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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037712/straightforward-analytical-method-to-determine-opium-alkaloids-in-poppy-seeds-and-bakery-products
#1
Patricia López, Diana P K H Pereboom-de Fauw, Patrick P J Mulder, Martien Spanjer, Joyce de Stoppelaar, Hans G J Mol, Monique de Nijs
A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035158/humanizing-folk-devils-using-ethnography
#2
Peter L Myers
The sociological concepts of the "moral panic" and the deviant "folk devil" apply to the drug panics in the United States over methamphetamine, heroin, and crack cocaine. Mothers or pregnant women who smoke crack cocaine, and their babies, are assigned exaggerated "demonic" attributes that result in stigma and societal rejection. Otherwise, ethnographic studies of drug users demonstrate realities that are other than what might be considered were one to merely look at their use and the consequences. These considerations are examined with respect to the image of folk devils, methadone program attendees, smokers of "blunts," opium den habitués, and others grouped together as negative influences as a result of their drug habits...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026499/comparison-between-homocysteine-fibrinogen-pt-ptt-inr-and-crp-in-male-smokers-with-without-addiction-to-opium
#3
Nahid Azdaki, Mahmood Zardast, Gholamreza Anani-Sarab, Hamid Abdorrazaghnaejad, Mohammad Reza Ghasemian, Amin Saburi
BACKGROUND: Regarding the limited studies about effects of addiction on coagulation factors as a risk factor for increasing coagulation, and its relation to coronary artery disease, we decided to investigate the effect of opium on inflammatory and coagulation factors in a controlled setting. METHODS: This case-control study was performed using two groups of smoking males addicted to opium (27 cases) and not addicted to opium (27 cases). After collecting demographic data, venous blood samples were gathered and sent to laboratory for measuring homocysteine, fibrinogen, prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), International Normalized Ratio (INR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) quantity...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026498/a-case-control-study-of-comparison-of-plasma-levels-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-inhaled-opium-addicts-and-clinically-healthy-persons
#4
Maryam Amizadeh, Shahryar Dabiri, Armin Javedan, Ali Eftekharian, Aliasghar Arabi-Mianroodi
BACKGROUND: Metalloproteinase-9 exists in the basement membrane of normal tissues and is a major factor in cancer invasion and lymphatic metastasis. Smoking has been reported to increase the metalloproteinase level, but the role of opium consumption in metalloproteinase level has not yet been examined. The current research intended to examine the impacts of opium consumption on the serum levels of metalloproteinase. METHODS: This case-control research was conducted in Kerman (in the southeast of Iran), after getting medical approve by the ethics committee...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026497/methadone-replacement-therapy-and-sexual-disorders-among-opium-dependent-iranian-men-a-meta-analysis-study
#5
Masoudeh Babakhanian, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Fatemeh Taghizadeh, Mahmood Moosazadeh
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of sexual disorders among persons receiving methadone replacement therapy is of great importance, because these problems may lead to non-compliance and relapse. This study aimed to estimate the effect of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on sexual function among addicted Iranian men using met-analysis. METHODS: Investigating the available data banks, relevant studies were identified. After exclusion of duplicates, irrelevant papers and low quality articles, eligible papers were entered into the meta-analysis...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990740/schedules-of-controlled-substances-removal-of-naldemedine-from-control-final-rule
#6
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration removes the substance naldemedine (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4a,7,9-trihydroxy-N-(2-(3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propan-2-yl)-2,3,4,4a,5,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-6-carboxamide) including its salts from the schedules of the Controlled Substances Act. Prior to the effective date of this rule, naldemedine was a schedule II controlled substance because it can be derived from opium alkaloids. This action removes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to controlled substances, including those specific to schedule II controlled substances, on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, dispense, conduct research, import, export, or conduct chemical analysis) or propose to handle naldemedine...
September 29, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982369/lead-poisoning-among-opium-users-in-iran-an-emerging-health-hazard
#7
Mohammad Mahdi Hayatbakhsh, Zohreh Oghabian, Elvira Conlon, Samaneh Nakhaee, Ali Reza Amirabadizadeh, Mohammad Javad Zahedi, Sodief Darvish Moghadam, Bighan Ahmadi, Somayeh Soroush, Jan Aaseth, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. METHODS: Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent...
October 5, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975072/a-comparison-of-the-sociodemographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-referring-to-a-pain-clinic-with-subacute-and-chronic-pain
#8
Seyed Masoud Hashemi, Ramin Rohanifar, Rasoul Azarfarin, Seyed Sajjad Razavi, Sirous Momenzadeh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of patients referring to a university hospital's pain clinic with chronic ( ≥ 12 weeks) and subacute pain ( < 12 weeks). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 426 patients were included. Demographic variables including education level, marital and employment status, and risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and opium addiction were recorded...
December 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973785/quantification-of-morphine-codeine-and-thebaine-in-home-brewed-poppy-seed-tea-by-lc-ms-ms
#9
Deborah Powers, Stephen Erickson, Madeleine J Swortwood
Recently, medical examiners reported two cases of a 21-year-old male and 24-year-old male with high amounts of morphine in their blood at autopsy. It was suspected that the decedents ingested lethal amounts of morphine from home-brewed poppy seed tea. No studies to date have investigated opium alkaloid content extracted from poppy seeds by home-brewing methods. Various poppy seed products were purchased from online sources and extracted with four home-brewing methods representative of recipes found on drug user forums...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944941/proconvulsant-effect-of-papaverine-on-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-rats
#10
Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Aydın Him, Enis Kuruoglu, Cengiz Cokluk, Cafer Marangoz
AIM: Papaverine is a vasodilator agent that is an opium alkaloid. It exhibits its effects by inhibiting phosphodiesterase enzyme. Papaverine administration is widely used to avoid symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We aim in this research to study the effects of papaverine on the epileptic discharges stimulated by penicillin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult female Wistar rats (220±30 g) were included in this research (n=30). Rats were anesthetized with urethane (1...
