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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920180/whole-inactivated-and-virus-like-particle-vaccine-strategies-for-chikungunya-virus
#1
Adam D DeZure, Nina M Berkowitz, Barney S Graham, Julie E Ledgerwood
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a global public health threat, having been identified in >60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. There is no cure for or licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. Initial attempts at CHIKV vaccine development began in the early 1960s. Whole-inactivated and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are 2 of the current approaches being evaluated. Success of these approaches is dependent on a safe, well-tolerated vaccine that is immunogenic and deployable in regard to manufacturing, stability, and delivery characteristics...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915283/distributions-and-relationships-of-virio-and-pico-plankton-in-the-epi-meso-and-bathy-pelagic-zones-of-the-western-pacific-ocean
#2
Yantao Liang, Yongyu Zhang, Yao Zhang, Tingwei Luo, Richard B Rivkin, Nianzhi Jiao
Virio- and pico-plankton mediate important biogeochemical processes and the environmental factors which regulates their dynamics and the virus-host interactions are incompletely known, especially in the deep sea. Here we report on their distributions and relationships with environmental factors at 21 stations covering a latitudinal range (2-23(o) N) in the Western Pacific Ocean. This region is characterized by a complex western boundary current system. Synechococcus, autotrophic picoeukaryotes, heterotrophic prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs) were high (<2...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914931/valosin-containing-protein-vcp-p97-plays-a-role-in-the-replication-of-west-nile-virus
#3
Wallaya Phongphaew, Shintaro Kobayashi, Michihito Sasaki, Michael Carr, William W Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is classified as a member of the type II AAA(+) ATPase protein family. VCP functions in several cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion, vesicular trafficking and disassembly of stress granules. Moreover, VCP is considered to play a role in the replication of several viruses, albeit through different mechanisms. In the present study, we have investigated the role of VCP in West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Endogenous VCP expression was inhibited using either VCP inhibitors or by siRNA knockdown...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#4
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903913/functional-rnas-combined-assembly-and-packaging-in-vlps
#5
Po-Yu Fang, Lizzette M Gómez Ramos, Stefany Y Holguin, Chiaolong Hsiao, Jessica C Bowman, Hung-Wei Yang, Loren Dean Williams
We describe here a one pot RNA production, packaging and delivery system based on bacteriophage Qβ. We demonstrate a method for production of a novel RNAi scaffold, packaged within Qβ virus-like particles (VLPs). The RNAi scaffold is a general utility chimera that contains a functional RNA duplex with paired silencing and carrier sequences stabilized by a miR-30 stem-loop. The Qβ hairpin on the 5' end confers affinity for the Qβ coat protein (CP). Silencing sequences can include mature miRNAs and siRNAs, and can target essentially any desired mRNA...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#6
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898140/ny-subtyp-av-molluscipoxvirus-p%C3%A3-visad-modern-teknik-identifierar-nya-och-ovanliga-patogener-snabbare
#7
Anna-Lena Hammarin, Yvonne Eklund, Maria Karlberg, Morten Bogh, Per Sikora
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the epidermis characterized by skin-colored papules or nodules frequently with a central depression. Atypical variants may occur, primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. We here report a case of »giant Molluscum contagiosum« in an immunocompetent child. The patient was presented with a fairly smooth nodule of 2 cm in diameter on the ring finger. Molluscipoxvirus-like virus particles were detected by electron microscopy from the nodule, but since the clinical picture was not compatible with MC, next generation sequencing was performed in order to verify the diagnosis...
November 28, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898018/combating-ebola-with-repurposed-therapeutics-using-the-cando-platform
#8
Gaurav Chopra, Sashank Kaushik, Peter L Elkin, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894719/structural-based-designed-modular-capsomere-comprising-ha1-for-low-cost-poultry-influenza-vaccination
#9
Jarurin Waneesorn, Nani Wibowo, John Bingham, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894314/self-assembly-of-hexahistidine-tagged-tobacco-etch-virus-capsid-protein-into-microfilaments-that-induce-igg2-specific-response-against-a-soluble-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-chimeric-protein
#10
Carlos Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Sara Elisa Herrera-Rodríguez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. FINDINGS: Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893830/mechanistic-studies-and-modeling-reveal-the-origin-of-differential-inhibition-of-gag-polymorphic-viruses-by-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitors
#11
Zeyu Lin, Joseph Cantone, Hao Lu, Beata Nowicka-Sans, Tricia Protack, Tian Yuan, Hong Yang, Zheng Liu, Dieter Drexler, Alicia Regueiro-Ren, Nicholas A Meanwell, Mark Cockett, Mark Krystal, Max Lataillade, Ira B Dicker
HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890674/passive-immunotherapy-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-with-equine-immunoglobulin-or-immunoglobulin-fragments-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Yongkun Zhao, Chong Wang, Boning Qiu, Chufang Li, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Feihu Yan, Yuwei Gao, Qian Wang, Jinghua Yan, Ling Chen, Stanley Perlman, Nanshan Zhong, Jincun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal pulmonary infection caused by a coronavirus (CoV), MERS-CoV. With the continuing spread of MERS-CoV, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. In this study, we prepared purified equine F(ab')2 from horses immunized with MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing MERS-CoV S, M and E proteins. Both IgG and F(ab')2 efficiently neutralized MERS-CoV replication in tissue culture. Passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly reduced virus titers and accelerated virus clearance from the lungs of MERS-CoV infected mice...
