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Salivary biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922514/the-complexity-of-oral-physiology-and-its-impact-on-salivary-diagnostics
#1
Eva J Helmerhorst, Colin Dawes, Frank G Oppenheim
OBJECTIVES: Saliva contains biomarkers for systemic as well as oral diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the variability in the sources of such biomarkers (plasma, cells), and attempted to identify saliva deterioration markers in order to improve saliva diagnostic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inter- and intra-subject variation in salivary gingival crevicular fluid levels were determined by measuring salivary albumin and transferrin levels. The purity of collected glandular secretions was determined by bacterial culture, and the variability in epithelial cell numbers by cell counting and optical density measurement...
September 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916029/oral-mucosa-biology-and-salivary-biomarkers
#2
Rosie Qin, Andrea Steel, Nasim Fazel
Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915296/investigating-the-role-of-salivary-cortisol-on-vocal-symptoms
#3
Sofia Holmqvist, Ada Johansson, Pekka Santtila, Lars Westberg, Bettina von der Pahlen, Susanna Simberg
Purpose: We investigated whether participants who reported more often occurring vocal symptoms showed higher salivary cortisol levels and if such possible associations were different for men and women. Method: The participants (N = 170; men n = 49, women n = 121) consisted of a population-based sample of Finnish twins born between 1961 and 1989. The participants submitted saliva samples for hormone analysis and completed a web questionnaire including questions regarding the occurrence of 6 vocal symptoms during the past 12 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914594/salivary-neuropeptides-stress-and-periodontitis
#4
Hady Haririan, Oleh Andrukhov, Michael Böttcher, Eleonore Pablik, Gernot Wimmer, Andreas Moritz, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan
BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence for psychological stress as a risk factor for periodontitis is fragmentary relying mostly on either questionnaire-based or biomarker studies. The aim of this study was to investigate Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Substance P, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide and Adrenomedullin as well as cortisol in saliva and serum in periodontal health and disease combined with different aspects of stress and possible associations with clinical parameters...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898715/cortisol-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-trajectories-following-a-group-social-evaluative-stressor-with-adolescents
#5
Deirdre A Katz, Melissa K Peckins
Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)...
August 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898418/matrix-metalloproteinase-8-levels-in-periodontal-disease-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
E F de Morais, J C Pinheiro, R B Leite, P P A Santos, C A G Barboza, R A Freitas
Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889808/maternal-immune-and-affiliative-biomarkers-and-sensitive-parenting-mediate-the-effects-of-chronic-early-trauma-on-child-anxiety
#7
A Ulmer-Yaniv, A Djalovski, K Yirmiya, G Halevi, O Zagoory-Sharon, R Feldman
BACKGROUND: Chronic early trauma alters children's stress reactivity and increases the prevalence of anxiety disorders; yet the neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms underpinning this effect are not fully clear. Animal studies indicate that the mother's physiology and behavior mediate offspring stress in a system-specific manner, but few studies tested this external-regulatory maternal role in human children exposed to chronic stress. METHODS: We followed a unique cohort of children exposed to continuous wartime trauma (N = 177; exposed; N = 101, controls; N = 76)...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888992/associations-between-biological-markers-of-prenatal-stress-and-infant-negative-emotionality-are-specific-to-sex
#8
Elizabeth C Braithwaite, Susannah E Murphy, Paul G Ramchandani, Jonathan Hill
PURPOSE: Fetal programming is the idea that environmental stimuli can alter the development of the fetus, which may have a long-term effect on the child. We have recently reported that maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner: high prenatal cortisol was associated with increased negative emotionality in females, and decreased negative emotionality in males. This study aims to test for this sex-specific effect in a different cohort, and investigate whether sex differences in fetal programming may be specific to glucocorticoid mechanisms by also examining a maternal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) by sex interaction...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888516/effects-of-animal-assisted-activities-on-biobehavioral-stress-responses-in-hospitalized-children-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Sandra M Branson, Lisa Boss, Nikhil S Padhye, Thea Trötscher, Alexandra Ward
