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virus like particles

Eun Joong Kim, Chang Su Jeon, Inseong Hwang, Taek Dong Chung
Compared to well-tolerated p3 fusion, the display of fast-folding proteins fused to the minor capsid p7 and the major capsid p8, as well as in vivo biotinylation of biotin acceptor peptide (AP) fused to p7, are found to be markedly inefficient using the filamentous phage. Here, to overcome such limitations, the effect of translocation pathways, amber mutation, and phage and phagemid display systems on p7 and p8 display of antibody-binding domains are examined, while comparing the level of in vivo biotinylation of AP fused to p7 or p3...
October 20, 2016: Small
Jeevan B Gc, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
The Ebola virus is a lipid-enveloped virus that obtains its lipid coat from the plasma membrane of the host cell it infects during the budding process. The Ebola virus protein VP40 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and forms the viral matrix, which provides the major structure for the Ebola virus particles. VP40 is initially a dimer that rearranges to a hexameric structure that mediates budding. VP40 hexamers and larger filaments have been shown to be stabilized by PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane inner leaflet...
October 19, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. NoV-specific serum antibodies which block the binding of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) to the cell receptors have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight healthy adult human donors previously exposed to NoV were stimulated with purified VLPs derived from NoV GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Julia Tabatabai, Paul Schnitzler, Carlo Farah, Steffen Rameil, Peter Sander, Anna Koromyslova, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries...
September 2016: MSphere
Anna-Theresa Lülf, Astrid Freudenstein, Lisa Marr, Gerd Sutter, Asisa Volz
In cell culture infections with vaccinia virus the number of counted virus particles is substantially higher than the number of plaques obtained by titration. We found that standard vaccine preparations of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara produce only about 20-30% plaque-forming virions in fully permissive cell cultures. To evaluate the biological activity of the non-plaque-forming particles, we generated recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under transcriptional control of specific viral early and late promoters...
October 11, 2016: Virology
Igor Slivac, David Guay, Mathias Mangion, Juliette Champeil, Bruno Gaillet
Delivery of nucleic acid-based molecules in human cells is a highly studied approach for the treatment of several disorders including monogenic diseases and cancers. Non-viral vectors for DNA and RNA transfer, although in general less efficient than virus-based systems, are particularly well adapted mostly due to the absence of biosafety concerns. Non-viral methods could be classified in two main groups: physical and vector-assisted delivery systems. Both groups comprise several different methods, none of them universally applicable...
October 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Fan Jia, Huan Miao, Xutao Zhu, Fuqiang Xu
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a neurotropic virus, has been used to deliver heterologous genes into cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we constructed a reporter SFV4-FL-EGFP and found that it can deliver EGFP into neurons located at the injection site without disseminating throughout the brain. Lacking of the capsid gene of SFV4-FL-EGFP does not block its life cycle, while forming replication-competent virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs hold subviral genome by using the packaging sequence (PS) located within the nsP2 gene, and can transfer their genome into cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Mori Kohji, Ohnuki Aya, Kanou Fumio, Akiba Tetsuya, Hayashi Yukinao, Shirasawa Hiroshi, Sadamasu Kenji
The contributions of splash from vomiting and the dispersion of dried-up virus from a contaminated floor surface to community gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by Norovirus (NoV) were evaluated, using Feline calicivirus (FCV) as an NoV surrogate. There was no difference in the size distribution of FCV-containing particles around 0.75 µm) collected from a virus-sprayed chamber 1h and 12 h after nebulization. FCV clearly dispersed after hitting a floor surface contaminated with dried virus. These results suggest that NoV can likely form airborne droplet nuclei, and dust may be the main route of infection transmission...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Erin M Eggleston, Ian Hewson
This study characterizes viral and bacterial dynamics along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean from approximately 10 N-40 S. Overall viral abundance decreased with depth, on average there were 1.64 ± 0.71 × 10(7) virus like particles (VLPs) in surface waters, decreasing to an average of 6.50 ± 2.26 × 10(5) VLPs in Antarctic Bottom Water. This decrease was highly correlated to bacterial abundance. There are six major water masses in the Southern Tropical Atlantic Ocean, and inclusion of water mass, temperature and salinity variables explained a majority of the variation in total viral abundance...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Johannes Blümel, Didier Musso, Sebastian Teitz, Tomoyuki Miyabayashi, Klaus Boller, Barbara S Schnierle, Sally A Baylis
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne Flavivirus of major public health concern. The potential for ZIKV transmission by blood transfusion has been demonstrated; however, inactivation or removal of ZIKV during the manufacture of plasma-derived medicinal products has not been specifically investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Inactivation of ZIKV by pasteurization and solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment was investigated by spiking high-titer ZIKV stocks into human serum albumin and applying either heat or adding different mixtures of S/D reagents and assaying for infectious virus particles...
