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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626143/opioid-analgesia-on-the-battlefield-a-retrospective-review-of-data-from-operation-herrick
#1
Pip Lewis, C Wright, C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Acute pain secondary to trauma is commonly encountered on the battlefield. The use of morphine to manage pain during combat has been well established since the 19th century. Despite this, there is relatively little research on analgesia use in this environment. This study aims to review the use and complications of morphine and other opioids during Operation HERRICK. METHODS: A database search of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was completed looking for all incidences of morphine, fentanyl or naloxone use from February 2007 to September 2014...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625852/double-blind-evaluation-of-homeopathy-on-cocaine-craving-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#2
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Ana Carolina Acorinte, Fernando Oliveira Calzavara, Adriano André da Silva, Amarilys de Toledo Cesar, Maristela Schiabel Adler, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness and tolerability of homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and E...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619568/global-supply-and-demand-of-opioids-for-pain-management
#3
REVIEW
Sreekumar Kunnumpurath, Natasha Julien, Gopal Kodumudi, Anamika Kunnumpurath, Vijay Kodumudi, Nalini Vadivelu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to evaluate the global supply and demand of opioids used for pain management and discuss how it relates to the utilization of opioids around the world. The purpose of the review is also to determine the factors that contribute to inappropriate pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: The total global production of opium for opioid manufacturing is enough to supply the growing global demands. However, licit opioids are only consumed by 20% of the world population...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610307/complete-biosynthesis-of-noscapine-and-halogenated-alkaloids-in-yeast
#4
Yanran Li, Sijin Li, Kate Thodey, Isis Trenchard, Aaron Cravens, Christina D Smolke
Microbial biosynthesis of plant natural products from simple building blocks is a promising approach toward scalable production and modification of high-value compounds. The pathway for biosynthesis of noscapine, a potential anticancer compound, from canadine was recently elucidated as a 10-gene cluster from opium poppy. Here we demonstrate the de novo production of noscapine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , through the reconstruction of a biosynthetic pathway comprising over 30 enzymes from plants, bacteria, mammals, and yeast itself, including 7 plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized enzymes...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609613/use-of-analgesics-in-france-following-dextropropoxyphene-withdrawal
#5
E Van Ganse, M Belhassen, M Ginoux, E Chrétien, C Cornu, C Ecoffey, F Aubrun
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the European Medicines Agency recommended withdrawal of dextropropoxyphene (DXP); in March 2011 it was withdrawn from the market in France. Up until that time the combination dextropropoxyphene-paracetamol (DXP/PC) was widely used for analgesia. At withdrawal, French regulators recommended that DXP/PC be replaced by other step 2 analgesics, i.e. tramadol, codeine, or opium-containing drugs, or by PC for a weak level of pain. To investigate prescribing behaviours after DXP/PC withdrawal, dispensations of analgesics before and after withdrawal were analysed...
April 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569059/author-correction-opium-consumption-and-the-incidence-of-cancer-does-opium-account-as-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-gastrointestinal-cancer
#6
Mohammed Azeez Alzaidi, Hossein Ali Arab, Saeid Amanpour, Reza Shirkoohi, Samad Muhammadnejad, Farhang Sasani
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the author group section. The correct name of the fourth author is "Reza Shirkoohi."The original article has been corrected.
March 22, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563567/the-effects-of-promoter-variations-of-the-n-methylcanadine-1-hydroxylase-cyp82y1-gene-on-the-noscapine-production-in-opium-poppy
#7
Davar Abedini, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Alireza Abbasi
Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and some members of the Papaveraceae family. It has been primarily used for its antitussive effects; more recently, its anticancer properties were shown. Herein, we detected an SSR embedded in the promoter region of the CYP82Y1 gene, which was found to be the first committed-step enzyme in the noscapine biosynthesis pathway, using the MISA program. Some collected ecotypes of P. somniferum were investigated for understanding of SSRs role in the regulation of gene expression and metabolite content...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531415/lead-poisoning-outbreak-among-opium-users-in-the-islamic-republic-of-iran-2016-2017
#8
Talat Ghane, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Beyrami, Alireza Noroozi
Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country. Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Based on the number of individuals treated and previous studies on the prevalence of oral opium use we estimated the total number of people at risk of lead-contaminated opium nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526240/the-medieval-persian-manuscript-of-afyunieh-the-first-individual-treatise-on-the-opium-and-addiction-in-history
#9
REVIEW
Abdolali Moosavyzadeh, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Arman Zargaran, Azarakhsh Mokri, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Mohsen Naseri
According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512022/small-intestine-strictures-in-opium-addicts-an-unrecognized-cause-of-intestinal-obstruction
#10
Ashish Joshi, Sushil Falodia, Naveen Kumar, R L Solanki
Strictures of the small intestine have been attributed many causes of Crohn's disease, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neoplastic, post-surgical, and corrosive ingestion. Opium as a cause of small intestine strictures has not been described. Six cases of opium addicts diagnosed with small intestine strictures were selected after excluding the possible etiology of strictures. Investigations like upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy (in patients with small intestinal obstruction), barium meal follow-through, and histopathology of strictures were done in all patients...
