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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#1
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918729/the-medical-coalface-of-the-heroin-epidemic
#2
Ines M Rio, Jonathan Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#3
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912734/malm%C3%A3-treatment-referral-and-intervention-study-high-12-month-retention-rates-in-patients-referred-from-syringe-exchange-to-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone-treatment
#4
Martin Bråbäck, Lars Ekström, Katja Troberg, Suzan Nilsson, Pernilla Isendahl, Louise Brådvik, Anders Håkansson
BACKGROUND: Heroin dependence is associated with high mortality. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) with methadone or buprenorphine has strong evidence for treatment of this relapsing condition. In our setting, OAT has been associated with strict and demanding intake procedures, often with requirements of social stability, but also high, approximately 80 percent 12-month retention rates. In a recent randomized controlled trial, we demonstrated high rates of successful rapid referral from a syringe exchange programme (SEP) to treatment with methadone or buprenorphine, including actual treatment initiation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910481/carfentanil-a-new-and-often-unrecognized-threat
#5
Charles E Cowles, Jason Mitchell, Joe E Stepp, Victor Z Bewley
Law enforcement officers, whether working the streets or on narcotic detail, and even those who operate in strike teams, face a new danger from an old drug: carfentanil. Drug dealers seeking to increase profits cut this cheap synthetic drug into expensive heroin, providing an extreme high. As a potent synthetic opioid narcotic, it is finding its way to the streets of the United States and can pose a threat to life for law enforcement, first responders, and medical examiners.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903322/evaluation-of-a-community-based-integrated-heroin-addiction-treatment-model-in-chinese-patients
#6
Hong-He Zhang, Lin-Xiang Tan, Wei Hao, Qi-Jian Deng
In this study, we analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of a community-based integrated heroin addiction treatment model in Chinese patients. The 210 heroin addicts belonging to six Chinese communities received an integrated biopsychosocial intervention that included pharmacological treatment, counseling and social assistance. High proportions of study participants were retained at the 12-month (91.9%; 193/210) and 24-month (88.1%; 185/210) follow-up visits. The number of morphine-positive subjects declined from 61...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903126/substance-use-and-hiv-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#7
Theodorus G M Sandfort, Justin R Knox, Carolina Alcala, Nabila El-Bassel, Irene Kuo, Laramie R Smith
BACKGROUND: Substance use and its relation to HIV risk among men who have sex in Africa, a population at high risk for HIV, has received little attention. METHODS: This systematic review summarizes and discusses findings from 68 empirical studies, published between 1980 and 2016 that included data about substance use in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa. RESULTS: Substance use has rarely been the primary focus of studies in African MSM...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901830/-why-am-i-the-way-i-am-narrative-work-in-the-context-of-stigmatized-identities
#8
Jake Rance, Rebecca Gray, Max Hopwood
There are particular complexities faced by people attempting to tell their stories in the context of social stigma, such as the hostility which often surrounds injecting drug use. In this article, we identify some of the distinct advantages of taking a narrative approach to understanding these complexities by exploring a single case study, across two life-history interviews, with "Jimmy," a young man with a history of social disadvantage, incarceration, and heroin dependence. Drawing on Miranda Fricker's notion of "hermeneutical injustice," we consider the effects of stigmatization on the sociocultural practice of storytelling...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899566/unemployment-drugs-and-attitudes-among-european-youth
#9
Sara Ayllón, Natalia N Ferreira-Batista
This paper studies changes in the patterns of drug consumption and attitudes towards drugs in relation to sky-high (youth) unemployment rates brought about by the Great Recession. Our analysis is based on data for 28 European countries that refer to young people. We find that the consumption of cannabis and 'new substances' is positively related to increasing unemployment rates. An increase of 1% in the regional unemployment rate is associated with an increase of 0.7 percentage points in the ratio of young people who state that they have consumed cannabis at some point in time...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#10
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893851/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-high-school-seniors
#11
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Leigh Coney, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the prevalence and correlates of current synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use among high school seniors in the United States. METHODS: Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of high school seniors, began querying current (30-day) SC use in 2014. Data were examined from the 2 most recent cohorts (2014-2015; N = 7805). Prevalence of self-reported use was examined and differences in demographics and recency and frequency of other drug use was compared between current marijuana-only users and current SC (plus marijuana) users using χ(2) and generalized linear model using Poisson...
