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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#1
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346039/comparison-between-urinalysis-results-and-self-reported-heroin-use-among-patients-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-china
#2
Li Li, Li-Jung Liang, Chunqing Lin, Nan Feng, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: The validity and concordance of two main measures of drug use behavior, self-report and urinalysis, has long been discussed. More understanding is needed about the underlying factors associated with discordance between these two methods. OBJECTIVES: Describe the pattern and associated factors of discordance between self-reported heroin use and the urinalysis results of opiate use among methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) patients in China. METHODS: A total of 2,448 MMT patients from 68 clinics in five provinces of China participated in a survey, which collected information on demographics, drug use and MMT-related factors, depressive symptoms, and drug avoidance self-efficacy...
March 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345608/maoa-rs1137070-and-heroin-addiction-interactively-alter-gray-matter-volume-of-the-salience-network
#3
Yan Sun, Linwen Liu, Jiajia Feng, Weihua Yue, Lin Lu, Yong Fan, Jie Shi
The rs1137070 polymorphism of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is associated with alcoholism and smoking behavior. However, the association between rs1137070 and heroin addiction remains unclear. In this study, we examined the allelic distribution of rs1137070 in 1,035 heroin abusers and 2,553 healthy controls and investigated the interactive effects of rs1137070 and heroin addiction on gray matter volume (GMV) based on 78 heroin abusers and 79 healthy controls. The C allele frequency of rs1137070 was significantly higher in heroin abusers...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340233/increase-in-drug-overdose-deaths-involving-fentanyl-rhode-island-january-2012-march-2014
#4
Melissa C Mercado, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, Michele K Bohm, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
Objective.:  This study identified sociodemographic, substance use, and multiple opioid prescriber and dispenser risk factors among drug overdose decedents in Rhode Island, in response to an increase in overdose deaths (ODs) involving fentanyl. Methods.:  This cross-sectional investigation comprised all ODs reviewed by Rhode Island's Office of the State Medical Examiners (OSME) during January 2012 to March 2014. Data for 536 decedents were abstracted from OSME's charts, death certificates, toxicology reports, and Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) databases...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340060/physician-dispensing-of-oxycodone-and-other-commonly-used-opioids-2000-2015-united-states
#5
Karin Ann Mack, Christopher McCall Jones, Roderick John McClure
Objective.:  An average of 91 people in the United States die every day from an opioid-related overdose (including prescription opioids and heroin). The direct dispensing of opioids from health care practitioner offices has been linked to opioid-related harms. The objective of this study is to describe the changing nature of the volume of this type of prescribing at the state level. Methods.:  This descriptive study examines the distribution of opioids by practitioners using 1999-2015 Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System data...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338547/satisfaction-with-methadone-and-opioid-receptor-genes-polymorphisms-in-treatment-refractory-heroin-dependent-patients
#6
José Pérez de Los Cobos, Saul Alcaraz, Núria Siñol, Maria Jesús Arranz, Joan Trujols, Francesca Batlle, Francesc Calafell, Santiago Durán-Sindreu, Juliana Salazar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337798/latent-classes-of-polydrug-and-polyroute-use-and-associations-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-risk-behaviours-and-overdose-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-baja-california-mexico
#7
Meredith C Meacham, Scott C Roesch, Steffanie A Strathdee, Suzanne Lindsay, Patricia Gonzalez-Zuniga, Tommi L Gaines
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735)...
March 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336736/identifying-possible-reasons-why-female-street-sex-workers-have-poor-drug-treatment-outcomes-a-qualitative-study
#8
Nikki Jeal, John Macleod, Chris Salisbury, Katrina Turner
AIMS: To explore street sex workers (SSWs) views and experiences of drug treatment, in order to understand why this population tend to experience poor drug treatment outcomes. DESIGN: In-depth interviews. SETTING: Bristol, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 24 current and exited SSWs with current or previous experience of problematic use of heroin and/or crack cocaine. FINDINGS: Participants described how feeling unable to discuss their sex work in drug treatment groups undermined their engagement in the treatment process...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335030/urinary-kinetics-of-heroin-metabolites-in-pigs-shortly-after-intake
#9
Gudrun Høiseth, André Gottås, Thomas Berg, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs
In previous experimental studies on heroin metabolites excretion in urine, the first sample was often collected a few hours after intake. In forensic cases, it is sometimes questioned if a positive urine result is expected e.g., 30 min after intake. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion of heroin metabolites (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G)) every 30 min until 330 min after injection of a 20 mg heroin dose in six pigs. Samples were analyzed using a previously published, fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#10
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329719/drug-involvement-during-and-after-college-estimates-of-opportunity-and-use-given-opportunity
#11
Hannah K Allen, Kimberly M Caldeira, Brittany A Bugbee, Kathryn B Vincent, Kevin E O'Grady, Amelia M Arria
BACKGROUND: College students perceive widespread availability of drugs and prescription medications for non-medical use on campus, but less is known about the relationship between opportunity to use, use, and use given opportunity of these drugs during and after college. The current study describes annual trends in (1) opportunity to use, (2) use, and (3) use given opportunity of eight drugs and three prescription medications used non-medically over seven years. METHODS: Data were derived from a longitudinal cohort study of 1253 first-year college students (52% female, 72% non-Hispanic white) at one large, public university...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325710/no-evidence-of-compensatory-drug-use-risk-behavior-among-heroin-users-after-receiving-take-home-naloxone
#12
Jermaine D Jones, Aimee Campbell, Verena E Metz, Sandra D Comer
INTRODUCTION: Some fear that distribution of naloxone to persons at risk of experiencing an opioid overdose may reduce the perceived negative consequences of drug use, leading to riskier patterns of use. This study assessed whether participation in naloxone/overdose training altered drug use frequency, quantity or severity among heroin users in and out of treatment. METHODS: Clinical interviews were performed assessing patterns of heroin and other drug use prior to, and at multiple timepoints after overdose education and naloxone training...
