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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929980/an-n-methyltransferase-from-ephedra-sinica-catalyzing-the-formation-of-ephedrine-and-pseudoephedrine-enables-microbial-phenylalkylamine-production
#1
Jeremy S Morris, Ryan A Groves, Jillian M Hagel, Peter J Facchini
Phenylalkylamines, such as the plant compounds ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and the animal neurotransmitters dopamine and adrenaline, compose a large class of natural and synthetic molecules with important physiological functions and pharmaceutically valuable bioactivities. The final steps of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine biosynthesis in members of the plant genus Ephedra involve N -methylation of norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine, respectively. Here, using a plant transcriptome screen, we report the isolation and characterization of an N -methyltransferase (NMT) from Ephedra sinica able to catalyze the formation of (pseudo)ephedrine and other naturally occurring phenylalkylamines, including N -methylcathinone and N -methyl(pseudo)ephedrine...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929212/pharmacological-therapies-for-management-of-opium-withdrawal
#2
REVIEW
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Jaleh Gholami, Laura Amato, Leila Hoseinie, Reza Yousefi-Nooraie, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic therapies for management of heroin withdrawal have been studied and reviewed widely. Opium dependence is generally associated with less severe dependence and milder withdrawal symptoms than heroin. The evidence on withdrawal management of heroin might therefore not be exactly applicable for opium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of various pharmacologic therapies for the management of the acute phase of opium withdrawal...
June 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892317/opioid-use-disorder-induces-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-the-attenuating-effect-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#3
Ali Salarian, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Behjat Seifi, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Soheila Adeli, Hassan Askari, Mohammad Arbabi
Objective: Frequent use of opioids produces reactive oxygen species, upregulates inflammatory factors, and contributes to opiate dependence. In this study, we examined perturbations of plasma oxidative and inflammatory markers in patients with opioid use disorder in two phases. In the first phase, we compared the oxidative status in patients with opioid use disorders and in healthy controls; and in the second phase, we examined oxidative changes before and after methadone maintenance treatment. Method: To explore whether oxidative changes were associated with opioid use disorder, we compared plasma oxidative and inflammatory markers in patients with opioid use disorder and in smoking and non-smoking healthy participants...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878319/opioids-the-painful-public-health-reality
#4
EDITORIAL
Rachel F Tyndale, Edward M Sellers
The analgesic, sedative, antidepressant, euphoriant, intoxicating, and addictive properties of opium and its synthetic derivatives are well known and have been known for centuries. Hence, the current major public health problems due to excessive availability should be no surprise. What is unprecedented in the United States, and emerging elsewhere, is the extent of the profound consequences and complexity of addressing this public health crisis.
June 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875536/snake-venom-use-as-a-substitute-for-opioids-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Aseem Mehra, Debashish Basu, Sandeep Grover
The mind-altering agents such as tobacco, cannabis, and opium have been widely used since the evolution of human being. These substances have been widely used for recreational purposes. However, derivatives from reptiles such as snakes, reptiles, and scorpions can also be used for recreational purposes and as a substitute for other substances. Their use is rare and related literature is very scanty. In this report, we present a case of snake venom abuse and review the existing literature.
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872026/spatiotemporal-oscillations-of-morphinan-alkaloids-in-opium-poppy
#6
Mahdi Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Abdolhadi Hosseinzadeh, Alireza Abasi, Jaber Nasiri
Here, a comprehensive endeavor is made to simultaneously scrutinize spatiotemporal oscillations of three imperative morphinan alkaloids (i.e. thebaine, codeine, and morphine) alongside dynamic transcriptional patterns of TYDC, SalAT, COR, T6ODM, and CODM genes in different tissues of Papaver somniferum (i.e. root, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, leaf, capsule wall, and capsule content) over five distinguished ontogenic stages (i.e. rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, flowering, and lancing). Apart from bottom stem and leaf, the maximum thebaine content occurred in lancing stage, while its minimum content did not follow a systematic rhythm, either among six tissues or five various sampling times...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871023/effectiveness-of-homeopathic-medicines-as-add-on-to-institutional-management-protocol-for-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-children-an-open-label-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Praveen Oberai, Roja Varanasi, Maya Padmanabhan, Alok Upadhyaya, Supriya Singh, Samarendra Pratap Singh, Deepika Vikram, Tariq Khan, Ramesh Prasad, A K Gupta, J R Singh, Raj K Manchanda
BACKGROUND:  Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is endemic to certain parts of India, with limited treatment options. In our initial exploratory comparative observational study of 151 patients with AES, there was significantly reduced mortality with adjunctive homeopathy compared to institutional management protocol (IMP). The present randomized placebo-controlled trial brings more statistical rigor to this research program. METHODS:  This study was conducted at a pediatric unit from 2013 to 2015...
