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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451852/delta-opioids-neuroprotective-roles-in-preclinical-studies
#1
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases. 1 Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses. Opioid receptors are expressed throughout the body, including the nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and retina. 2-6 Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are a very attractive target from the perspective of both receptor function and their therapeutic potential...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451599/first-case-report-of-atypical-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-an-opium-abuser-in-iran
#2
Seyed Ahmad Hashemi, Alireza Badirzadeh, Sadaf Sabzevari, Ali Nouri, Mohammad Seyyedin
Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433083/inhibition-of-phospholipases-influences-the-metabolism-of-wound-induced-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids-in-papaver-somniferum-l
#3
Veronika Jablonická, Jörg Ziegler, Zuzana Vatehová, Desana Lišková, Ingo Heilmann, Marek Obložinský, Mareike Heilmann
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432204/relationship-between-adaptation-and-self-esteem-in-addicted-female-prisoners-in-the-south-east-of-iran
#4
Mahya Torkaman, Sakineh Miri, Jamileh Farokhzadian
Background Reduction of the adaptation and self-esteem can be the consequence of opium addiction and imprisonment. Drug use causes inappropriate behaviors in women, which are quite different from those in men. Social deviations, prostitution, high-risk sexual behaviors, abortion, divorce and imprisonment followed by loss of self-esteem are the consequences of women's addiction. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between adaptation and self-esteem in addicted female prisoners. Methods In this descriptive analytical study, 130 addicted female prisoners were selected from a prison in the south east of Iran using census sampling...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422734/cardiotoxic-effects-of-raw-opium
#5
Piyush Garg, Asif Ali Hitawala, Manoj Agarwal
While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416839/lead-poisoning-in-opium-abuser-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia
Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416103/development-of-a-method-to-extract-opium-poppy-papaver-somniferum-l-dna-from-heroin
#7
Michael A Marciano, Sini X Panicker, Garrett D Liddil, Danielle Lindgren, Kevin S Sweder
This study is the first to report the successful development of a method to extract opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) DNA from heroin samples. Determining of the source of an unknown heroin sample (forensic geosourcing) is vital to informing domestic and foreign policy related to counter-narcoterrorism. Current profiling methods focus on identifying process-related chemical impurities found in heroin samples. Changes to the geographically distinct processing methods may lead to difficulties in classifying and attributing heroin samples to a region/country...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408320/crystal-structure-of-thebaine-6-o-demethylase-from-the-morphine-biosynthesis-pathway
#8
Anna Kluza, Ewa Niedzialkowska, Katarzyna Kurpiewska, Zuzanna Wojdyla, Matthew Quesne, Ewa Kot, Przemyslaw J Porebski, Tomasz Borowski
Thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) from Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), which belongs to the non-heme 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases (ODD) family, is a key enzyme in the morphine biosynthesis pathway. Initially, T6ODM was characterized as an enzyme catalyzing O-demethylation of thebaine to neopinone and oripavine to morphinone, however the substrate range of T6ODM was recently expanded to a number of various benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Here, we present crystal structures of T6ODM in complexes with 2-oxoglutarate (T6ODM:2OG, PDB: 5O9W) and succinate (T6ODM:SIN, PDB: 5O7Y)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393724/a-historical-report-on-preparing-sustained-release-dosage-forms-for-addicts-in-medieval-persia-16th-century-ad
#9
Samaneh Soleymani, Arman Zargaran
For several centuries, opium addiction has been a social problem all over the world. It has been prevalent in Iran from the Safavid era (1501-1736 A.D). During this period, Hakim Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn-Mas'ud Shirazi (1515-1592 A.D), also known as Imad was one of the Persian physicians who wrote one of the earliest books in the field of opium and addiction (called Afiounieh) in history. In this book, he introduced two sustained release rectal (suppository) and oral (pill) dosage forms for Muslim addicts who fast in the month of Ramadan...
February 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374949/-the-national-anti-opium-smoking-campaigns-across-the-country-in-the-republican-period
#10
Z J Xu, F Q Chang, Q S Xu
Anti-opium-smoking had been the key policy of successive central and local governments from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republican Period. Since the establishment of the Nanjing Provisional Government in January 1912, the Anti-opium-smoking campaign had culminated across the country. Under the support of the government, the "National Anti-Opium Association of China" and "Association of Chinese People Rejecting Opium" were established which made an important contribution to China's anti-opium-smoking campaign...
November 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372758/-fast-determination-of-pericarpium-papaveris-illegally-added-in-foods-by-turboflow-online-purification-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-linear-ion-trap-mass-spectrometry
#11
Xiuyao Zhang, Xinxin Cai, Xiaoyi Zhang, Ruifen Li
A fast confirmation method was developed for the determination of the six markers of pericarpium papaveris, morphine, codeine, narcotine, papavarine, thebaine and protopine in foods, by TurboFlow online purification-ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (TF-UPLC-QTRAP MS). The sample was extracted with 0.10 mol/L HCl. After the procedure of removal of lipid with hexane, the extraction solution was analyzed by TF-UPLC-QTRAP MS. The main factors influencing the purification efficiency including TurboFlow column, mobile phase and elution solution were optimized...
November 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362985/opium-consumption-and-the-incidence-of-cancer-does-opium-account-as-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-gastrointestinal-cancer
#12
Mohammed Azeez Alzaidi, Hossein Ali Arab, Saeid Amanpour, Shirkoohi Reza, Samad Muhammadnejad, Farhang Sasani
PURPOSE: Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between opium consumption and the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of opium on the initiation of GI cancer in rats. METHODS: Forty-five rats were randomly divided into three groups; each received different treatment for 40 weeks. The rats in group 1 received purified water, while animals in group 2 were treated with 5 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) orally for 8 weeks and continued with purified water by the end of the experiment...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#13
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311535/the-medicinal-usage-and-restriction-of-ginseng-in-britain-and-america-1660-1900
#14
Heasim Sul
This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300718/notes-from-the-field-lead-contamination-of-opium-iran-2016
#15
Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299212/risk-factors-of-mortality-due-to-acute-opium-poisoning-a-report-from-the-largest-intoxication-referral-center-in-iran
#16
Sahar Rismantab-Sani, Babak Soltani, Siamak Soltani, Azadeh Memarian
Background: Studies have shown that Iran has a high rate of opiate abuse and the most prevalently used is opium. This study was aimed to evaluate risk factors in patients with acute opium intoxication who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. Methods: A total number of 383 patients with acute opium overdose, who were referred to the Emergency Department of Loghman Hakim Hospital in Tehran during 2011, were enrolled into this descriptive, cross-sectional study...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299208/the-relationship-between-personality-disorders-and-the-type-of-crime-committed-and-substance-used-among-prisoners
#17
Shahin Fakhrzadegan, Hossein Gholami-Doon, Bagher Shamloo, Solmaz Shokouhi-Moqhaddam
Background: Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. Methods: This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275418/opium-addiction-and-ischemic-stroke-in-isfahan-iran-a-case-control-study
#18
Homa Ebrahimi, Shaghayegh Haghjoo Javanmard, Sedigheh Asgary, Leila Dehghani, Masoud Amiri, Mohammad Saadatnia
BACKGROUND: The effect of opium addiction (OA) on cerebrovascular disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to clarify this relationship in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: In a case-control study, 672 patients with ischemic stroke and 293 controls without a previous history of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases were compared. OA as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia, tobacco smoking (TS) were compared between the 2 groups...
December 22, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220602/an-observational-study-of-treatment-seeking-users-of-natural-opiates-from-india
#19
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#20
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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