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Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
M Khaleghi, A Farsinejad, S Dabiri, G Asadikaram
The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Mohammadali Nikoo, Nooshin Nikoo, Sanam Javid, Afshar Amiri, Marc Vogel, Fiona Choi, Amir Ali Sepehry, Amir Hooshang Bagheri Valoojerdi, Kerry Jang, Christian Schütz, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Michael Krausz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recently, there has been a growing interest in using Opium Tincture (OT) for treating opioid dependence in certain regions. We aimed to assess the evidence on its safety and efficacy for this indication. METHODS: We searched several databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Database, Iran Medex,, and with no language or publication date limitations. Two reviewers selected Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT), cohort /case-control/ cross-sectional studies and case-series on safety or efficacy of OT for treating opioid dependence and then extracted reported measures of mentioned outcomes from selected studies...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Mahboubeh Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Seyed-Sepehr Hashemian, Masoud Pishjoo, Sanaz Ghasemi, Ahmad Hajebi, Alireza Noroozi
BACKGROUND: About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Jeongeun Jo
After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
F Jamshidi, I Nazari, Z Rahimi, M Cheraghi
AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to determine the pattern of drug use and the affective demographic factors in addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study which has done on 4400 addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province from March 2014 to March 2015. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS version 22 software. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous variables and the frequency and percentage frequency were calculated for nominal and classified variables, and also t-test, χ2 and ANOVA were used to examine the relationships between variables...
2016: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Cuimei Liu, Zhendong Hua, Yanping Bai
Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Brij K Mishra, R Mishra, S N Jena, Sudhir Shukla
The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Franklin C Lee, Sarah K Holt, Ryan S Hsi, Brandon Haynes, Jonathan D Harper
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of a Belladonna and Opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately prior to ureteroscopy and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. 71 subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15mg/30mg) or placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately prior to ureteroscopy and stent placement...
September 19, 2016: Urology
Mostafa Dianatinasab, Haleh Ghaem, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Seysd Vahid Hosseini, Hajar Khazraei
BACKGROUND: Mortality among Iranian patients with colorectal cancer has not been fully examined and the factors associated with their survival are still controversial. This study aimed to determine the mortality rate and its related factors among the patients with colorectal cancer in southwestern regions in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 220 patients with colorectal cancer referred to Fahighi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran from 2009 to 2014...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Jonathan P Wanderer, Naveen Nathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard, Elham Emami Vahid, Ezzat Dadkhah, Mehran Gholamin, Samaneh Broumand Noghabi, Martha Ghahraman, Mehdi Farzadnia, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
OBJECTIVES: Variation in microsatellite sequences that are dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair system and defects in several genes of this system are involved in carcinogenesis. Our aim in this study was to illustrate microsatellite DNA alteration in esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from surgical and matched margin-normal samples. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were studied in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by amplifying six microsatellite markers: D13S260 (13q12...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Jeremy S Morris, Peter J Facchini
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a large group of plant specialized metabolites displaying an array of biological and pharmacological properties associated with numerous structural scaffolds and diverse functional group modification. N-Methylation is one of the most common tailoring reactions, yielding tertiary and quaternary pathway intermediates and products. Two N-methyltransferases accepting (i) early 1-benzylisoquinoline intermediates possessing a secondary amine and leading to the key branch-point intermediate (S)-reticuline, and (ii) downstream protoberberines containing a tertiary amine and forming quaternary intermediates destined for phthalideisoquinolines and antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridines were previously characterized...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Farzaneh Zolala, Mina Mahdavian, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Karamouzian
BACKGROUND: Addiction is characterized differently among women and men, and they begin using drugs for different reasons and motives. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the gendered experiences and patterns of illicit drug use initiation in an Iranian context. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 29 participants (15 men and 14 women) took part in in-depth interviews conducted at a HIV triangulation clinic (for men and women) and drop-in-center for women in Kerman in 2011...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Miguel Suástegui, Zengyi Shao
The aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway is a source to a plethora of commercially relevant chemicals with very diverse industrial applications. Tremendous efforts in microbial engineering have led to the production of compounds ranging from small aromatic molecular building blocks all the way to intricate plant secondary metabolites. Particularly, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a great model organism given its superior capability to heterologously express long metabolic pathways, especially the ones containing cytochrome P450 enzymes...
November 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Aashish Manglik, Henry Lin, Dipendra K Aryal, John D McCorvy, Daniela Dengler, Gregory Corder, Anat Levit, Ralf C Kling, Viachaslau Bernat, Harald Hübner, Xi-Ping Huang, Maria F Sassano, Patrick M Giguère, Stefan Löber, Da Duan, Grégory Scherrer, Brian K Kobilka, Peter Gmeiner, Bryan L Roth, Brian K Shoichet
Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids...
August 17, 2016: Nature
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mahdi Alemrajabi, Saeed Safari, Adnan Tizmaghz, Fatemeh Alemrajabi, Ghazaal Shabestanipour
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay of treatment for perforated peptic ulcer is Omental patch closure. With the advent of laparoscopic surgery, this approach is being used for the treatment of perforated peptic ulcer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopy in Firoozgar general hospital over a period of 18 months. The outcome of the laparoscopic approach and the associated morbidity and mortality, operation time, conversion rate and hospital stay were assessed. METHODS: A prospective analysis of 29 consecutive patients (mean age 37...
June 2016: Electronic Physician
Vishal Sharma, Surinder Singh Rana, Vinita Chaudhary, Narendra Dhaka, Manish Manrai, Jegan Sivalingam, Ravi Sharma, Usha Dutta, Deepak Kumar Bhasin
Double duct sign where there is a simultaneous dilatation of both the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct is usually associated with sinister causes like malignancies of pancreatic head or ampulla. Occasionally, benign causes like chronic pancreatitis or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) may cause double duct sign. Chronic opium abuse is a rare cause of the double duct sign, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings of this rare entity have been occasionally reported. We report about a 54-year-old male with a history of chronic alcohol and opioid abuse evaluated for episodes of abdominal pain and found to have opioid-related SOD and improved with biliary sphincterotomy...
July 2016: Endoscopic Ultrasound
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