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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820664/association-of-socioeconomic-status-with-consumption-of-cigarettes-illicit-drugs-and-alcohol
#1
Maryam Marzban, Maryam Hadji, Mahin Gholipour, Hamideh Rashidian, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Jafar Hasanzadeh, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Reza Ghiasvand, Abdolvahab Moradi, Hossein Khavari-Daneshvar, Elisabete Weiderpass, Farin Kamangar, Kazem Zendehdel
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Socioeconomic Status (SES) is considered as one of the important factors associated with use of various drugs. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SES on cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and passive exposure to opium and cigarette smoke. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, which is part of a multicenter case-control study, the research hypothesis was checked among controls who had referred to hospitals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and laboratory tests to determine the actual consumers of opium and other illicit drugs...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810351/-schofield-and-the-first-spread-of-western-medicine-in-shanxi
#2
J Y Zheng
After the Second Opium War, the signing of the Tientsin Treaty and the Peking Treaty legitimized the missionary activities and authorized the missionary the rights to enter inland China for propagating their religious doctrines. In the late 1870s, the"The extraordinary famine of the Ding Wu year"and the subsequent epidemic provided the opportunity for missionaries to enter Shanxi. Dr. Schofield, sent by the China Inland Mission, arrived in Taiyuan in 1880, set up clinics and practised there. He died of typhus after treating a typhus patient in the summer of 1883...
May 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#3
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800495/the-explanatory-effect-of-a-label-explanations-with-named-categories-are-more-satisfying
#4
Carly Giffin, Daniel Wilkenfeld, Tania Lombrozo
Can opium's tendency to induce sleep be explained by appeal to a "dormitive virtue"? If the label merely references the tendency being explained, the explanation seems vacuous. Yet the presence of a label could signal genuinely explanatory content concerning the (causal) basis for the property being explained. In Experiments 1 and 2, we find that explanations for a person's behavior that appeal to a named tendency or condition are indeed judged to be more satisfying than equivalent explanations that differ only in omitting the name...
August 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766107/examining-of-thallium-in-cigarette-smokers
#5
Amir Ghaderi, Payam NasehGhafoori, Morad Rasouli-Azad, Mojtaba Sehat, Fateme Mehrzad, Mina Nekuei, Jan Aaseth, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Omid Mehrpour
Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry...
August 1, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732503/opium-trade-and-the-spread-of-hiv-in-the-golden-crescent
#6
REVIEW
Syeda Ayesha Farooq, Mohammad Hafiz Rasooly, Syed Hani Abidi, Kayvon Modjarrad, Syed Ali
The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent...
July 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729873/ageratum-enation-virus-infection-induces-programmed-cell-death-and-alters-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-papaver-somniferum
#7
Ashish Srivastava, Lalit Agrawal, Rashmi Raj, Meraj Jaidi, Shri K Raj, Swati Gupta, Ritu Dixit, Poonam C Singh, Tusha Tripathi, Om P Sidhu, Brahma N Singh, Sudhir Shukla, Puneet S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar
A previously unknown disease which causes severe vein thickening and inward leaf curl was observed in a number of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants. The sequence analysis of full-length viral genome and associated betasatellite reveals the occurrence of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) and Ageratum leaf curl betasatellite (ALCB), respectively. Co-infiltration of cloned agroinfectious DNAs of AEV and ALCB induces the leaf curl and vein thickening symptoms as were observed naturally. Infectivity assay confirmed this complex as the cause of disease and also satisfied the Koch's postulates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714264/response-surface-methodology-based-on-central-composite-design-accompanied-by-multivariate-curve-resolution-to-model-gradient-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-prediction-of-separation-for-five-major-opium-alkaloids
#8
Mohammadreza Taheri, Mohsen Bagheri, Roudabeh Sadat Moazeni-Pourasil, Alireza Ghassempour
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on bare silica presents some benefits for analysis and purification of ionizable basic alkaloids. This method was used to separate five major opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine. Central composite design based on response surface methodology was applied for experimental design, modeling, and optimization in a single-step gradient method. The main effects and their interactions (initial percentage of modifier, changing range of modifier in run time, pH of buffer, and its concentration) were investigated in 30 experiments...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689582/evaluation-of-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-stationary-phases-for-analysis-of-opium-alkaloids
#9
Mohsen Bagheri, Mohammadreza Taheri, Mohsen Farhadpour, Hassan Rezadoost, Alireza Ghassempour, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641826/the-chemical-history-of-morphine-an-8000-year-journey-from-resin-to-de-novo-synthesis
#11
Karolina Brook, Jessica Bennett, Sukumar P Desai
Evidence of human use of opium dates back as far as the sixth millennium BCE. Ancient societies through the Renaissance period created a variety of opium products, proliferating its common use and subsequent addiction. Because the active moiety was not known at this time, the potency of these opium concoctions could neither be predicted nor controlled. The first step in identifying opium's active ingredient, morphine, was its chemical isolation in the early 1800s by Wilhelm Sertürner. The subsequent elucidation of morphine's chemical formula and Sir Robert Robinson's derivation of morphine's structural formula, which won him the 1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, round out 150 years of the incremental advances in our chemical understanding of morphine...
