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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095447/identification-and-characterization-of-single-chain-antibodies-that-specifically-bind-gi-noroviruses
#1
Amy M Hurwitz, Wanzhi Huang, Baijun Kou, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar, Timothy Palzkill
Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassays, pose several limitations based on the significant time, equipment and expertise required to elicit results. Immunochromatographic assays available for use at the point-of-care have poor sensitivity and specificity, especially for genogroup I noroviruses, thus requiring confirmation of results with more sensitive testing methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#2
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091706/microclimates-might-limit-indirect-spillover-of-the-bat-borne-zoonotic-hendra-virus
#3
Gerardo Martin, Rebecca J Webb, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Lee F Skerratt
Infectious diseases are transmitted when susceptible hosts are exposed to pathogen particles that can replicate within them. Among factors that limit transmission, the environment is particularly important for indirectly transmitted parasites. To try and assess a pathogens' ability to be transmitted through the environment and mitigate risk, we need to quantify its decay where transmission occurs in space such as the microclimate harbouring the pathogen. Hendra virus, a Henipavirus from Australian Pteropid bats, spills-over to horses and humans, causing high mortality...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087685/bst-2-restricts-iav-release-and-is-countered-by-the-viral-m2-protein
#4
Siqi Hu, Lijuan Yin, Shan Mei, Jian Li, Fengwen Xu, Hong Sun, Xiaoman Liu, Shan Cen, Chen Liang, Ailing Li, Fei Guo
BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24) is induced by interferon and restricts virus release by tethering the enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The effect of BST-2 on influenza A virus (IAV) infection has been inconclusive. In this study, we report that BST-2 diminishes the production of IAV virus-like particles, that are generated by viral NA and HA proteins, to a much greater degree than inhibits the production of wild type IAV particles. This relatively weaker inhibition of IAV is associated with reduction of BST-2 levels, which is caused by the M2 protein that interacts with BST-2 and leads to downregulation of cell surface BST-2 via the proteasomal pathway...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078770/synthetic-plant-virology-for-nanobiotechnology-and-nanomedicine
#5
REVIEW
John F C Steele, Hadrien Peyret, Keith Saunders, Roger Castells-Graells, Johanna Marsian, Yulia Meshcheriakova, George P Lomonossoff
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field seeking to utilize nano-scale structures for a wide range of applications. Biologically derived nanostructures, such as viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs), provide excellent platforms for functionalization due to their physical and chemical properties. Plant viruses, and VLPs derived from them, have been used extensively in biotechnology. They have been characterized in detail over several decades and have desirable properties including high yields, robustness, and ease of purification...
January 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077642/studies-on-the-interaction-of-tumor-derived-hd5-alpha-defensins-with-adenoviruses-and-implications-for-oncolytic-adenovirus-therapy
#6
Charles Vragniau, Jens-Martin Hübner, Peter Beidler, Sucheol Gil, Kamola Saydaminova, Zhuo-Zhuang Lu, Roma Yumul, Hongjie Wang, Maximilian Richter, Pavel Sova, Charles Drescher, Pascal Fender, André Lieber
: Defensins are small anti-microbial peptides capable of neutralizing human adenovirus (HAdV) in vitro by binding capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. In humans, the alpha defensin HD5 is produced by specialized epithelial cells of the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tracts. Here we demonstrate that HD5 is also expressed as an active, secreted peptide by epithelial ovarian and lung cancer cells in situ, in patient biopsies. This finding triggered us to study the role of HD5 in infection and spread of replication-competent, oncolytic HAdV type 3 virus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077601/a-new-rna-based-adjuvant-enhances-virus-specific-vaccine-responses-by-locally-triggering-tlr-and-rlh-dependent-effects
#7
Annett Ziegler, Claudia Soldner, Stefan Lienenklaus, Julia Spanier, Stephanie Trittel, Peggy Riese, Thomas Kramps, Siegfried Weiss, Regina Heidenreich, Edith Jasny, Carlos A Guzmán, Karl-Josef Kallen, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Ulrich Kalinke
Among innovative adjuvants conferring a Th1-shift, RNAdjuvant is a promising candidate. This adjuvant consists of a 547-nt uncapped noncoding ssRNA containing polyU repeats that is stabilized by a cationic carrier peptide. Whereas vaccination of mice with an influenza subunit vaccine induced moderate virus-specific IgG1, vaccination together with RNAdjuvant significantly enhanced this IgG1 and additionally promoted the formation of IgG2b/c, which is indicative of Th1 responses. Furthermore, such sera neutralized influenza virus, whereas this effect was not detected upon vaccination with the subunit vaccine alone...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076420/chaperone-mediated-autophagy-protein-bag3-negatively-regulates-ebola-and-marburg-vp40-mediated-egress
#8
Jingjing Liang, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Sachdev S Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ziying Han, Ronald N Harty
Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069378/role-of-n-glycosylation-on-zika-virus-e-protein-secretion-viral-assembly-and-infectivity
#9
M Mossenta, S Marchese, M Poggianella, J L Slon Campos, O R Burrone
Zika virus has rapidly spread reaching a global distribution pattern similar to that of dengue virus, and has been associated with serious neurological and developmental pathologies, like congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sequence analysis of different clinical and laboratory isolates has shown the existence of mutants with loss of the conserved N-glycosylation motif on domain I of protein E that is common to all flaviviruses. We found that loss of E N-linked glycosylation leads to compromised expression and secretion of E ectodomain from mammalian cells...