June 5, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807982/a-pathogenesis-related-10-protein-catalyzes-the-final-step-in-thebaine-biosynthesis
#8
Xue Chen, Jillian M Hagel, Limei Chang, Joseph E Tucker, Stacey A Shiigi, Yuora Yelpaala, Hsiang-Yun Chen, Rodrigo Estrada, Jeffrey Colbeck, Maria Enquist-Newman, Ana B Ibáñez, Guillaume Cottarel, Genevieve M Vidanes, Peter J Facchini
The ultimate step in the formation of thebaine, a pentacyclic opiate alkaloid readily converted to the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine in the opium poppy, has long been presumed to be a spontaneous reaction. We have detected and purified a novel enzyme from opium poppy latex that is capable of the efficient formation of thebaine from (7S)-salutaridinol 7-O-acetate at the expense of labile hydroxylated byproducts, which are preferentially produced by spontaneous allylic elimination. Remarkably, thebaine synthase (THS), a member of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein (PR10) superfamily, is encoded within a novel gene cluster in the opium poppy genome that also includes genes encoding the four biosynthetic enzymes immediately upstream...
May 28, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783146/gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-characterization-of-thebaol-an-opium-constituent-and-its-structural-analogs
#9
Levan Megutnishvili, Nino Todua, Stephen Stein, Anzor Mikaia
A GC-MS method is described for the characterization of thebaol, a component of opium poppy. The method includes preliminary sample derivatization to TMS, TBDMS, TFA, PFP and HFB substituted products. Fragmentation of resulting derivatives is unique under electron ionization, and proceeds via consecutive loss of two radicals that violate the "even-electron rule". Peaks of [M-2CH3 ]+. and [M-C4 H9 -CH3 ]+. ions show maximum intensities in the spectra of trimethyl- and tert-butyldimethylsilyl-thebaols...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779229/codeinone-reductase-isoforms-with-differential-stability-efficiency-and-product-selectivity-in-opium-poppy
#10
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775728/opioid-free-anaesthesia-why-and-how-a-contextual-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Patrice Forget
If the use of natural opiates, such as opium, is more than millennial, the history of synthetic opioids begins after 1950, with the development of the so-called 'modern' anaesthetic techniques. In 1962, in Belgium, the use of fentanyl, the first synthetic opioid for use in anaesthesia, is described. Subsequently, the use of opioids at high doses during surgery became common. However, over the last twenty years, many studies have questioned this practice, highlighting the many unknowns as the side effects of these molecules...
