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Spatial disorientation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#1
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890879/egocentric-disorientation-and-heading-disorientation-evaluation-by-a-new-test-named-card-placing-test
#2
Ritsuo Hashimoto, Momoko Uechi, Wako Yumura, Noriyo Komori, Masako Abe
We recently developed a new clinical test named card placing test (CPT) which can assess a subject's ability to deal with visuospatial information. The CPT requires a subject to recreate an array of three cards, each of which was randomly placed on eight grids around the subject, before (CPT-A) and after the subject's rotation (CPT-B). With this design, the CPT can assess a subject's ability to represent visuospatial information either egocentrically (CPT-A) or allocentrically (CPT-B). We administered the test on two patients with topographical disorientation; one with egocentric disorientation and another with heading disorientation...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805425/cognitive-map-recall-test-a-new-specific-test-to-assess-topographical-disorientation
#3
Virginie Descloux, Roland Maurer
Topographical disorientation, the inability to orient in a well-known environment, is a very incapacitating syndrome. Despite its relatively high frequency after a right cerebral lesion, there is currently no specific neuropsychological test to assess it. We propose a completely new test, with preliminary normative data, assessing the subjects' ability to recall allocentric spatial information from their cognitive map. The subjects are asked to mentally compare distances and directions between landmarks in their familiar environment...
November 2, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742819/on-the-planning-and-design-of-hospital-circulation-zones-a-review-of-the-evidence-based-literature
#4
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662352/spatial-disorientation-training-in-the-rotor-wing-flight-simulator
#5
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Alaistair Bushby, Richard A Leland
BACKGROUND: This study is intended to identify efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of spatial disorientation (SD) training in flight simulators for rotor wing pilots. METHODS: Queries of a UK Ministry of Defense research database and Pub Med were undertaken using the search terms 'spatial disorientation,' 'rotor wing,' and 'flight simulator.' Efficacy, evolving applications, best practices, and challenges of SD simulation for rotor wing pilots were also ascertained through discussion with subject matter experts and industrial partners...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590293/anti-lgi1-encephalitis-clinical-syndrome-and-long-term-follow-up
#6
Agnes van Sonderen, Roland D Thijs, Elias C Coenders, Lize C Jiskoot, Esther Sanchez, Marienke A A M de Bruijn, Marleen H van Coevorden-Hameete, Paul W Wirtz, Marco W J Schreurs, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Maarten J Titulaer
OBJECTIVE: This nationwide study gives a detailed description of the clinical features and long-term outcome of anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis. METHODS: We collected patients prospectively from October 2013, and retrospectively from samples sent to our laboratory from January 2007. LGI1 antibodies were confirmed with both cell-based assay and immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained in interviews with patients and their relatives and from medical records...
October 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450709/developmental-topographical-disorientation
#7
Giuseppe Iaria, Ford Burles
Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) refers to the lifelong inability to orient in extremely familiar surroundings despite the absence of any acquired brain damage or neurological disorder. Here, we describe the findings of this newly discovered condition, and highlight how this phenomenon provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying human spatial navigation.
October 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208678/pilot-domain-task-experience-in-night-fatal-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-accidents
#8
Bryan B Aherne, Chrystal Zhang, David G Newman
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, accident and fatality rates in helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) operations increase significantly under nighttime environmentally hazardous operational conditions. Other studies have found pilots' total flight hours unrelated to HEMS accident outcomes. Many factors affect pilots' decision making, including their experience. This study seeks to investigate whether pilot domain task experience (DTE) in HEMS plays a role against likelihood of accidents at night when hazardous operational conditions are entered...