January 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069010/nanoparticle-exposure-reactivates-latent-herpesvirus-and-restores-a-signature-of-acute-infection
#10
Christine Sattler, Franco Moritz, Shanze Chen, Beatrix Steer, David Kutschke, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Oliver Eickelberg, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Heiko Adler, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of environmental (nano) particles (NP) as well as persistent herpesvirus-infection are potentially associated with chronic lung disease and as both are omnipresent in human society a coincidence of these two factors is highly likely. We hypothesized that NP-exposure of persistently herpesvirus-infected cells as a second hit might disrupt immune control of viral latency, provoke reactivation of latent virus and eventually lead to an inflammatory response and tissue damage...
January 10, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067384/nanocaged-platforms-modification-drug-delivery-and-nanotoxicity-opening-synthetic-cages-to-release-the-tiger
#11
REVIEW
Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Mahdi Karimi, Fatemeh Mehdizadeh, Hedieh Malekzad, Alireza Ghasemi, Sajad Bahrami, Hossein Zare, Mohsen Moghoofei, Amin Hekmatmanesh, Michael R Hamblin
Nanocages (NCs) have emerged as a new class of drug-carriers, with a wide range of possibilities in multi-modality medical treatments and theranostics. Nanocages can overcome such limitations as high toxicity caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy or by the nanocarrier itself, due to their unique characteristics. These properties consist of: (1) a high loading-capacity (spacious interior); (2) a porous structure (analogous to openings between the bars of the cage); (3) enabling smart release (a key to unlock the cage); and (4) a low likelihood of unfavorable immune responses (the outside of the cage is safe)...
January 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067290/chimeric-virus-like-particles-containing-influenza-ha-antigen-and-gpi-ccl28-induce-long-lasting-mucosal-immunity-against-h3n2-viruses
#12
Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, Yuan Luo, Chao Wang, Shelly Wang, Richard W Compans, Bao-Zhong Wang
Influenza virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with worldwide seasonal epidemics. The duration and quality of humoral immunity and generation of immunological memory to vaccines is critical for protective immunity. In the current study, we examined the long-lasting protective efficacy of chimeric VLPs (cVLPs) containing influenza HA and GPI-anchored CCL28 as antigen and mucosal adjuvant, respectively, when immunized intranasally in mice. We report that the cVLPs induced significantly higher and sustainable levels of virus-specific antibody responses, especially IgA levels and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, more than 8-month post-vaccination compared to influenza VLPs without CCL28 or influenza VLPs physically mixed with sCCL28 (soluble) in mice...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065477/quantitative-analysis-of-the-yield-of-avian-h7-influenza-virus-haemagglutinin-protein-produced-in-silkworm-pupae-with-the-use-of-the-codon-optimized-dna-a-possible-oral-vaccine
#13
Kuniaki Nerome, Sayaka Matsuda, Kenichi Maegawa, Shigeo Sugita, Kazumichi Kuroda, Kazunori Kawasaki, Reiko Nerome
In this study, we aimed to quantitatively compare the increased production of three H7 influenza virus-like particle (VLP) haemagglutinin (HA) with the use of a codon-optimized single HA gene in silkworm pupae. Recombinant baculovirus (Korea H7-BmNPV) could produce 0.40 million HA units per pupa, corresponding to 1832μg protein. The yield of the HA produced in larva was estimated to be approximately 0.31 million HA units per larva, and there were no significant differences between the three HA proteins. We could establish efficient recovery system of HA production in larvae and pupae with the use of three cycles sonication methods...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063996/porcine-parvovirus-capsid-protein-expressed-in-escherichia-coli-self-assembles-into-virus-like-particles-with-high-immunogenicity-in-mice-and-guinea-pigs
#14
Pengchao Ji, Yunchao Liu, Yumei Chen, Aiping Wang, Dawei Jiang, Baolei Zhao, Jvcai Wang, Shujun Chai, Enmin Zhou, Gaiping Zhang
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Classical inactivated vaccine is extensively used to control PPV infection, but problems concerning safety, such as incomplete inactivation may occur. In this study, a novel subunit vaccine against PPV based on virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the complete PPV VP2 protein expressed in a prokaryotic system with co-expressed chaperones is reported. The VLPs have a similar size, shape, and hemagglutination property to the PPV...
