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Salivary biomarkers

Aliye Akcalı, Pınar Gümüş, Özgün Özçaka, Banu Öztürk-Ceyhan, Taina Tervahartiala, Heidi Husu, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Timo Sorsa, Nurcan Buduneli
OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in biofluids of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and systemically healthy counterparts with different status of periodontal health. MATERIALS & METHODS: 71 women with GDM and gingivitis (Gg), 30 women with GDM and healthy periodontium (Gh), 28 systemically and periodontally healthy women (Hh) and 37 systemically healthy women with gingivitis (Hg) were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Zhian Mahmood Ibrahim Dezayee, Marwan Salih Mohamad Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Human C-reactive protein (CRP) has been used in the risk assessment of coronary events. Human saliva mirrors the body's health and well-being and is noninvasive, easy to collect, and ideal for third-world countries as well as for large patient screening. AIMS: This study aimed to screen the saliva CRP qualitatively in patients with diabetes (Type 1 and 2) taking in considerations, the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome. SETTING AND DESIGN: Center for diabetes mellitus, prospective study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
M K Md Arshad, M F M Fathil, Subash C B Gopinath, A R Ruslinda, M Nuzaihan M N, H Y Lam, U Hashim
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major threat to global health, estimated to be the cause 30 % (17.3 million in 2008) of deaths every year, and the number of deaths caused by CVD is expected to increase further, reaching 23.3 million by 2030. Hence, there is a growing demand for simpler sample extraction, rapid screening results, and intervention of the subsequent analysis in emergency units. In this paper, we reviewed CVD biomarkers in blood- and saliva-based specimens. The history of cardiac biomarkers indicates that in the beginning, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was a widely accepted 'gold standard' marker due to its high specificity and selectivity...
October 4, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Lidia D Martínez, Miriam Bezard, Mabel Brunotto, Raquel Dodelson de Kremer
Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in storage and transmission of phosphate-bound energy. Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes comprise three inherited defects in Cr biosynthesis and transport. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Cr and Guanidinoacetate (GAA) can be detected in saliva of healthy subjects and to establish the relationship between salivary and plasma levels of these molecules. An adapted gas chromatography (GC) method is described for the quantification of Cr and GAA biomarkers in saliva...
April 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Richelle Vlenterie, Nel Roeleveld, Marleen M H J van Gelder
Mood disorders during pregnancy have been associated with adverse effects on maternal as well as fetal health. Since mood, anxiety, and stress disorders are related with elevated cortisol levels, salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker. Although multiple samples are generally recommended, a single measurement of awakening salivary cortisol could be a simpler and more cost-effective method to determine whether women have elevated morning cortisol levels during a specific period of pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this validation study among 177 women in the PRIDE Study was to examine whether one awakening salivary cortisol measurement will suffice to classify pregnant women as having normal or elevated cortisol levels compared to awakening salivary cortisol measurements on three consecutive working days...
September 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Aleksandra J Ochal-Choińska, Ewa Osuch-Wójcikiewicz
Salivary gland tumours are a group of lesions whose heterogeneity of biological and pathological features is widely reflected in the molecular aspect. This is demonstrated by an increasing number of studies in the field of genetics of these tumours. The aim of this study was to collect the most significant scientific reports on the cytogenetic and molecular data concerning these tumours, which might facilitate the identification of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The analysis covered 71 papers included in the PubMed database...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Eileen M Condon
Salivary cortisol is considered to be a safe and noninvasive measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and is a commonly measured biomarker of the human stress response in pediatric research. However, cortisol is highly variable and sensitive to a wide range of factors, creating a challenge for reliable salivary cortisol collection in the community setting. Furthermore, the acceptability of salivary cortisol collection in community samples of children is largely unknown. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate current evidence on the acceptability and feasibility of salivary cortisol collection in community samples of children...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
Giulia Ganzetti, Anna Campanati, Andrea Santarelli, Davide Sartini, Elisa Molinelli, Valerio Brisigotti, Giulia Di Ruscio, Ivan Bobyr, Monica Emanuelli, Annamaria Offidani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate salivary interleukin (IL)-1β levels in patients with psoriasis, before and after treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. METHODS: In this pilot study, salivary secretions were collected from patients with psoriasis and untreated healthy control subjects at baseline, and from patients after 12 weeks' treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. IL-1β levels were determined in saliva samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, undertaken before and after TNF-α inhibitor treatment...