May 15, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#12
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749280/beyond-china-s-drug-century-yunnan-s-first-therapeutic-community-and-narratives-of-drug-treatment-and-mental-health-care
#13
Sandra Teresa Hyde
China is experiencing rapid cultural change and new forms of sociability that are accompanied by social problems and novel humanitarian interventions that have been formulated to address those problems. The pressure related to the rapid transformation of the countryside into mid-level cities has led to recreational drug-use as a means of escape. These illegal drugs have greased the wheels of what I call an affective biopolitics that has influenced Chinese citizens. Carlos Rojas argues that development in China results from the effects of discrete protocols, or practices that stem from tensions between capital and labor, governmentality and biopolitics, and nationalism and globalization...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738560/an-indirect-estimation-of-the-population-size-of-students-with-high-risk-behaviors-in-select-universities-of-medical-sciences-a-network-scale-up-study
#14
Homeira Sajjadi, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Mohsen Shati, Yahya Salimi, Masoomeh Dejman, Meroe Vameghi, Salahedin Karimi, Zohreh Mahmoodi
BACKGROUND: Network scale-up is one of the most important indirect methods of estimating the size of clandestine populations and people with high-risk behaviors. The present study is an indirect estimation of the population size of students with high-risk behaviors in select universities of medical sciences. METHODS: A total of 801 students from two University of Medical Sciences at Tehran and Alborz University of Medical Sciences were selected through convenience sampling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723437/heterodimeric-o-methyltransferases-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-noscapine-in-opium-poppy
#15
Myung R Park, Xue Chen, Dean E Lang, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves three characterized O-methyltransferases (OMTs) and a fourth responsible for the 4'-methoxyl on the phthalide isoquinoline scaffold. The first three enzymes are homodimers, whereas the latter is a heterodimer encoded by two linked genes (OMT2 and OMT3). Neither OMT2 nor OMT3 form stable homodimers, but yield a substrate-specific heterodimer when their genes are co-expressed in Escherichia coli. The only substrate, 4'-O-desmethyl-3-O-acetylpapaveroxine, is a seco-berbine pathway intermediate that undergoes ester hydrolysis subsequent to 4'-O-methylation leading to the formation of narcotine hemiacetal...
May 3, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719844/risk-factors-for-unfavorable-outcome-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-revisited-odds-and-ends
#16
Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Nima Derakhshan, Alireza Mohsenian Sisakht, Najme Karamzade Ziarati, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Soheil Motamed
Objectives: To evaluate the odds for unfavorable outcome of each risk factor and a combination of them in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) undergoing surgical clipping in Southern Iran. Methods: A total of 367 patients who were operated between March 2007 and March 2016 due to aneurysmal SAH were analyzed according to patients' factors, aneurysm characteristics and intra-operative data. Correlation between outcomes of patients measured by modified Rankin Scale at 6-months with each factor were analyzed...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696126/acute-pain-management-in-emergency-department-low-dose-ketamine-versus-morphine-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Babak Mahshidfar, Mani Mofidi, Maryam Fattahi, Davood Farsi, Peyman Hafezi Moghadam, Saeed Abbasi, Mahdi Rezai
Background: Ketamine, as an opium alternative, has been proposed for pain relief in the emergency department (ED). Objectives: This study was carried out to compare low dose ketamine (LDK) with morphine for pain relief in trauma patients. Methods: In this randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 300 trauma patients from the ED of 2 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 equal groups. The 1st group received 0...
December 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676747/membrane-integrated-process-for-advanced-treatment-of-high-strength-opium-alkaloid-wastewaters
#18
Güçlü Insel, Ahmet Karagunduz, Murat Aksel, Emine Cokgor, Gokce Kor-Bicakci, Goksin Ozyildiz, Ismail Toroz, Bulent Keskinler
In this study, an integrated aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR)-nanofiltration (NF) system has been applied for advanced treatment of Opium processing wastewaters to comply with strict discharge limits. Aerobic MBR treatment was successfully applied to high strength industrial wastewater. In aerobic MBR treatment, a non-fouling unique slot aeration system was designed using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The MBR was used to separate treated effluent from dispersed and non-settleable biomass. Respirometric modeling using MBR sludge indicated that the biomass exhibited similar kinetic parameters to that of municipal activated sludge systems...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674571/cannabis-opium-use-part-of-ancient-near-eastern-cultures
#19
Andrew Lawler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626143/opioid-analgesia-on-the-battlefield-a-retrospective-review-of-data-from-operation-herrick
#20
Pip Lewis, C Wright, C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Acute pain secondary to trauma is commonly encountered on the battlefield. The use of morphine to manage pain during combat has been well established since the 19th century. Despite this, there is relatively little research on analgesia use in this environment. This study aims to review the use and complications of morphine and other opioids during Operation HERRICK. METHODS: A database search of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was completed looking for all incidences of morphine, fentanyl or naloxone use from February 2007 to September 2014...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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