOSE: Examine the past-year prevalence of nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NUPOs), heroin use, and the concurrent NUPO and heroin in a sample of 12th graders involved in 16 different sports. METHODS: A secondary analysis of nationally representative data from nine cohorts (2006-2014) of the Monitoring the Future study (n = 21,557). RESULTS: No differences were found between 12th graders who participated in at least one competitive sport and nonparticipants with respect to past-year NUPO, heroin use, and concurrent NUPO and heroin use...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#13
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898577/decline-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-among-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-users-in-new-york-city-2005-to-2014-prospects-for-avoiding-a-resurgence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#14
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Holly Hagan, Hannah L F Cooper
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. METHODS: Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898133/opioid-misuse-abuse-and-quality-persistent-pain-management-in-older-adults
#15
Yu-Ping Chang, Peggy Compton
The United States is amid an epidemic of prescription opioid drug abuse, bringing with it not only high rates of overdose, but growing rates of heroin abuse and addiction. Liberal opioid drug prescribing on the part of well-meaning clinicians has in part fueled this epidemic, being correlated to opioid death and addiction treatment admission rates. Misuse and abuse of prescription opioid drugs is greatest among young adults (ages 18 to 25); however, the fastest growing age group for opioid drug misuse/abuse is older (ages 50 to 64)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895451/non-cardiogenic-pulmonary-edema-rhabdomyolysis-and-myocardial-injury-following-heroin-inhalation-a-case-report
#16
G Bazoukis, A Spiliopoulou, K Mourouzis, P Grigoropoulou, A Yalouris
BACKGROUND: Heroin use by non-injecting routes of administration (snorting, swallowing, "chasing the dragon") is considered to be safer but is not risk-free for fatal overdose or serious side effects. We report the case of an adolescent who was transferred unconscious to the emergency department after heroin inhalation. Description of the case: A 17-year-old male was transferred to the emergency department unconscious (Glasgow coma scale: 6/15) after heroin inhalation. He was treated with non-rebreather mask and intravenous infusion of naloxone with gradual improvement of consciousness and arterial blood gasses...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893214/public-perceptions-of-behavioral-and-substance-addictions
#17
Brent Lang, Harold Rosenberg
Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#18
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
November 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#19
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#20
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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