October 12, 2016: Transfusion
Armando Hernandez-Garcia, Aldrik H Velders Velders, Martien Cohen Stuart, Renko de Vries, Jan van Lent, Junyou Wang
We investigate a new case of self-assembly-stimulated self-assembly in which a triblock polypeptide is combined with a anionic coordination polymer of a dipicolinic acid bis-ligand, and d- or f- block metal ions like Zn(II) or Eu(III). The polypeptide not only has a silk-like domain that can fold and stack, but also a C-terminal cationic sequence by which it can interact with the supramolecular (coordination) polyanion. In the presence of all three ingredients (polypeptide, bis-ligand and metal ions), we observe initiation and slow growth of well-defined metal-containing nanorods of up to 150 nm in length, proving that self-assembly of the polypeptide is triggered by the self-assembly of the coordination polyelectrolyte and vice versa...
October 11, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sarah R Bordenstein, Seth R Bordenstein
Viruses are trifurcated into eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial categories. This domain-specific ecology underscores why eukaryotic viruses typically co-opt eukaryotic genes and bacteriophages commonly harbour bacterial genes. However, the presence of bacteriophages in obligate intracellular bacteria of eukaryotes may promote DNA transfers between eukaryotes and bacteriophages. Here we report a metagenomic analysis of purified bacteriophage WO particles of Wolbachia and uncover a eukaryotic association module in the complete WO genome...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Chengchao Chu, Shengxiang Ge, Jing Zhang, Huirong Lin, Gang Liu, Xiaoyuan Chen
We present a simple colorimetric assay for EV71 virus detection based on the aggregation of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) and melamine (MA) modified silver nanoparticles (4-MBA-MA-AgNPs) in the presence of Mn(2+). The EV71-Ab1 was incubated on a 96-well plate and the EV71-Ab2 was labeled on the surface of three-dimensional nanoflower-like MnO2-PEG (3D-MnO2-PEG). After layer-by-layer immunoreactions, the EV71 virus and the corresponding 3D-MnO2-PEG-Ab2 were captured on the plate. With the addition of Vitamin C (Vc), Mn(2+) was released from the 3D-MnO2-PEG and then the aggregation of the 4-MBA-MA-AgNPs was induced, allowing a naked-eye detection limit of EV71 virus to be as low as 5 × 10(4) particles per mL, which is about three orders of magnitude lower than the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
B W Neuman, M J Buchmeier
Coronavirus particles serve three fundamentally important functions in infection. The virion provides the means to deliver the viral genome across the plasma membrane of a host cell. The virion is also a means of escape for newly synthesized genomes. Lastly, the virion is a durable vessel that protects the genome on its journey between cells. This review summarizes the available X-ray crystallography, NMR, and cryoelectron microscopy structural data for coronavirus structural proteins, and looks at the role of each of the major structural proteins in virus entry and assembly...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratala, Sergey Nazarov, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Laura Piccinini, Virginie Bachmann, Petr G Leiman, Tamar Kohn
Common water disinfectants like chlorine have been reported to select for resistant viruses, yet little attention has been devoted to characterizing disinfection resistance. Here, we investigated the resistance of MS2 coliphage to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2). ClO2 inactivates MS2 by degrading its structural proteins, thereby disrupting the ability of MS2 to attach to and infect its host. ClO2-resistant virus populations emerged after repeated cycles of ClO2 disinfection followed by regrowth, but also after dilution-regrowth cycles in the absence of ClO2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Wan-Xiang Xu, Jian Wang, Hai-Ping Tang, Ya-Ping He, Qian-Xi Zhu, Satish K Gupta, Shao-Hua Gu, Qiang Huang, Chao-Neng Ji, Ling-Feng Liu, Gui-Ling Li, Cong-Jian Xu, Yi Xie
