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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161066/increasing-prescription-opioid-and-heroin-overdose-mortality-in-the-united-states-1999-2014-an-age-period-cohort-analysis
#1
Xiwen Huang, Katherine M Keyes, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess cohort effects in prescription opioid and heroin overdose mortality in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Center for Health Statistics' multiple-cause-of-death file for 1999 to 2014, we performed an age-period-cohort analysis of drug overdose mortality in the United States. RESULTS: Compared with those born in 1977 and 1978, individuals born between 1947 and 1964 experienced excess risks of prescription opioid overdose death (e...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160436/use-of-injected-heroin-and-risk-of-hepatitis-c-in-three-cities-in-colombia
#2
Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi-Fernández, Angela Maria Segura-Cardona, Liliana Patricia Montoya-Velez, Alexandra Ángel Santamaría
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is one of the most neglected diseases by governments internationally. OBJECTIVE: Identify the prevalence of hepatitis C and associated injection drug users in three cities of factors Colombia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 668 injecting drug users recruited through respondent-driven sampling, inquired about demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Laboratory testing was used on filter paper and cases of hepatitis C viral load tests with RNA were confirmed...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158999/recurrent-primary-suprahepatic-abscess-due-to-providencia-stuartii-a-rare-phenomenon
#3
Kyawzaw Lin, Aung Naing Lin, Sandar Linn, Madhavi Reddy, Anjali Bakshi
Gram-negative urease-producing bacilli, Providencia stuartii (P. stuartii), is reported in urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia in humans but they rarely present with a hepatic abscess. We present a rare case of a recurrent suprahepatic cyst due to P. stuartii in a 45-year-old female, intravenous ( IV) heroin abuser with chronic hepatitis B and C. A 45-year-old female with 10 days status post right suprahepatic abscess drainage presented with recurrent, right, upper quadrant abdominal pain for one day...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158879/changes-in-effective-connectivity-network-patterns-in-drug-abusers-treated-with-different-methods
#4
Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari
Introduction: Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods. Methods: We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158866/-tb-hiv-co-infection-associated-with-kaposi-s-sarcoma-under-opioid-substitution-treatment-using-methadone-about-a-case
#5
Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse Diallo, Louise Fortes Deguenonvo, Khardiata Diallo Mbaye, Daye Ka, Ndeye Aissatou Lakhe, Ibrahima Ndiaye, Daouda Thioub, Sylvie Audrey Diop Nyafouna, Aminata Massaly, Alassane Dièye, Moustapha Diop, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Moussa Seydi
Late diagnosis of HIV infection can be fatal because it favors the appearance of opportunistic infections whose management requires the use of several molecules which can cause drug interactions. We report the case of a 45-year old female patient under heroin substitution treatment, using methadone and with HIV1 under antiretroviral treatment. This patient had nonspecific pulmonary appearance associated with dry nagging cough and progressive dyspnea evolving in a feverish context. Moreover, clinical examination showed left lower limb lymphedema with painless angiomatous nodules evolving over three years associated with plaques, angiomatous nodules occurred more recently at the level of the anterior face of the thorax...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156786/suicidal-ideation-among-chinese-methadone-maintained-patients-prevalence-and-correlates
#6
Yan-Min Xu, Bao-Liang Zhong, Wen-Cai Chen, Jun-Hong Zhu, Jin Lu
Heroin users are at high risk for suicide. However, the epidemiological profile of suicidal behaviors in Chinese methadone-maintained patients remains largely unknown. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among Chinese methadone-maintained patients. A total of 603 methadone-maintained patients were consecutively recruited from three methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Wuhan, China, and administered with standardized questionnaires to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological data...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156402/effect-of-initiating-drug-treatment-on-the-risk-of-drug-related-poisoning-death-and-acquisitive-crime-among-offending-heroin-users
#7
Matthias Pierce, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156400/-i-have-it-just-in-case-naloxone-access-and-changes-in-opioid-use-behaviours
#8
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Yu-Ping Chang, Bonnie M Vest, R Lorraine Collins, William Wieczorek, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid use behaviours. METHODS: The present qualitative study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with inpatients at a substance use treatment centre...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#9
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155681/drug-overdose-deaths-among-adolescents-aged-15-19-in-the-united-states-1999-2015
#10
Sally C Curtin, Betzaida Tejada-Vera, Margaret Warmer
Data from the National Vital Statistics System ● The death rate due to drug overdose among adolescents aged 15-19 more than doubled from 1999 (1.6 per 100,000) to 2007 (4.2), declined by 26% from 2007 to 2014 (3.1), and then increased in 2015 (3.7). ● The drug overdose death rate increased between 1999 and the mid-2000s for both males and females but only males had a subsequent decline between 2007 and 2014 ● For both male and female adolescents, the majority of drug overdose deaths in 2015 were unintentional...