November 24, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889616/developments-in-l2-based-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Christina Schellenbacher, Richard B S Roden, Reinhard Kirnbauer
Infections with sexually transmitted high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV), of which there are at least 15 genotypes, are responsible for a tremendous disease burden by causing cervical, and subsets of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas, together representing 5% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV subunit vaccines consisting of virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1 plus adjuvant have been licensed. Prophylactic vaccinations with the 2-valent (HPV16/18), 4-valent (HPV6/11/16/18), or 9-valent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine induce high-titer neutralizing antibodies restricted to the vaccine types that cause up to 90% of cervical carcinomas, a subset of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal cancers and 90% of benign ano-genital warts (condylomata)...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888410/genome-sequence-prevalence-and-quantification-of-the-first-iflavirus-identified-in-a-phytoplasma-insect-vector
#14
Simona Abbà, Luciana Galetto, Marta Vallino, Marika Rossi, Massimo Turina, Anne Sicard, Cristina Marzachì
The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CY) and an efficient vector of flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FD) under laboratory conditions. During a transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) project aimed at investigating the interactions between the insect and the two phytoplasmas, a 10,616-nucleotide-long contig with high sequence similarity to known picorna-like viruses was identified among the assembled insect transcripts. The discovery came totally unexpected, because insects from the laboratory colony did not show any evident symptom that could be related to the presence of a virus...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885808/vp1-the-major-capsid-protein-of-the-mouse-polyomavirus-binds-microtubules-promotes-their-acetylation-and-blocks-the-host-cell-cycle
#15
Lenka Horníková, Martin Fraiberk, Petr Man, Václav Janovec, Jitka Forstová
VP1, the major structural protein of the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV), is the major architectural component of the viral capsid. Its pentamers are able to self-assemble into capsid-like particles and to non-specifically bind DNA. Surface loops of the protein interact with sialic acid of ganglioside receptors. Although the replication cycle of the virus, including virion morphogenesis, proceeds in the cell nucleus, a substantial fraction of the protein is detected in the cytoplasm of late-phase MPyV-infected cells...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881652/inhibition-of-human-cytomegalovirus-pul89-terminase-subunit-blocks-virus-replication-and-genome-cleavage
#16
Yan Wang, Lili Mao, Jayakanth Kankanala, Zhengqiang Wang, Robert J Geraghty
: Human cytomegalovirus terminase complex cleaves the concatemeric genomic DNA into unit lengths during genome packaging and particle assembly. This process is an attractive drug target because cleavage of concatemeric DNA is not required in mammalian cell DNA replication, indicating that drugs targeting the terminase complex could be safe and selective. One component of the human cytomegalovirus terminase complex, pUL89, provides the endonucleolytic activity for genome cleavage and the domain responsible is reported to have an RNase H-like fold...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#17
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878174/dynamic-dna-controlled-stop-and-go-assembly-of-well-defined-protein-domains-on-rna-scaffolded-tmv-like-nanotubes
#18
Angela Schneider, Fabian J Eber, Nana L Wenz, Klara Altintoprak, Holger Jeske, Sabine Eiben, Christina Wege
A DNA-based approach allows external control over the self-assembly process of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-like ribonucleoprotein nanotubes: their growth from viral coat protein (CP) subunits on five distinct RNA scaffolds containing the TMV origin of assembly (OAs) could be temporarily blocked by a stopper DNA oligomer hybridized downstream (3') of the OAs. At two upstream (5') sites tested, simple hybridization was not sufficient for stable stalling, which correlates with previous findings on a non-symmetric assembly of TMV...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875963/engineering-virus-like-particles-for-antigen-and-drug-delivery
#19
Brett Dallas Hill, Andrew Zak, Eshita Khera, Fei Wen
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanoscale biological structures consisting of viral proteins assembled in a morphology that mimics the native virion but do not contain the viral genetic material. The possibility of chemically and genetically modifying the proteins contained within VLPs makes them an attractive system for numerous applications. As viruses are potent immune activators as well as natural delivery vehicles of genetic materials to their host cells, VLPs are especially well suited for antigen and drug delivery applications...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867765/charge-neutralization-as-the-major-factor-for-the-assembly-of-nucleocapsid-like-particles-from-c-terminal-truncated-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein
#20
Theo Luiz Ferraz de Souza, Sheila Maria Barbosa de Lima, Vanessa L de Azevedo Braga, David S Peabody, Davis Fernandes Ferreira, M Lucia Bianconi, Andre Marco de Oliveira Gomes, Jerson Lima Silva, Andréa Cheble de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, in addition to its structural role to form the nucleocapsid assembly, plays a critical role in HCV pathogenesis by interfering in several cellular processes, including microRNA and mRNA homeostasis. The C-terminal truncated HCV core protein (C124) is intrinsically unstructured in solution and is able to interact with unspecific nucleic acids, in the micromolar range, and to assemble into nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in vitro. The specificity and propensity of C124 to the assembly and its implications on HCV pathogenesis are not well understood...
2016: PeerJ
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