To enable rational multi-epitope vaccine and diagnostic antigen design, it is imperative to delineate complete IgG-epitome of the protein. Here, we describe results of IgG-epitome decoding of three proteins from high-risk (HR-) oncogenic human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV58). To reveal their entire epitomes, employing peptide biosynthetic approach, 30 precise linear B-cell epitopes (BCEs) were mapped on E6, E7 and L1 proteins using rabbits antisera to the respective recombinant proteins. Using sequence alignment based on BCE minimal motif, the specificity and conservativeness of each mapped BCE were delineated mainly among known HR-HPVs, including finding 3 broadly antibody cross-reactive BCEs of L1 that each covers almost all HR-HPVs...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiju Mani, Lei Wang, Angela G Hückelhoven, Anita Schmitt, Alma Gedvilaite, Nan Jin, Christian Kleist, Anthony D Ho, Michael Schmitt
Human JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCV/BKV) can establish a latent infection without any clinical symptoms in healthy individuals. In immunocompromised hosts infection or reactivation of JCV and BKV can cause lethal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and hemorrhagic cystitis, respectively. Vaccination with JCV/BKV derived antigen epitope peptides or adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells would constitute an elegant approach to clear virus-infected cells. Furthermore, donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is another therapeutic approach which could be helpful for patients with JCV/BKV infections...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
G Michael Rebmann, Robert Grabski, Veronica Sanchez, William J Britt
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest member of the Herpesviridae and represents a significant cause of disease. During virus replication, HCMV alters cellular functions to facilitate its replication, including significant reorganization of the secretory and endocytic pathways of the infected cell. A defining morphologic change of the infected cell is the formation of a membranous structure in the cytoplasm that is designated the virion assembly compartment (AC), which consists of virion structural proteins surrounded by cellular membranes...
October 4, 2016: MBio
Carlos Ramon Nascimento Brito, Craig S McKay, Maíra Araújo Azevedo, Luíza Costa Brandão Santos, Ana Paula Venuto, Daniela Ferreira Nunes, Daniella Alchaar D'Ávila, Gisele Macedo Rodrigues da Cunha, Igor Correia Almeida, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Lucia Maria Cunha Galvão, Egler Chiari, Carlos A Sanhueza, M G Finn, Alexandre Ferreira Marques
The α-Gal antigen [Galα(1,3)Galβ(1,4)GlcNAcα] is an immunodominant epitope displayed by infective trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. A virus-like particle displaying a high density of α-Gal was found to be a superior reagent for the ELISA-based serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and the assessment of treatment effectiveness. A panel of sera from patients chronically infected with T. cruzi, both untreated and benznidazole-treated, was compared with sera from patients with leishmaniasis and from healthy donors...
October 4, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Monsicha Somrit, Atthaboon Watthammawut, Charoonroj Chotwiwatthanakun, Puey Ounjai, Wanida Suntimanawong, Wattana Weerachatyanukul
We have shown that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to infect Sf9 cells and that MrNV virus-like particles (MrNV-VLPs) were capable nanocontainers for delivering nucleic acid-based materials. Here, we demonstrated that chymotryptic removal of a C-terminal peptide and its truncated variant (F344-MrNV-VLPs) exhibited a drastically reduced ability to interact and internalize into Sf9 cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the loss of C-terminal domain either from enzyme hydrolysis or genetic truncation did not affect the generated MrNV-VLPs' icosahedral conformation, but did drastically affect the VLPs' internalization ability into Sf9 cells...
September 28, 2016: Virus Research
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