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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158984/virus-like-particles-as-a-platform-for-cancer-vaccine-development
#1
Hui Kian Ong, Wen Siang Tan, Kok Lian Ho
Cancers have killed millions of people in human history and are still posing a serious health problem worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing preventive and therapeutic cancer vaccines. Among various cancer vaccine development platforms, virus-like particles (VLPs) offer several advantages. VLPs are multimeric nanostructures with morphology resembling that of native viruses and are mainly composed of surface structural proteins of viruses but are devoid of viral genetic materials rendering them neither infective nor replicative...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158182/confirmation-of-specificity-of-reactivity-in-a-solid-phase-elisa-for-the-detection-of-hepatitis-e-viral-antigen-improves-utility-of-the-assay
#2
M J Ankcorn, S Ijaz, B Haywood, J Neuberger, A M ElSharkawy, J Maggs, R S Tedder
Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to persistent infections in immunocompromised hosts. A recently available commercial assay for the detection of HEV antigen (HEV-Ag ELISA, Wantai diagnostics) may enable the study of HEV-Ag dynamics in such persistent infections, however currently there is no confirmatory test available. We generated a putative neutralising reagent from a pool of four convalescent blood donor samples and explored neutralising activity against HEV antigens from clinical samples, HEV tissue-culture and virus-like particles...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156552/diversity-of-dsdna-viruses-in-a-south-african-hot-spring-assessed-by-metagenomics-and-microscopy
#3
Olivier Zablocki, Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl, Bronwyn Kirby, Marla Trindade
The current view of virus diversity in terrestrial hot springs is limited to a few sampling sites. To expand our current understanding of hot spring viral community diversity, this study aimed to investigate the first African hot spring (Brandvlei hot spring; 60 °C, pH 5.7) by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and 'jumbo'-sized tailed morphotypes (Caudovirales), lemon-shaped virions (Fuselloviridae-like; salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154906/increase-in-taxonomic-assignment-efficiency-of-viral-reads-in-metagenomic-studies
#4
S François, D Filloux, M Frayssinet, P Roumagnac, D P Martin, M Ogliastro, R Froissart
Metagenomics studies have revolutionized the field of biology by revealing the presence of many previously unisolated and uncultured micro-organisms. However, one of the main problems encountered in metagenomic studies is the high percentage of sequences that cannot be assigned taxonomically using commonly used similarity-based approaches (e.g. BLAST or HMM). These unassigned sequences are allegorically called « dark matter » in the metagenomic literature and are often referred to as being derived from new or unknown organisms...
November 14, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152595/identification-of-equid-herpesvirus-2-in-tissue-engineered-equine-tendon
#5
Roisin Wardle, Jane A Pullman, Sam Haldenby, Lorenzo Ressel, Marion Pope, Peter D Clegg, Alan Radford, James P Stewart, Mohammed Al-Saadi, Philip Dyer, Mandy J Peffers
Background: Incidental findings of virus-like particles were identified following electron microscopy of tissue-engineered tendon constructs (TETC) derived from equine tenocytes. We set out to determine the nature of these particles, as there are few studies which identify virus in tendons per se, and their presence could have implications for tissue-engineering using allogenic grafts. Methods: Virus particles were identified in electron microscopy of TETCs. Virion morphology was used to initially hypothesise the virus identity...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146922/molecular-definition-of-multiple-sites-of-antibody-inhibition-of-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-antigen-pfs25
#6
Stephen W Scally, Brandon McLeod, Alexandre Bosch, Kazutoyo Miura, Qi Liang, Sean Carroll, Sini Reponen, Ngan Nguyen, Eldar Giladi, Sebastian Rämisch, Vidadi Yusibov, Allan Bradley, Franck Lemiale, William R Schief, Daniel Emerling, Paul Kellam, C Richter King, Jean-Philippe Julien
The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25 protein (Pfs25) is a leading malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen. Pfs25 vaccination is intended to elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite development when ingested by Anopheles mosquitoes during blood meals. The Pfs25 three-dimensional structure has remained elusive, hampering a molecular understanding of its function and limiting immunogen design. We report six crystal structures of Pfs25 in complex with antibodies elicited by immunization via Pfs25 virus-like particles in human immunoglobulin loci transgenic mice...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144726/physalis-mottle-virus-like-particles-as-nanocarriers-for-imaging-reagents-and-drugs
#7
Hema Masarapu, Bindi K Patel, Paul L Chariou, He Hu, Neetu M Gulati, Bradley L Carpenter, Reza A Ghiladi, Sourabh Shukla, Nicole F Steinmetz
Platform technologies based on plant virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) are attracting the attention of researchers and clinicians because the particles are biocompatible, biodegradable, noninfectious in mammals, and can readily be chemically and genetically engineered to carry imaging agents and drugs. When the Physalis mottle virus (PhMV) coat protein is expressed in Escherichia coli, the resulting VLPs are nearly identical to the viruses formed in vivo. Here, we isolated PhMV-derived VLPs from ClearColi cells and carried out external and internal surface modification with fluorophores using reactive lysine-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and cysteine-maleimide chemistries, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143881/rmce-based-insect-cell-platform-to-produce-membrane-proteins-captured-on-hiv-1-gag-virus-like-particles
#8
João Vidigal, Bárbara Fernandes, Mafalda M Dias, Marco Patrone, António Roldão, Manuel J T Carrondo, Paula M Alves, Ana P Teixeira
Conformationally complex membrane proteins (MPs) are therapeutic targets in many diseases, but drug discovery has been slowed down by the lack of efficient production tools. Co-expression of MPs with matrix proteins from enveloped viruses is a promising approach to obtain correctly folded proteins at the surface of virus-like particles (VLPs), preserving their native lipidic environment. Here, we implemented a site-specific recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) strategy to establish a reusable HIV-1 Gag-expressing insect cell line for fast production of target MPs on the surface of Gag-VLPs...