July 11, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936080/maintainence-treatment-of-opioid-dependence-with-tramadol
#11
Siddharth Sarkar, Mohit Varshney, Vaibhav Patil, Rakesh Lal
BACKGROUND: Although tramadol has been used in the management of acute withdrawal in patients with opioid dependence, its use for maintenance treatment as a harm reduction approach has not been assessed systematically. This case series describes patients with opioid dependence who were treated with tramadol for long-term maintenance. METHODS: Patients with opioid dependence who received treatment at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were included in the study...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924278/main-predictors-for-repetition-of-suicidal-behaviour-among-women-referred-to-a-single-public-sector-tertiary-care-hospital-in-iran
#12
Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh
OBJECTIVE: To assess the main predictors for repetition of suicidal behaviour among women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2014, and comprised women patients. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e. women repeating suicide and women without repeating suicide. Data was collected through a checklist and then analysed with SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 300 women, 121(40.3%) repeated suicide and 179(59...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921677/clinical-profile-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-a-developing-country-india
#13
Ramit Mahajan, Vandana Midha, Omesh Goyal, Varun Mehta, Vikram Narang, Kirandeep Kaur, Arshdeep Singh, Dharmatma Singh, Rishu Bhanot, Ajit Sood
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and clinical profile of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies worldwide and data from developing countries is sparse. AIMS: To study the clinical profile of HCV infection in a developing country in South East Asia (India). METHODS: This observational study assessed patient demographics, viral characteristics, risk factors for virus acquisition and disease characteristics in HCV patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2015...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#14
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894784/blood-lead-levels-in-asymptomatic-opium-addict-patients-a-case-control-study
#15
Kazem Ghaemi, Atefeh Ghoreishi, Navid Rabiee, Samira Alinejad, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Alireza Amirabadi Zadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Mehrpour
INTRODUCTION: One of the newest non-occupational sources of lead contamination is drug addiction, which has recently been addressed as a major source of lead poisoning in some countries. The present study aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) of asymptomatic opium addicts. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted during a one-year period to compare BLL of three groups consisting of opium addicts, patients under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and healthy individuals...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894723/lead-poisoning-among-opium-users-in-iran-a-possible-new-emerging-epidemic-in-the-region
#16
Seyed Ramin Radfar, Pardis Nematollahi, Ali Farhoudian, Alireza Noroozi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883871/drug-induced-apnea-in-children-admitted-to-loghman-hakim-hospital-tehran-iran
#17
Narges Gholami, Fathi Alwasabi, Fariba Farnaghi
OBJECTIVE: Environmental hazards, including poisons, can cause irreparable effects and even fatal for children. Poisoning in children is common and serious, but often is preventable and treatable. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of drugs and chemical toxicity leading to apnea. In addition, we detected type of drug that induced apnea among children. MATERIALS & METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study from Apr 2012 to Apr 2013, data of all hospitalized drug-induced Apnea in children were collected through hospital records...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854228/sensitivity-of-self-reported-opioid-use-in-case-control-studies-healthy-individuals-versus-hospitalized-patients
#18
Hamideh Rashidian, Maryam Hadji, Maryam Marzban, Mahin Gholipour, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Farin Kamangar, Reza Malekzadeh, Elisabete Weiderpass, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Abdolvahab Moradi, Nima Babhadi-Ashar, Reza Ghiasvand, Hossein Khavari-Daneshvar, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Kazem Zendehdel
BACKGROUND: Several case-control studies have shown associations between the risk of different cancers and self-reported opium use. Inquiring into relatively sensitive issues, such as the history of drug use, is usually prone to information bias. However, in order to justify the findings of these types of studies, we have to quantify the level of such a negative bias. In current study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity of self-reported opioid use and suggest suitable types of control groups for case-control studies on opioid use and the risk of cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852634/association-between-tooth-loss-and-opium-addiction-results-of-a-community-based-study-on-5900-adult-individuals-in-south-east-of-iran-in-2015
#19
Tayebeh Malek Mohammadi, Naimeh Hasheminejad, Hamid Reza Salari, Mohammad Reza Rostamizadeh, Hamid Najafipour
BACKGROUND: Like any other drug abuse, opium use is known to have detrimental effects on oral health. Oral hygiene neglect in opium users can lead to tooth loss resulting in further functional, esthetic, and dieting problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between tooth loss and opium addiction in a large-scale population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was part of an extensive study related to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and conducted by the center for physiological research during 2012-2015 in Kerman...
July 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845407/the-prevalence-of-psychiatric-distress-and-associated-risk-factors-among-college-students-using-ghq-28-questionnaire
#20
Jalal Poorolajal, Ali Ghaleiha, Nahid Darvishi, Shahla Daryaei, Soheila Panahi
BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young adults are at increased risk of psychiatric distress and serious disability. We estimated the prevalence and associated risk factors of psychiatric distress among the college students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. METHODS: We performed this cross-sectional study, from Jan to May 2016 at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. Students filled out voluntarily an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, personal information, behavioral risk factors, and a validated Persian version of the GHQ-28 questionnaire, including somatic symptoms (items 1-7), anxiety/insomnia (items 8-14), social dysfunctions (items 15-21), and severe depression (items 22-28)...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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