March 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480983/predicting-the-survival-of-gastric-cancer-patients-using-artificial-and-bayesian-neural-networks
#11
Azam Korhani Kangi, Abbas Bahrampour
Introduction and purpose: In recent years the use of neural networks without any premises for investigation of prognosis in analyzing survival data has increased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) use small processors with a continuous network to solve problems inspired by the human brain. Bayesian neural networks (BNN) constitute a neural-based approach to modeling and non-linearization of complex issues using special algorithms and statistical methods. Gastric cancer incidence is the first and third ranking for men and women in Iran, respectively...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451852/delta-opioids-neuroprotective-roles-in-preclinical-studies
#12
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases.1 Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses. Opioid receptors are expressed throughout the body, including the nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and retina.2-6 Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are a very attractive target from the perspective of both receptor function and their therapeutic potential...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451599/first-case-report-of-atypical-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-an-opium-abuser-in-iran
#13
Seyed Ahmad Hashemi, Alireza Badirzadeh, Sadaf Sabzevari, Ali Nouri, Mohammad Seyyedin
Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433083/inhibition-of-phospholipases-influences-the-metabolism-of-wound-induced-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-in-papaver-somniferum-l
#14
Veronika Jablonická, Jörg Ziegler, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432204/relationship-between-adaptation-and-self-esteem-in-addicted-female-prisoners-in-the-south-east-of-iran
#15
Mahya Torkaman, Sakineh Miri, Jamileh Farokhzadian
Background Reduction of the adaptation and self-esteem can be the consequence of opium addiction and imprisonment. Drug use causes inappropriate behaviors in women, which are quite different from those in men. Social deviations, prostitution, high-risk sexual behaviors, abortion, divorce and imprisonment followed by loss of self-esteem are the consequences of women's addiction. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between adaptation and self-esteem in addicted female prisoners. Methods In this descriptive analytical study, 130 addicted female prisoners were selected from a prison in the south east of Iran using census sampling...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422734/cardiotoxic-effects-of-raw-opium
#16
Piyush Garg, Asif Ali Hitawala, Manoj Agarwal
While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416839/lead-poisoning-in-opium-abuser-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia
Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416103/development-of-a-method-to-extract-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l-dna-from-heroin
#18
Michael A Marciano, Sini X Panicker, Garrett D Liddil, Danielle Lindgren, Kevin S Sweder
This study is the first to report the successful development of a method to extract opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) DNA from heroin samples. Determining of the source of an unknown heroin sample (forensic geosourcing) is vital to informing domestic and foreign policy related to counter-narcoterrorism. Current profiling methods focus on identifying process-related chemical impurities found in heroin samples. Changes to the geographically distinct processing methods may lead to difficulties in classifying and attributing heroin samples to a region/country...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408320/crystal-structure-of-thebaine-6-o-demethylase-from-the-morphine-biosynthesis-pathway
#19
Anna Kluza, Ewa Niedzialkowska, Katarzyna Kurpiewska, Zuzanna Wojdyla, Matthew Quesne, Ewa Kot, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Tomasz Borowski
Thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) from Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), which belongs to the non-heme 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases (ODD) family, is a key enzyme in the morphine biosynthesis pathway. Initially, T6ODM was characterized as an enzyme catalyzing O-demethylation of thebaine to neopinone and oripavine to morphinone, however the substrate range of T6ODM was recently expanded to a number of various benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Here, we present crystal structures of T6ODM in complexes with 2-oxoglutarate (T6ODM:2OG, PDB: 5O9W) and succinate (T6ODM:SIN, PDB: 5O7Y)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393724/a-historical-report-on-preparing-sustained-release-dosage-forms-for-addicts-in-medieval-persia-16th-century-ad
#20
Samaneh Soleymani, Arman Zargaran
For several centuries, opium addiction has been a social problem all over the world. It has been prevalent in Iran from the Safavid era (1501-1736 A.D). During this period, Hakim Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn-Mas'ud Shirazi (1515-1592 A.D), also known as Imad was one of the Persian physicians who wrote one of the earliest books in the field of opium and addiction (called Afiounieh) in history. In this book, he introduced two sustained release rectal (suppository) and oral (pill) dosage forms for Muslim addicts who fast in the month of Ramadan...
February 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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