PURPOSE: This study assessed the effectiveness of animal-assisted activities (AAA) on biobehavioral stress responses (anxiety, positive and negative affect, and salivary cortisol and C-reactive protein [CRP] levels) in hospitalized children. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled study. METHOD: Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-minute AAA (n=24) or a control condition (n=24). Anxiety, positive and negative affect, and levels of salivary biomarkers were assessed before and after the intervention...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872928/sex-gender-differences-in-cotinine-levels-among-daily-smokers-in-the-pennsylvania-adult-smoking-study
#10
Allshine Chen, Nicolle M Krebs, Junjia Zhu, Dongxiao Sun, Andrea Stennett, Joshua E Muscat
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine sex/gender differences in smoke exposure and to quantify the role of potential predictors including puffing behaviors, nicotine dependence, and non-nicotinic factors. METHODS: The Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (PASS) of 332 adult cigarette smokers utilized portable handheld topography devices to capture the smokers' profiles in a naturalistic environment. Sex/gender differences in salivary biomarkers were modeled using ANCOVA to account for measures of dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine metabolite ratio [3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine]), and nondependence covariates including anthropomorphic factors and stress...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870799/cranial-electrotherapy-stimulation-for-the-management-of-depression-anxiety-sleep-disturbance-and-pain-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-preliminary-study
#11
Sriram Yennurajalingam, Duck-Hee Kang, Wen-Jen Hwu, Nikhil S Padhye, Charles Masino, Seyedeh S Dibaj, Diane D Liu, Janet L Williams, Zhanni Lu, Eduardo Bruera
CONTEXT: Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) is a safe modulation of brain activity for treating depression, anxiety, insomnia, and pain. However, there are no published studies in patients with advanced cancer (ACP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 4-week CES intervention on depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain scores. Concurrent salivary biomarker studies were conducted. METHODS: In this one group open label pre- and post-intervention study with a 4-week CES intervention, ACP's with one or more of four moderate intensity (≥3/10) ESAS symptoms (depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain) were eligible...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866031/emotional-eating-is-related-with-temperament-but-not-with-stress-biomarkers-in-preschool-children
#12
Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stülb, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Amar Arhab, Annina E Zysset, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Ulrike Ehlert, David Garcia-Burgos, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder, Simone Munsch
Emotional eating (EE) corresponds to a change in eating behavior in response to distress and results in an increase of food intake (overeating (EOE)) or in food avoidance (undereating (EUE)). EE has been related to temperament (i.e. negative emotionality) and dysregulated stress biomarkers in school-aged children; parenting has been understood to influence this relationship in older children. The aim of the study was to investigate to which extent stress biomarkers and negative emotionality are related to EE and to understand the role of parenting in this relationship...
August 31, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865986/validation-of-salivary-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-as-biomarkers-in-domestic-dogs
#13
Evan L MacLean, Laurence R Gesquiere, Nancy Gee, Kerinne Levy, W Lance Martin, C Sue Carter
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OT) and Vasopressin (AVP) are phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides with effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Although OT and AVP are most commonly measured in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), these approaches present an array of challenges including concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864234/simultaneous-measurement-of-salivary-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-application-and-recommendations
#14
REVIEW
Jana Strahler, Nadine Skoluda, Mattes B Kappert, Urs M Nater
Salivary cortisol (sCort) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) constitute proxy measures of the two major stress response systems, i.e. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, respectively. Potentially confounding determinants of sCort and sAA may limit a reliable concurrent measurement of both biomarkers, if not adequately considered. We reviewed the most important determinants of sCort and sAA and provide recommendations for handling these potential confounders. We focused on a selection of potential confounders, resulting in an in-depth consideration of age, sex steroid-related factors, somatic health, acute medication, smoking, consumption of food and drinks, alcohol consumption, physical activity/fitness, and sleep...