September 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
F Ciregia, L Kollipara, L Giusti, R P Zahedi, C Giacomelli, M R Mazzoni, G Giannaccini, P Scarpellini, A Urbani, A Sickmann, A Lucacchini, L Bazzichi
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by unexplained fatigue not improved by rest. An area of investigation is the likely connection of CFS with defective mitochondrial function. In a previous work, we investigated the proteomic salivary profile in a couple of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Following this work, we analyzed mitochondrial proteins in the same couple of twins. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS) was used to study the mitochondria extracted from platelets of the twins...
September 27, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
D R Kommers, Mac Broeren, P Andriessen, S G Oei, L Feijs, S Bambang Oetomo
AIM: This study assessed the feasibility and obtrusiveness of measuring salivary oxytocin in preterm infants receiving Kangaroo care, because this is a period of maximal bonding or co-regulation. We also analysed possible influential determinants, including maternal oxytocin. METHODS: The saliva of preterm infants and their mothers was collected prior to, and during, Kangaroo care using cotton swabs and pooled into vials until sufficient volumes were obtained to measure oxytocin levels using a radioimmunoassay...
September 26, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Yenkai Lim, Yunxia Wan, Dimitrios Vagenas, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Chris F L Perry, Melissa J Davis, Chamindie Punyadeera
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous group of tumours with a typical 5 year survival rate of <40 %. DNA methylation in tumour-suppressor genes often occurs at an early stage of tumorigenesis, hence DNA methylation can be used as an early tumour biomarker. Saliva is an ideal diagnostic medium to detect early HNSCC tumour activities due to its proximity to tumour site, non-invasiveness and ease of sampling. We test the hypothesis that the surveillance of DNA methylation in five tumour-suppressor genes (RASSF1α, p16 (INK4a) , TIMP3, PCQAP/MED15) will allow us to diagnose HNSCC patients from a normal healthy control group as well as to discriminate between Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative patients...
2016: BMC Cancer
Divi Cornec, Sandrine Jousse-Joulin, Sebastian Costa, Thierry Marhadour, Pascale Marcorelles, Jean-Marie Berthelot, Eric Hachulla, Pierre-Yves Hatron, Vincent Goeb, Olivier Vittecoq, Emmanuel Nowak, Jacques-Olivier Pers, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Alain Saraux
PURPOSE: To determine whether the severity of salivary-gland involvement, assessed using salivary gland ultrasonography [SGUS], histological focus score, or the unstimulated whole salivary flow [UWSF], was associated with the response to rituximab in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome [pSS]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 120 patients with pSS enrolled in the randomised TEARS trial of rituximab versus placebo, 35 underwent either centralised minor salivary-gland biopsy or SGUS at inclusion...
2016: PloS One
Rufi Murad Patel, Siddhartha Varma, Girish Suragimath, Sameer Zope
INTRODUCTION: In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. AIM: To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Óscar Rapado-González, Blanca Majem, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Rafa López-López, María Mercedes Suarez-Cunqueiro
The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eva R Kimonis, Natalie Goulter, David J Hawes, Rhonda R Wilbur, Maureen W Groer
The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Nitin Mahajan
The Ets proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by an evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding domain and have diverse biological functions including tumor suppressor as well as tumor promoter functions. They are regulated via a complex and diverse number of mechanisms and control key cellular processes. Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF), a unique member of the ETS family, is present in tissues with high epithelial content are hormone-regulated, such as prostate, breast, salivary glands, ovaries, colon, airways, and stomach tissues...
September 10, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Radoslaw P Kozak, Paulina A Urbanowicz, Chamindie Punyadeera, Karli R Reiding, Bas C Jansen, Louise Royle, Daniel I Spencer, Daryl L Fernandes, Manfred Wuhrer
The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers...
2016: PloS One
Taye J Lasisi, Ade F Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: Saliva analysis is rapidly developing as a tool for the assessment of biomarkers of sports training. It remains poorly understood whether a short bout of sport training can alter some salivary immune biomarkers. AIM: To investigate the effect of acute exercise using football training session on salivary flow rate, salivary free Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10). METHODS: Saliva samples were collected before and immediately after a football session...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Rebecca L Dekker, Terry A Lennie, Debra K Moser, Craig S Miller, Jeffrey L Ebersole, Misook L Chung, Charles L Campbell, Alison Bailey, Elizabeth G Tovar
AIMS: To describe correlations and agreement between salivary and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 and determine which biomarkers predict worse functional class in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Serum and saliva were collected from 75 hospitalized patients with HF (57 ± 12 years, 43% female, New York Heart Association [NYHA] Classes I [4%], II [43%], and III [53%]). Oral inflammation was rated as good, fair, or poor...
September 6, 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
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