March 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#13
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323507/heroin-and-methamphetamine-injection-an-emerging-drug-use-pattern
#14
Alia Al-Tayyib, Stephen Koester, Sig Langegger, Lisa Raville
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe an emerging drug use pattern characterized by injection of both methamphetamine and heroin. We examined differences in drug injection patterns by demographics, injection behaviors, HIV and HCV status, and overdose. METHODS: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in Denver, Colorado. We used chi-square statistics to assess differences between those who reported only heroin injection, only methamphetamine injection, and combined heroin and methamphetamine injection...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320448/sleep-disturbance-and-its-associations-with-severity-of-dependence-depression-and-quality-of-life-among-heroin-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#15
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Hua Ting, Meng-Huan Wu, Tsang-Yaw Lin, Michael Gossop
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common and may adversely affect treatment outcome, mental health, and quality of life in heroin-dependent patients. Previous studies have focused upon patients receiving treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to explore the 1-month prevalence of sleep disturbance and its associations with socio-demographic, substance-related characteristics, severity of dependence, severity of depression, and quality of life among heroin-dependent patients before entering treatment program...
March 20, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318343/enduring-consequences-from-the-war-on-drugs-how-policing-practices-impact-hiv-risk-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-baltimore-city
#16
Natalie Flath, Karin Tobin, Kelly King, Alexandra Lee, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood-level characteristics, including police activity, are associated with HIV and Hepatitis C injection risk-behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, the pathways through which these neighborhood perceptions shape individual-level HIV risk behaviors are unclear. This study helps to explain perceived behaviors between perceived neighborhood police activity and HIV injection risk behavior (i.e., injection syringe/tool sharing in the previous 6 months)...
March 20, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317210/epidemiology-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-infection-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-northeast-india-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#17
Allison M Mcfall, Sunil S Solomon, Greg M Lucas, David D Celentano, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Muniratnam S Kumar, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite extensive research on HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID), there remains a gap in knowledge on the burden among women who inject drugs and their unique contexts and risk factors. This analysis compares HIV and HCV prevalence in female and male PWID and estimates injection and sexual risk correlates of prevalent HIV and HCV infection among women in Northeast India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample accrued using respondent-driven sampling...
March 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317200/self-limiting-non-medical-pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-young-people-in-sydney-australia-an-exploratory-study
#18
George C Dertadian, Thomas C Dixon, Jennifer Iversen, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indicators suggest an escalation in opioid use globally, with recent HIV outbreaks linked to non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use. Little is known about how young Australians engage in NMPO use. DESIGN AND METHODS: During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with young people (16-29 years) who reported oral NMPO use at least twice in the past 90 days. The study included a sample of injecting (n = 14) and oral (n = 22) users...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301697/managing-opioid-withdrawal-for-hospital-patients-in-custody
#19
Connie R Shi, Manjinder S Kandola, Matthew Tobey, Elizabeth Singer
Dr. Brown, a hospitalist, admits Mark, a patient transferred from a local jail for management of cellulitis. The patient, who was taken into custody two days prior to hospital admission, has a history of intravenous heroin use. Mark explains that he had been prescribed buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance therapy for opioid use disorder for several years prior to being arrested and had not used other opioids during that time. As a policy, the jail where Mark is detained does not prescribe opioid agonists, and his maintenance therapy was stopped upon his arrival there...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298572/correction-wang-et-al-t394a-mutation-at-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-blocks-opioid-tolerance-and-increases-vulnerability-to-heroin-self-administration-in-mice
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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