August 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861772/oral-health-may-affect-the-performance-of-mrna-based-saliva-biomarkers-for-oral-squamous-cell-cancer
#15
József Horváth, Adrien Szabó, Ildikó Tar, Balázs Dezső, Csongor Kiss, Ildikó Márton, Beáta Scholtz
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a dismal 50% five-year survival rate, emphasizing the need to develop reliable and sensitive tools for early diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the performance of 7 previously identified, potential mRNA biomarkers of OSCC in saliva samples of Hungarian patients. Expression of the putative OSCC biomarkers (DUSP1, OAZ1, H3F3A, IL1B, IL8, SAT and S100P), 2 biomarkers of inflammation (IL6 and TNFα) and 8 putative normalizing genes was quantified from each sample using real-time quantitative PCR...
August 31, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859607/suitability-of-saliva-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-comparing-with-serum
#16
Anna Ritah Namuganga, Novel N Chegou, Paul Mubiri, Gerhard Walzl, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
BACKGROUND: In the search for fast, simple and better ways for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), there is need to discover and evaluate new biomarkers that are found in samples other than sputum to determine their effectiveness. This study examined the utility of saliva vis-a-vis serum by evaluating levels of biomarkers found in saliva and serum from TB suspects. METHODS: Study enrolled tuberculosis suspects. Sputum MGIT was used as the gold standard for active TB...
August 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858222/diurnal-changes-in-distribution-characteristics-of-salivary-cortisol-and-immunoglobulin-a-concentrations
#17
Hiromitsu Kobayashi, Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Bum-Jin Park, Takahide Kagawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
Salivary cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) are important biomarkers for environmental and public health research. The present study investigated the diurnal variations of these salivary biomarkers, with a focus on the change of distribution characteristics (i.e., skewness and kurtosis) of the concentrations. The participants in this study were 113 healthy young males. Salivary samples were collected in the morning (6:30-7:30 a.m.) and afternoon (1:00-4:00 p.m.). The skewness and kurtosis of salivary cortisol concentrations in afternoon samples (skewness = 1...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857460/working-memory-and-salivary-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-as-developmental-predictors-of-cocaine-seeking-in-male-and-female-rats
#18
Chloe J Jordan, Susan L Andersen
Poor working memory is linked to future risk-taking behaviors. Lifelong risk of habitual drug use is highest in individuals who initiate use in early adolescence. We sought to determine in rats whether juvenile traits, specifically poor working memory and low salivary brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are related to elevated cocaine taking and relapse in adolescence and adulthood. On postnatal day (P) 20, working memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task in male and female rats. Saliva was assayed at P20 for BDNF before cocaine self-administration on P28 [0...
August 31, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836530/sialic-acid-as-a-biomarker-of-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-and-oral-cancer
#19
Sonika Achalli, Medhini Madi, Subhas G Babu, Shishir Ram Shetty, Suchetha Kumari, Supriya Bhat
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenesis is a multistep process where a healthy cell has initially a precancerous stage and finally an early cancerous stage. The process of carcinogenesis can be divided into three stages of initiation, promotion, and progression. In this process, there is increased turnover, secretion, and/or shedding from malignant cells. Glycoproteins like sialic acid are expressed on the cell surface. In oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral cancer (OC), the sialic acid level is seen to increase due to high cell turnover and shedding of malignant cells which, in turn, results in the release of glycoproteins like sialic acid into circulation...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830550/detection-and-measurement-of-alpha-amylase-in-canine-saliva-and-changes-after-an-experimentally-induced-sympathetic-activation
#20
María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Fernando Tecles, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Damián Escribano, Luis Jesús Bernal, José Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is considered a biomarker of sympathetic activation in humans, but there is controversy regarding the existence of sAA in dogs. The hypothesis of this study was that sAA exists in dogs and it could change in situations of sympathetic stimulation. Therefore, the aims of this study were: 1) to demonstrate the presence of alpha-amylase in saliva of dogs by Western-Blot, 2) to validate an spectrophotometric method for the measurement of sAA activity and 3) to evaluate the possible changes in sAA activity after the induction of an ejaculation in dogs which is known to produce a sympathetic activation...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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