June 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136693/rotational-coherent-dot-movement-normalizes-spatial-disorientation-of-the-subjective-visual-vertical-in-patients-with-rightsided-stroke
#9
S Reinhart, A K Schaadt, I Keller, H Hildebrandt, G Kerkhoff, K Utz
Studies in healthy individuals indicate a significant influence of rotating visual motion on judgments of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). Moreover, sensory stimulation manoeuvres like horizontal coherent dot movement significantly modulate horizontal spatial deficits in patients with rightsided stroke. Here, we investigated whether rotational coherent dot movement (RCDM) modulates spatial orientation deficits of the SVV in the roll plane in right hemispheric stroke. We tested the perceptual judgment of the SVV in 20 patients with right-hemispheric, first ever stroke (10 of them with a disorder of the SVV and 10 without a disorder), and 10 healthy, age-matched subjects under three experimental conditions: (1) with a static background of small white dots, (2) with slow clockwise or (3) counterclockwise circular RCDM of these background stimuli...
April 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111069/a-long-term-longitudinal-follow-up-of-depressed-patients-treated-with-ect-with-special-focus-on-development-of-dementia
#10
Åke Berggren, Lars Gustafson, Peter Höglund, Aki Johanson
BACKGROUND: In this study, the long term effects of ECT on patients with depression were investigated through repeated rCBF and EEG measures as well as clinical characteristics over several years. The aim of the investigation was to establish an association with the eventual development of dementia. METHOD: A cohort of forty-nine patients (21 men and 28 women) with a mean age of 61 years underwent ECT. A subsequent evaluation from medical records and three rating-scales for diagnosis of Alzheimer´s disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), and for vascular dementia (VaD), revealed that 17 patients (8 men and 9 women), had developed dementia...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017533/the-contribution-of-virtual-reality-to-the-diagnosis-of-spatial-navigation-disorders-and-to-the-study-of-the-role-of-navigational-aids-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
M Cogné, M Taillade, B N'Kaoua, A Tarruella, E Klinger, F Larrue, H Sauzéon, P-A Joseph, E Sorita
INTRODUCTION: Spatial navigation, which involves higher cognitive functions, is frequently implemented in daily activities, and is critical to the participation of human beings in mainstream environments. Virtual reality is an expanding tool, which enables on one hand the assessment of the cognitive functions involved in spatial navigation, and on the other the rehabilitation of patients with spatial navigation difficulties. Topographical disorientation is a frequent deficit among patients suffering from neurological diseases...
March 23, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009158/decreased-otolith-mediated-vestibular-response-in-25-astronauts-induced-by-long-duration-spaceflight
#12
Emma Hallgren, Ludmila Kornilova, Erik Fransen, Dmitrii Glukhikh, Steven T Moore, Gilles Clément, Angelique Van Ombergen, Hamish MacDougall, Ivan Naumov, Floris L Wuyts
The information coming from the vestibular otolith organs is important for the brain when reflexively making appropriate visual and spinal corrections to maintain balance. Symptoms related to failed balance control and navigation are commonly observed in astronauts returning from space. To investigate the effect of microgravity exposure on the otoliths, we studied the otolith-mediated responses elicited by centrifugation in a group of 25 astronauts before and after 6 mo of spaceflight. Ocular counterrolling (OCR) is an otolith-driven reflex that is sensitive to head tilt with regard to gravity and tilts of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector during centrifugation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808614/correlation-of-climbing-perception-and-eye-movements-during-daytime-and-nighttime-takeoffs-using-a-flight-simulator
#13
Atsushi Tamura, Yoshiro Wada, Naoki Shimizu, Takuo Inui, Akihiro Shiotani
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the subjective climbing perception can be quantitatively evaluated using values calculated from induced eye movements, and the findings may aid in the detection of pilots who are susceptible to spatial disorientation in a screening test. OBJECTIVE: The climbing perception experienced by a pilot during takeoff at night is stronger than that experienced during the day. To investigate this illusion, this study assessed eye movements and analyzed their correlation with subjective climbing perception during daytime and nighttime takeoffs...