November 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143081/generation-in-yeast-and-antigenic-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid-protein-virus-like-particles
#9
Martynas Simanavicius, Paulius Lukas Tamosiunas, Rasa Petraityte-Burneikiene, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Indre Kucinskaite-Kodze
Hepatitis E is a globally distributed human disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In Europe, it spreads through undercooked pork meat or other products and with blood components through transfusions. There are no approved or golden standard serologic systems for HEV diagnostics. Commercially available HEV tests often provide inconsistent results which may differ among the assays. In this study, we describe generation in yeast and characterization of HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) and rat HEV capsid proteins self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) and the development of HEV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)...
November 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142124/truncating-the-gp41-cytoplasmic-tail-of-siv-decreases-sensitivity-to-neutralizing-antibodies-without-increasing-envelope-content-of-virions
#10
Ellen White, Fan Wu, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, James D Roser, Jeffrey D Lifson, Vanessa M Hirsch
An incomplete understanding of native HIV and SIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) impedes the development of structural models of Env and vaccine design. This shortcoming is due in part to the low number of Env trimers on virus particles. For SIV, this low expression can be counteracted by truncating the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT truncation has been shown to increase Env incorporation into the virion and is commonly used in vaccine and imaging studies, but its effects on viral antigenicity have not been fully elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140444/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-different-formulations-of-norovirus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#11
G Leroux-Roels, J P Cramer, P M Mendelman, J Sherwood, R Clemens, A Aerssens, I De Coster, A Borkowski, F Baehner, P Van Damme
Background: We investigated safety and immunogenicity of 1-2 doses of different bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidate (NoV) formulations in healthy 18-64-year-olds. Methods: On Days 1 and 28 participants (n=420) randomized to 14 equal groups received intramuscular control vaccine (hepatitis A) or one of 11 NoV formulations contained varying dosages of GI.1 and GII.4c genotype VLP antigens with Al(OH)3, and 0μg, 15μg or 50μg MPL. Immunogenicity was assessed on Days 1, 28, 56, 208 and 393...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#12
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134435/plant-phenology-supports-the-multi-emergence-hypothesis-for-ebola-spillover-events
#13
Katharina C Wollenberg Valero, Raphael D Isokpehi, Noah E Douglas, Seenith Sivasundaram, Brianna Johnson, Kiara Wootson, Ayana McGill
Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across species, could therefore be directly promoted by conditions of host ecology and environment. In this report, we outline a proof of concept that temporal fluctuations of a set of ecological and environmental variables describing the dynamics of the host ecosystem are able to predict such events of Ebola virus spillover to humans and animals...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131580/modular-self-assembly-of-protein-cage-lattices-for-multistep-catalysis
#14
Masaki Uchida, Kimberly McCoy, Masafumi Fukuto, Lin Yang, Hideyuki Yoshimura, Heini M Miettinen, Ben LaFrance, Dustin P Patterson, Benjamin Schwarz, Jonathan A Karty, Peter E Prevelige, Byeongdu Lee, Trevor Douglas
The assembly of individual molecules into hierarchical structures is a promising strategy for developing three-dimensional materials with properties arising from interaction between the individual building blocks. Virus capsids are elegant examples of biomolecular nanostructures, which are themselves hierarchically assembled from a limited number of protein subunits. Here we demonstrate the bio-inspired modular construction of materials with two levels of hierarchy; the formation of catalytically active individual virus-like particles (VLPs) through directed self-assembly of capsid subunits with enzyme encapsulation, and the assembly of these VLP building blocks into three-dimensional arrays...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131519/displaying-tetra-membrane-spanning-claudins-on-enveloped-virus-like-particles-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Irene C Schneider, Jessica Hartmann, Gundula Braun, Jörn Stitz, Thorsten Klamp, Mahjoub Bihi, Ugur Sahin, Christian J Buchholz
Virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying foreign antigens have become an important tool in vaccination including the induction of immune responses against self-antigens. Claudin 6 (CLDN6) has been identified as tumor-associated antigen and is therefore a potential target for tumor vaccination strategies. However, as tetra-membrane spanning protein its incorporation into VLPs while preserving a native fold is challenging. Here, we attempted the incorporation of a panel of engineered CLDN6 variants into the membrane of retrovirus-derived VLPs...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131321/ty1-fused-protein-body-formation-for-spatial-organization-of-metabolic-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Jong Yun Han, Jae Myeong Song, Sung Hwa Seo, Chonglong Wang, Seung-Goo Lee, Hongweon Lee, Seon-Won Kim, Eui-Sung Choi
Metabolite production through a multistep metabolic pathway can often be increased by efficient substrate channeling created by spatial sequestration of the metabolic reactions. Here, Tya, a structural component in the Ty1 retrotransposon element that forms virus-like particles (VLPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used to spatially organize enzymes involved in a metabolic pathway into a multi-enzyme protein body in yeast. As a proof of principle, Tya fusion to three key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the isoprenoids farnesene and farnesol was tested to assess its potential to improve productivity...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129705/a-virus-like-particle-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-pres-antigen-elicits-robust-neutralizing-antibodies-and-t-cell-responses-in-mice
#17
Xiaodan Cai, Weihao Zheng, Shaokun Pan, Shengyuan Zhang, Youhua Xie, Haitao Guo, Guoxin Wang, Zigang Li, Ming Luo
The preS antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) corresponds to the N-terminal polypeptide in the large (L) antigen in addition to the small (S) antigen. The virus-like particle (VLP) of the S antigen is widely used as a vaccine to protect the population from HBV infection. The presence of the S antigen and its antibodies in patient blood has been used as markers to monitor hepatitis B. However, there is very limited knowledge about the preS antigen. We generated a preS VLP that is formed by a chimeric protein between preS and hemagglutinin (HA), and the matrix protein M1 of influenza virus...
November 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129453/hepatitis-b-virus-core-particles-containing-multiple-epitopes-confer-protection-against-enterovirus-71-and-coxsackievirus-a16-infection-in-mice
#18
Chunling Huo, Jie Yang, Lei Lei, Lei Qiao, Jiantao Xin, Zishu Pan
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). To investigate novel combined vaccines to prevent EV71 and CA16 infection, we constructed chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/SPA or tHBc/SP VLPs) displaying conserved epitopes of EV71 (aa 208-222 of VP1 and aa 248-263 of VP2) and CA16 (aa271-285 of VP1) using a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced epitope- or virus-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies against EV71 and CA16 in the mice...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126399/production-and-purification-of-chimeric-hbc-virus-like-particles-carrying-influenza-virus-lah-domain-as-vaccine-candidates
#19
Andris Kazaks, I-Na Lu, Sophie Farinelle, Alex Ramirez, Vincenzo Crescente, Benjamin Blaha, Olotu Ogonah, Tarit Mukhopadhyay, Mapi Perez de Obanos, Alejandro Krimer, Inara Akopjana, Janis Bogans, Velta Ose, Anna Kirsteina, Tatjana Kazaka, Nicola J Stonehouse, David J Rowlands, Claude P Muller, Kaspars Tars, William M Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: The lack of a universal influenza vaccine is a global health problem. Interest is now focused on structurally conserved protein domains capable of eliciting protection against a broad range of influenza virus strains. The long alpha helix (LAH) is an attractive vaccine component since it is one of the most conserved influenza hemagglutinin (HA) stalk regions. For an improved immune response, the LAH domain from H3N2 strain has been incorporated into virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) using recently developed tandem core technology...
November 10, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125554/antibody-competition-reveals-surface-location-of-hpv-l2-minor-capsid-protein-residues-17-36
#20
Stephanie M Bywaters, Sarah A Brendle, Kerstin P Tossi, Jennifer Biryukov, Craig Meyers, Neil D Christensen
The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion...
November 10, 2017: Viruses
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