September 11, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888944/the-novel-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-partial-agonists-cab2-015-and-bak4-54-inhibit-oxycodone-taking-and-oxycodone-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#12
Zhi-Bing You, Jun-Tao Gao, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Comfort Boateng, Jianjing Cao, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888099/polydrug-use-and-its-association-with-drug-treatment-outcomes-among-primary-heroin-methamphetamine-and-cocaine-users
#13
Linwei Wang, Jeong Eun Min, Emanuel Krebs, Elizabeth Evans, David Huang, Lei Liu, Yih-Ing Hser, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Polydrug use may challenge effective treatment for substance use disorders. We evaluate whether secondary substance use modifies the association between treatment and primary drug use among primary heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine (MA) users. METHODS: Data were obtained from prospective cohort studies on people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in California, USA. Using repeated monthly data on self-reported secondary substance use (heroin, cocaine, MA, alcohol or marijuana; ≥1day in a month), primary drug use (≥1day in a month), and treatment participation, collected via timeline follow-back, we fitted generalized linear mixed multiple regression models controlling for potential confounders to examine the interactions between treatment and secondary substance use on the odds of primary heroin, cocaine and MA use, respectively...
September 6, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886958/use-of-psychoactive-substances-in-prison-results-of-a-study-in-the-lyon-corbas-prison-france
#14
F Sahajian, A Berger-Vergiat, E Pot
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In prison, in 2012, according to various sources, from 4 to 56% of the European inmate population used psychoactive substances (PAS). The aim of our study was to describe PAS consumption during incarceration in the prison of Lyon-Corbas, France. METHOD: A transversal descriptive study was conducted between September 23rd and September 27th 2013 among all inmates of this prison. We used an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, distributed at lunchtime and collected, the same day, at dinnertime, by the mental health service personnel...
September 5, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#15
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#16
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
September 8, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884866/perceived-stigma-and-social-support-in-treatment-for-pharmaceutical-opioid-dependence
#17
Sasha Cooper, Gabrielle Campbell, Briony Larance, Bridin Murnion, Suzanne Nielsen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical opioid (PO) use in high-income countries is a growing public health concern. Stigma and social support are important as they may influence treatment uptake and outcomes, yet few studies exist regarding perceived stigma and social support among people with PO dependence. The aims of the study are to: (i) compare characteristics of those with PO dependence from iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic causes; (ii) document perceived stigma and its correlates in people in treatment for PO dependence; and (iii) examine correlates of social support in people in treatment for PO dependence...
September 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883871/drug-induced-apnea-in-children-admitted-to-loghman-hakim-hospital-tehran-iran
#18
Narges Gholami, Fathi Alwasabi, Fariba Farnaghi
OBJECTIVE: Environmental hazards, including poisons, can cause irreparable effects and even fatal for children. Poisoning in children is common and serious, but often is preventable and treatable. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of drugs and chemical toxicity leading to apnea. In addition, we detected type of drug that induced apnea among children. MATERIALS & METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study from Apr 2012 to Apr 2013, data of all hospitalized drug-induced Apnea in children were collected through hospital records...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879660/national-trends-in-long-term-use-of-prescription-opioids
#19
Ramin Mojtabai
PURPOSE: This study examined recent trends and correlates of prescription opioid use and long-term use in the United States. METHODS: Data were from 47 356 adult participants of National Health and Nutrition Survey from 1999-2000 to 2013-2014. Participants were asked about prescription medications used in the past 30 days. Long-term use of prescription opioids was defined by use for 90 days or longer. RESULTS: The prevalence of prescription opioid use increased from 4...
September 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867701/a-metabolic-study-on-the-biochemical-effects-of-chiral-illegal-drugs-in-rats-using-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Kiyoshi Fukuhara, Akiko Ohno, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri
 Considering the pharmacological effects of chiral drugs, enantiopure drugs may differ from their racemic mixture formulation in efficacy, potency, or adverse effects. Levomethorphan (LVM) and Dextromethorphan (DXM) act on the central nervous system and exhibit different pharmacological features. LVM, the l-stereoisomer of methorphan, shows many similarities to opiates such as heroin, morphine and codeine, including the potential for addiction, while the d-stereoisomer, DXM, does not have the same opioid effect...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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