April 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632612/clean-analgesia-a-civil-war-tin-for-pills-of-opium%C3%A2-and-soap
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632076/association-of-oprd1-gene-variants-with-opioid-dependence-in-addicted-male-individuals-undergoing-methadone-treatment-in-the-north-of-iran
#13
Alireza Sharafshah, Hedyeh Fazel, Ali Albonaim, Vahid Omarmeli, Sajjad Rezaei, Ebrahim Mirzajani, Farzam Ajamian, Parvaneh Keshavarz
Genetic association of rs678849 along with neuroimaging and biomarker phenotypes, parallel with the known involvements of the OPRD1 in drug abuse, provided additional support for targeting these receptors as potential therapeutic targets in both neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiactric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Samples were selected among 202 opium-addicted participants undergoing methadone treatment and 202 healthy controls. Genomic DNA of all subjects was extracted from whole blood samples through a Salting Out procedure...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630559/drug-policy-and-indigenous-peoples
#14
Julian Burger, Mary Kapron
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609429/reciprocal-evolution-of-opiate-science-from-medical-and-cultural-perspectives
#15
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607654/qualitative-thallium-urinary-assays-are-almost-as-valuable-as-quantitative-tests-implication-for-outpatient-settings-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Soroor Khodabandehlo, Fateme Mehrzad, Omid Mehrpour, Reza Afshari
BACKGROUND: Thallium (Tl), lead and steroid exposures were reported as a result of street drug consumption such as heroin and cocaine. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the values of qualitative and quantitative assays for detecting Tl as an adulterant in opioid-like compound drug users. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from May 2015 to November 2015 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589108/asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-correlation-in-palm-tree-workers-of-jahrom-city-in-2016
#17
Mohammad Amin Farahmand Fard, Narges Khanjani, Aliasghar Arabi Mianroodi, Ahad Ashrafi Asgarabad
INTRODUCTION: Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586371/opium-and-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-odds-ratios-for-opium-use-and-the-risk-of-bladder-cancer
#18
Mahdi Afshari, Ghasem Janbabaei, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mahmood Moosazadeh
OBJECTIVE: The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis. METHODS: The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, Embase, and Google Scholar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559639/opium-withdrawal-delirium-two-case-reports
#19
Ravi C Sharma, Ramesh Kumar, Dinesh Dutt Sharma, Pankaj Kanwar
Two patients with opium dependence developed delirium during abstinence. The delirium resolved completely within 48-58 hours of appropriate treatment. Caution needs to be exercised during opioid detoxification in timely detecting and treating potentially life-threatening condition like delirium.
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531768/rosa-damascena-oil-improved-sexual-function-and-testosterone-in-male-patients-with-opium-use-disorder-under-methadone-maintenance-therapy-results-from-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Vahid Farnia, Faeze Tatari, Mostafa Alikhani, Jalal Shakeri, Moshen Taghizadeh, Hassan Karbasizadeh, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
BACKGROUND: Some patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are treated with methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). However, as with opioids, methadone has major side-effects; sexual dysfunction is a particularly distressing such effect. Rosa Damascena oil has been shown to reduce subjective sexual dysfunction in patients with major depressive disorders, but its influence on testosterone has not so far been tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Rosa Damascena oil on sexual dysfunction and testosterone levels among male patients with OUD and undergoing MMT...
July 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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