August 2017: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155092/effects-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-5-ht7-receptor-knockdown-on-cognitive-control-after-acute-heroin-administration
#11
Huijun Zhong, Jie Dang, Zhenghao Huo, Zhanbing Ma, Jing Chen, Yong Huang, Yongsheng Zhu, Min Li
Heroin abuse is linked to a deleterious effect on cognitive functioning in the individual. Recent evidences suggest that the serotonin7 receptor (5-HT7R) is engaged in the regulation of cognitive control and the drug use-associated behaviors. However, the role of 5-HT7R in the cognitive control after acute heroin administration has not been studied. The present study aims to investigate whether the knockdown of the 5-HT7R by virus-mediated gene silencing in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) could ameliorate the acute heroin-induced cognitive impairments...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146420/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-used-successfully-in-a-near-fatal-case-of-opioid-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Karen Greenberg, Benjamin Kohl
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) was first recognized during the 1960s. It is a distinct type of hypoxemic respiratory failure characterized by acute abnormality of both lungs. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is being increasingly used for patients with severe ARDS refractory to otherwise conventional management. A 29year old male arrived with Emergency Medical Services (EMS) status post presumed heroin overdose. He was administered Naloxone 2mg intravenously prior to arrival in the emergency department...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145741/a-cohort-approach-to-real-time-detection-of-acute-hiv-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-st-petersburg-russia
#13
Olga Toussova, Andrei Kozlov, Sergei Verevochkin, Kathryn Lancaster, Alla Shaboltas, Alexey Masharsky, Elena Dukhovlinova, William C Miller, Irving Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: To detect acute HIV infections (AHI) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 100 seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12 month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143400/pharmacokinetics-of-concentrated-naloxone-nasal-spray-for-opioid-overdose-reversal-phase-i-healthy-volunteer-study
#14
Rebecca McDonald, Ulrike Lorch, Jo Woodward, Björn Bosse, Helen Dooner, Gill Mundin, Kevin Smith, John Strang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone can prevent death from heroin/opioid overdose, but pre-provision is difficult because naloxone is usually given by injection. Non-injectable alternatives, including naloxone nasal sprays, are currently being developed. To be effective, the intranasal (i.n.) spray dose must be adequate but not excessive, and early absorption must be comparable to intramuscular (i.m.) injection. We report on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a specially produced concentrated novel nasal spray...
November 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143399/buprenorphine-naloxone-treatment-responses-differ-between-young-adults-with-heroin-and-prescription-opioid-use-disorders
#15
Mauricio Romero-Gonzalez, Abtin Shahanaghi, Gregory J DiGirolamo, Gerardo Gonzalez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder among young adults is rising sharply with an increase in morbidity and mortality. This study examined differences in treatment response to a fixed dose of buprenorphine-naloxone between heroin (HU) and prescriptions opioids (POU) users. METHODS: Eighty opioid dependent young adults (M = 22 years) were treated with buprenorphine-naloxone 16-4 mg/day for 8 weeks. Differences between HU (N = 17) and POU (N = 63) on changes in weekly opioid use, opioid craving, withdrawal, and depression symptoms were analyzed with mixed-effects regression models...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135769/medicaid-coverage-of-methadone-maintenance-and-the-use-of-opioid-agonist-therapy-among-pregnant-women-in-specialty-treatment
#16
Marcus A Bachhuber, Pooja K Mehta, Laura J Faherty, Brendan Saloner
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the standard of care for pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Medicaid coverage policies may strongly influence OAT use in this group. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between Medicaid coverage of methadone maintenance and planned use of OAT in the publicly funded treatment system. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of treatment admissions in 30 states extracted from the Treatment Episode Data Set (2013 and 2014)...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135117/what-is-the-connection-between-serum-phosphorus-cancer-and-heroin-a-medical-hypothesis-based-on-observational-studies
#17
Vassilis Kouloulias, Christos-David Papaloucas, Aristofanis Papaloucas
Considering the results of a previous study in which 2321 regular heroin addicts who died without having stopped taking the drug since they had started - from various causes but none from cancer, may mean something. Our first thought was: Can't we hypothesize, reinforcing our previous view that heroin is a "barrier" against cancer and as the user gets in the methadone program he/she lacks the "barrier" and therefore is liable to develop cancer? We have already reported that the amount of blood phosphorus in heroin addicted is significantly lower than in healthy ones...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134962/role-of-glutamatergic-projections-from-the-ventral-ca1-to-infralimbic-cortex-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#18
Na Wang, Feifei Ge, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Xiaowei Sun, Linlin Sun, Xinjuan Wang, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Yan Liu, Meng Jia, Mingda Yang
The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) play a role in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in an animal model of drug relapse. Both the PL and IL receive direct glutamatergic projections from the ventral CA1 (vCA1), which is also involved in context-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. Here we studied the role of vCA1-PL and vCA1-IL projections in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking by using electrophysiological, neuropharmacological, chemogenetic and molecular methods...
November 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129192/healthcall-delivered-via-smartphone-to-reduce-co-occurring-drug-and-alcohol-use-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-randomized-pilot-trial
#19
Efrat Aharonovich, Malka Stohl, Daniela Cannizzaro, Deborah Hasin
AIMS: Co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use among people living with HIV is linked to poor medication adherence and lack of viral suppression. HealthCall, a technological enhancement of brief Motivational Interviewing (MI), involves brief daily self-monitoring, positive reinforcement, and personalized feedback. This randomized pilot study among people living with HIV investigated the feasibility and efficacy of reducing non-injection drug and alcohol use with MI+HealthCall as adapted for smartphone technology...
December 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128652/differences-in-combinations-and-concentrations-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-fatal-intoxication-and-driving-under-the-influence-cases
#20
Hilde Erøy Edvardsen, Torill Tverborgvik, Joachim Frost, Sidsel Rogde, Inge Morild, Helge Waal, Thomas Clausen, Lars Slørdal, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: In toxicology, international classification systems focus on single intoxicants as the cause of death. It is, however, well known that very few drug related deaths are caused by a single substance and that information concerning the drug concentrations as well as the combinations of drugs are essential in order to ascertain the cause of death. The aim of the study was to assess whether those prone to fatal intoxications differ significantly from chronic drug users - in terms of demographics and drug exposure patterns...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
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