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Stephanie Lake, M-J Milloy, Huiru Dong, Kanna Hayashi, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid (PO) injection among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) is an ongoing concern, yet little is known about drug use trajectories associated with initiating PO injection, including potential associations with heroin use. This study aimed to identify predictors of PO injection initiation among PWUD, and examine trends in heroin use before and after initiating PO injection. METHODS: Data were merged from three cohorts of PWUD recruited between September 2005 and November 2015...
October 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kenneth Silverman, August F Holtyn, Reed Morrison
Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone...
June 2016: Translational Issues in Psychological Science
Brent A Moore, David A Fiellin, Christopher J Cutter, Frank D Buono, Declan T Barry, Lynn E Fiellin, Patrick G O'Connor, Richard S Schottenfeld
To determine whether treatment outcomes differed for prescription opioid and heroin use disorder patients, we conducted a secondary analysis of a 24-week (N=140) randomized trial of physician management (PM) or PM plus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in primary care buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Self-reported opioid use and urine toxicology analyses were obtained weekly. We examined baseline demographic differences between primary prescription opioid use patients (n=49) and primary heroin use patients (n=91) and evaluated whether treatment response differed by assigned condition...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, David M Barnes, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Hannah L F Cooper, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVES: Transitioning from injecting to non-injecting routes of drug administration can provide important individual and community health benefits. We assessed characteristics of persons who had ceased injecting while continuing to use heroin and/or cocaine in New York City. METHODS: We recruited subjects entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel detoxification and methadone maintenance programs between 2011 and 2015. Demographic information, drug use histories, sexual behaviors, and "reverse transitions" from injecting to non-injecting drug use were assessed in structured face-to-face interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Sean Esteban McCabe, James A Cranford, Carol J Boyd
This study examined stressful life events and other predictors associated with remission from DSM-IV drug dependence involving cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, non-heroin opioids, sedatives, stimulants, tranquilizers, or other drugs. Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of past-year remission status. Among U.S. adults with previous (i.e., prior-to-past-year) drug dependence (n=921) at baseline (wave 1), the prevalence of past-year remission status at wave 1 was: abstinence (60...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Mahesh K B Parmar, John Strang, Louise Choo, Angela M Meade, Sheila M Bird
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist used for emergency resuscitation following opioid overdose. Prisoners with a history of heroin injection have a high risk of drug-related death soon after release from prison. The N-ALIVE pilot trial (ISRCTN34044390) tested feasibility measures for randomized provision of naloxone-on-release (NOR) to eligible prisoners in England. DESIGN: Parallel group randomized controlled pilot trial. SETTING: English prisons...
October 24, 2016: Addiction
Sterling L Karakula, Roger D Weiss, Margaret L Griffin, Allison M Borges, Allen J Bailey, R Kathryn McHugh
BACKGROUND: Among those with opioid use disorder, heroin use is associated with poorer prognosis relative to use of prescription opioids alone. However, relatively little is known about distinguishing features between those who use heroin relative to those who use prescription opioids. In the present study we evaluated differences in delay discounting in those with opioid use disorder based on primary opioid of use. Delay discounting is associated with a range of negative outcomes and is an important therapeutic target in this population...
October 17, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Fangyuan Yin, Yuanyuan Ji, Jing Zhang, Hao Guo, Xin Huang, Jianghua Lai, Shuguang Wei
Previous studies suggested that the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3B (HTR3B) is involved in heroin dependence by modulating dopamine (DA) release in the reward pathway and that the genetic polymorphisms in HTR3B play plausible role in modulating the risk of developing heroin addiction. To identify markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to heroin dependence, we examined the potential associations between heroin dependence and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HTR3B gene using multiplex SNaPshot technology in a Chinese Han population...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Sandra Nordmann, Thomas Nefau, Joëlle Micallef, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Christophe Catusse, Elisabeth Frauger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the residual content of used syringes. METHODS: Used syringes were collected in March 2014 at 9 sites in Marseille (automatic injection kit dispensers, streets, drug-user risk reduction centers [Centres d'accueil et d'accompagnement à la réduction de risques pour usagers de drogues [CAARUD]). Several substances (n=28) were investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: On average, 2±1 substances in each syringe were found among 254 syringes analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Thérapie
Phillip J Summers, Isabelle A Struve, Michael S Wilkes, Vaughan W Rees
BACKGROUND: Injection-site vein loss and skin abscesses impose significant morbidity on people who inject drugs (PWID). The two common forms of street heroin available in the USA include black tar and powder heroin. Little research has investigated these different forms of heroin and their potential implications for health outcomes. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was administered to a sample of 145 participants seeking services at reduction facilities in both Sacramento, CA and greater Boston, MA, USA...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Macarena C García, Anton B Dodek, Tom Kowalski, John Fallon, Scott H Lee, Michael F Iademarco, John Auerbach, Michele K Bohm
Overdose deaths involving opioid pain medications are epidemic in the United States, in part because of high opioid prescribing rates and associated abuse of these drugs (1). In 2014, nearly 2 million U.S. residents either abused or were dependent on prescription opioids (2). In Massachusetts, unintentional opioid-related overdose deaths, including deaths involving heroin, increased 45% from 2012 to 2013.* In 2014, the rate of these deaths reached 20.0 per 100,000, nearly 2.5 times higher than the U.S. rate overall (3,4)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Pamela Leece, Margaret Gassanov, Shaun Hopkins, Chantel Marshall, Peggy Millson, Rita Shahin
SETTING: A harm reduction program at a public health unit in Toronto, Ontario, between August 31, 2011 and August 31, 2013. INTERVENTION: We conducted a process evaluation of the first two years of an opioid overdose prevention and response program, Prevent Overdose in Toronto (POINT), including analysis of data from program documentation forms, as well as qualitative interviews with program staff, representatives from partner agencies, and program clients. OUTCOMES: In the first two years of the program, 662 individuals (52...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Divya Balaji, Linda B Mlunde, Olivia C Tran, Barrot Lambdin, Jessie Mbwambo, Cassian Nyandindi, Eva Matiko, Michael Copenhaver, R Douglas Bruce
High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among females who use drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, contrasts strikingly with their low enrollment in HIV risk reduction services such as methadone assisted therapy (MAT). We conducted a case-control study to examine factors associated with non-enrollment in MAT, with a focus on gender-based violence. We interviewed 202 female heroin users not enrolled in MAT as cases and 93 females enrolled in MAT. We fitted logistic regression models with MAT enrollment as the outcome of interest...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Julie Latimer, Stephen Ling, Ian Flaherty, Marianne Jauncey, Allison M Salmon
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is a powerful analgesic, the prescription of which has increased markedly in recent years. The emergence of the drug at the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) warranted a retrospective clinical audit to assess the risk of fentanyl overdose in comparison with other opioids, in the context of a drug consumption room. METHOD: Heroin, fentanyl or other prescription opioids (PO) injections resulting in overdose were audited (September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2015)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Wei-Sheng Chen, Wen-Jin Xu, Hua-Qiang Zhu, Lei Gao, Miao-Jun Lai, Fu-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Hui-Fen Liu
Histone acetylation and other modifications of the chromatin are important regulators of gene expression and may contribute to drug-induced behaviors and neuroplasticity. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity results in the change of some drug-induced behaviors,however, relatively little is known about the effects of HDAC inhibitors on heroin-seeking behavior. In the present study, male rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, followed by 14 daily 2hours extinction session in the operant chamber...
October 11, 2016: Brain Research
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