2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802378/subjective-vertical-conflict-theory-and-space-motion-sickness
#14
Wei Chen, Jian-Gang Chao, Jin-Kun Wang, Xue-Wen Chen, Cheng Tan
BACKGROUND: Space motion sickness (SMS) remains a troublesome problem during spaceflight. The subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the SV sensed from gravity and visual and idiotropic cues differs from the expected vertical. This theory has been successfully used to predict motion sickness in different vehicles on Earth. METHOD: We have summarized the most outstanding and recent studies on the illusions and characteristics associated with spatial disorientation and SMS during weightlessness, such as cognitive map and mental rotation, the visual reorientation and inversion illusions, and orientation preferences between visual scenes and the internal z-axis of the body...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802375/hypoxia-and-coriolis-illusion-in-pilots-during-simulated-flight
#15
Krzysztof P Kowalczuk, Stefan P Gazdzinski, Michał Janewicz, Marek Gąsik, Rafał Lewkowicz, Mariusz Wyleżoł
INTRODUCTION: Pilots' vision and flight performance may be impeded by spatial disorientation and high altitude hypoxia. The Coriolis illusion affects both orientation and vision. However, the combined effect of simultaneous Coriolis illusion and hypoxia on saccadic eye movement has not been evaluated. METHOD: A simulated flight was performed by 14 experienced pilots under 3 conditions: once under normal oxygen partial pressure and twice under reduced oxygen partial pressures, reflecting conditions at 5000 m and 6000 m (16,404 and 19,685 ft), respectively...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526327/heading-disorientation-after-right-posteromedial-infarction
#16
Ritsuo Hashimoto, Noriyo Komori, Masako Abe
We report the case of heading disorientation following ischemic stroke involving the right posteromedial areas. The patient was administered a new test named the Card Placing Test during which a subject was required to recreate an array of three cards, each of which was randomly placed on eight grids around the subject, before and after the subject's rotation. Qualitative analysis of his performance after rotation revealed that over half of the errors comprised transposition and rotational offset. His score on the Card Placing Test was compared with those of normal controls (n = 11)...
2015: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494756/reduced-grid-cell-like-representations-in-adults-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Lukas Kunz, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Hweeling Lee, Christian Montag, Bernd Lachmann, Rayna Sariyska, Martin Reuter, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Tony Stöcker, Paul Christian Messing-Floeter, Juergen Fell, Christian F Doeller, Nikolai Axmacher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifests with memory loss and spatial disorientation. AD pathology starts in the entorhinal cortex, making it likely that local neural correlates of spatial navigation, particularly grid cells, are impaired. Grid-cell-like representations in humans can be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that young adults at genetic risk for AD (APOE-ε4 carriers) exhibit reduced grid-cell-like representations and altered navigational behavior in a virtual arena. Both changes were associated with impaired spatial memory performance...
October 23, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26405869/eeg-functional-network-properties-related-to-visually-induced-unrecognized-spatial-disorientation
#18
Yan Li, Yuanyuan Chen, Xiaoning Lv, Yang Yang, Jing Li, Chenru Hao, Minggao Li, Fang Pu
Unrecognized spatial disorientation (SD) which is intimately linked with brain cognitive function is always a fatal issue for the safety of pilots. To explore its effects on human brain cognitive functions, electroencephalography (EEG) functional network analysis methods were adopted to examine topological changes in the connection of cognitive regions when experiencing unrecognized SD. Twelve male pilots participated in the study. They were subjected to a SD scene, namely visual rotation, which evoked unrecognized SD...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26387895/in-flight-study-of-helmet-mounted-symbology-system-concepts-in-degraded-visual-environments
#19
Bob Cheung, Gregory Craig, Brad Steels, Robert Sceviour, Vaughn Cosman, Sion Jennings, Peter Holst
BACKGROUND: During approach and departure in rotary wing aircraft, a sudden loss of external visual reference precipitates spatial disorientation. METHODS: There were 10 Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Griffon pilots who participated in an in-flight investigation of a 3-dimensional conformal Helmet Display Tracking System (HDTS) and the BrownOut Symbology System (BOSS) aboard an Advanced System Research Aircraft. For each symbology system, pilots performed a two-stage departure followed by a single-stage approach...
August 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377479/a-neural-basis-for-developmental-topographic-disorientation
#20
Jiye G Kim, Elissa M Aminoff, Sabine Kastner, Marlene Behrmann
UNLABELLED: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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