January 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062701/widespread-virus-replication-in-alveoli-drives-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-aerosolized-h5n1-influenza-infection-of-macaques
#15
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Zachary D Swan, Stephanie J Bissel, Amy L Hartman, Jonathan P Carney, Katherine J O'Malley, Adebimpe O Obadan, Jefferson Santos, Reagan Walker, Timothy J Sturgeon, Lonnie J Frye, Pauline Maiello, Charles A Scanga, Jennifer D Bowling, Anthea L Bouwer, Parichat A Duangkhae, Clayton A Wiley, JoAnne L Flynn, Jieru Wang, Kelly S Cole, Daniel R Perez, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus are frequently fatal but the mechanisms of disease remain ill-defined. H5N1 infection is associated with intense production of proinflammatory cytokines, but whether this cytokine storm is the main cause of fatality or is a consequence of extensive virus replication that itself drives disease remains controversial. Conventional intratracheal inoculation of a liquid suspension of H5N1 influenza virus in nonhuman primates likely results in efficient clearance of virus within the upper respiratory tract and rarely produces severe disease...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061848/multi-antigen-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-like-particles-particulate-characterizations-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-in-murine-and-avian-models
#16
Che-Ming Jack Hu, Chu-Yang Chien, Ming-Tsan Liu, Zih-Syun Fang, Sui-Yuan Chang, Rong-Huay Juang, Shih-Chung Chang, Hui-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in China in March 2013. Since then, hundreds of cases have been confirmed showing severe symptoms with a high mortality rate. The virus was transmitted from avian species to humans and has spread to many neighboring areas, raising serious concerns over its pandemic potential. Towards containing the disease, the goal of this study is to prepare a virus-like particle (VLP) that consists of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein 1 (M1) derived from the human isolate A/Taiwan/S02076/2013(H7N9) for potential vaccine development...
January 7, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061386/characterization-of-the-disassembly-and-reassembly-of-the-hbv-glycoprotein-surface-antigen-a-pliable-nanoparticle-vaccine-platform
#17
John R Gallagher, Udana Torian, Dustin M McCraw, Audray K Harris
While nanoparticle vaccine technology is gaining interest due to the success of vaccines like those for the human papillomavirus that is based on viral capsid nanoparticles, little information is available on the disassembly and reassembly of viral surface glycoprotein-based nanoparticles. One such particle is the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (sAg) that exists as nanoparticles. Here we show, using biochemical analysis coupled with electron microscopy, that sAg nanoparticle disassembly requires both reducing agent to disrupt intermolecular disulfide bonds, and detergent to disrupt hydrophobic interactions that stabilize the nanoparticle...
January 3, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057460/a-characterization-of-structural-proteins-expressed-by-bombyx-mori-bidensovirus
#18
Peng Lü, Yali Xing, Zhaoyang Hu, Yanhua Yang, Ye Pan, Kangmin Chen, Feifei Zhu, Yajing Zhou, Keping Chen, Qin Yao
Bombyx mori bidensiovirus (BmBDV) is a species of Bidensovirus that has been was placed into a new genus within the new family Bidnaviridae by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. BmBDV causes fatal flacherie disease in silkworms, which causes large losses to the sericulture industry. BmBDV contains two sets of complementary linear single-stranded DNAs of approximately 6.5 kb (viral DNA 1, VD1) and 6.0 kb (viral DNA 2, VD2). VD1 and VD2 are encapsidated in separate icosahedral non-enveloped capsids, which are similar in size and shape...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057256/biomedical-and-catalytic-opportunities-of-virus-like-particles-in-nanotechnology
#19
REVIEW
B Schwarz, M Uchida, T Douglas
Within biology, molecules are arranged in hierarchical structures that coordinate and control the many processes that allow for complex organisms to exist. Proteins and other functional macromolecules are often studied outside their natural nanostructural context because it remains difficult to create controlled arrangements of proteins at this size scale. Viruses are elegantly simple nanosystems that exist at the interface of living organisms and nonliving biological machines. Studied and viewed primarily as pathogens to be combatted, viruses have emerged as models of structural efficiency at the nanoscale and have spurred the development of biomimetic nanoparticle systems...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056216/nuclear-localization-and-secretion-competence-is-conserved-amongst-henipavirus-matrix-proteins
#20
Elisabeth C McLinton, Kylie M Wagstaff, Alexander Lee, Gregory W Moseley, Glenn A Marsh, Lin-Fa Wang, David A Jans, Kim G Lieu, Hans Netter
Viruses of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae are zoonotic pathogens, which have emerged in South East Asia, Australia and Africa. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are highly virulent pathogens transmitted from bats to animals and humans, whilst the henipavirus Cedar virus (CedV) seems to be non-pathogenic in infection studies. The full replication cycle of the Paramyxoviridae occurs in the host cell's cytoplasm where viral assembly is orchestrated by the matrix (M) protein. Unexpectedly, the NiV-M protein traffics through the nucleus as an essential step to engage the plasma membrane in preparation for viral budding/release...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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