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Spatial disorientation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562970/the-use-of-a-poisson-regression-to-evaluate-antihistamines-and-fatal-aircraft-mishaps-in-instrument-meteorological-conditions
#1
Kevin M Gildea, Christy R Hileman, Paul Rogers, Guillermo J Salazar, Lawrence N Paskoff
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that first-generation antihistamine usage may impair pilot performance by increasing the likelihood of vestibular illusions, spatial disorientation, and/or cognitive impairment. Second- and third-generation antihistamines generally have fewer impairing side effects and are approved for pilot use. We hypothesized that toxicological findings positive for second- and third-generation antihistamines are less likely to be associated with pilots involved in fatal mishaps than first-generation antihistamines...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557053/optical-illusions-and-spatial-disorientation-in-aviation-pilots
#2
Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Mª Carolina Valbuena-Iglesias, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544779/slam-based-dense-surface-reconstruction-in-monocular-minimally-invasive-surgery-and-its-application-to-augmented-reality
#3
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505848/psychophysiological-assessment-and-correction-of-spatial-disorientation-during-simulated-orion-spacecraft-re-entry
#4
Patricia S Cowings, William B Toscano, Millard F Reschke, Addis Tsehay
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465562/subacute-onset-leukodystrophy-and-visual-spatial-disorders-revealing-phenylketonuria-combined-with-homocysteinmia-in-adulthood-a-case-report
#5
Chunchen Wang, Jieying Li
RATIONALE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder, which manifests a progressive irreversible neurological impairment during infancy and childhood. Hyperhomocysteinemia also showed that it might be involved in pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. The late-onset clinical manifestations of these 2 diseases have not been reported elsewhere. We speculated that the late-onset PKU is caused by 2 kinds of metabolic dysfunction synergistically, especially a short period of irregular diet directly caused clinical symptoms...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409155/using-virtual-reality-to-distinguish-subjects-with-multiple-but-not-single-domain-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-normal-elderly-subjects
#6
Alireza Mohammadi, Mahmoud Kargar, Ehsan Hesami
AIM: Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. METHODS: The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared...
March 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325011/cognitive-complaints-in-memory-clinic-patients-and-in-depressive-patients-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#7
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Klaus Fließbach, Frank Jessen, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
Background and Objectives: Cognitive complaints are discussed as early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, they are also very common in cognitively normal older adults and in patients with depression. Qualitative, interview-based approaches might be useful to identify those features of cognitive complaints specific for the experiences of cognitive decline in preclinical or prodromal AD versus those complaints typically reported by depressed patients. Research Design and Methods: A semi-structured interview was administered to 21 cognitively normal older adults (HC), 18 nondemented memory clinic patients (MC), and 11 patients with a major depression (MD), all above 55 years...
January 8, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283589/experience-with-featural-cue-reliability-influences-featural-and-geometric-cue-use-by-mice-mus-musculus
#8
Kevin Leonard, Na Tian, Tammy L Ivanco, Debbie M Kelly
Orienting is a critical skill for all mobile animals. Two commonly studied visual components used to guide orientation in an environment are geometric (e.g., distance or direction) and featural cues (e.g., color or texture). Previous research has shown that visual-cue use and cue weighing can depend on the navigator's previous experience, the nature and reliability of the cues, and genetic factors. Accordingly, the domestic mouse (Mus musculus) is a species of increasing interest because of its potential as a model for human neurological disorders with associated spatial disorientation, as is seen in Alzheimer's disease...
February 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273759/orientation-in-virtual-reality-does-not-fully-measure-up-to-the-real-world
#9
Kazushige Kimura, James F Reichert, Ashley Olson, Omid Ranjbar Pouya, Xikui Wang, Zahra Moussavi, Debbie M Kelly
Adult participants learned to reorient to a specific corner inside either a real or virtual rectangular room containing a distinct featural object in each corner. Participants in the virtual-reality (VR) condition experienced an immersive virtual version of the physical room using a head-mounted display (HMD) and customized manual wheelchair to provide self-movement. Following a disorientation procedure, people could reorient by using either the geometry of the room and/or the distinct features in the corners...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237555/real-world-navigation-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relation-to-visuospatial-memory-and-volume-of-hippocampal-subregions
#10
Jessica Peter, Richard Sandkamp, Lora Minkova, Lena V Schumacher, Christoph P Kaller, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Stefan Klöppel
Spatial disorientation is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the clinical routine, spatial orientation is less often tested with real-world navigation but rather with 2D visuoconstructive tasks. However, reports about the association between the two types of tasks are sparse. Additionally, spatial disorientation has been linked to volume of the right hippocampus but it remains unclear whether right hippocampal subregions have differential involvement in real-world navigation...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173261/the-importance-of-cognitive-map-placement-in-bile-duct-injuries
#11
Francis Sutherland, Elijah Dixon
Bile duct injuries often occur because of surgeon spatial disorientation. The psychological concept of cognitive map misplacement is a useful explanation of how this disorientation and injury occurs. Surgeons may find that using a "bile duct time out" is a helpful way to orient. Based on the mnemonic B-SAFE, they can use 5 subhepatic landmarks (B, bile duct; S, sulcus of Rouviere; A, hepatic artery; F, umbilical fissure; E, enteric/duodenum) to correctly place their cognitive map.
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153321/consistency-of-spatial-representations-in-rat-entorhinal-cortex-predicts-performance-in-a-reorientation-task
#12
Shahaf Weiss, Ghadeer Talhami, Xenia Gofman-Regev, Sophia Rapoport, David Eilam, Dori Derdikman
Goal-directed behavior can be affected by environmental geometry. A classic example is the rectangular arena reorientation task, where subjects commonly confuse opposite but geometrically identical corners [1]. Until recently, little was known about how environmental geometry shapes spatial representations in a neurobehavioral context [2] (although see [3]). In the present study, we asked: Under what circumstances does the internal cognitive map predict behavior? And when does it fail to do so? To this end, we developed a variant of the classical reorientation task that allows for investigation of temporal dynamics of reorientation...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123498/vestibular-deficits-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-balance-dizziness-and-spatial-disorientation
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Cronin, Qadeer Arshad, Barry M Seemungal
The vestibular system consists of the peripheral vestibular organs in the inner ear and the associated extensive central nervous system projections-from the cerebellum and brainstem to the thalamic relays to cortical projections. This system is important for spatial orientation and balance, both of critical ecological importance, particularly for successful navigation in our environment. Balance disorders and spatial disorientation are common presenting features of neurodegenerative diseases; however, little is known regarding central vestibular processing in these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081424/hippocampal-gene-expression-serum-cortisol-level-and-spatial-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-hypergravity
#14
Arata Horii, Kenji Mitani, Chisako Masumura, Atsuhiko Uno, Takao Imai, Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Tadashi Kitahara, Hidenori Inohara
BACKGROUND: Due to spatial disorientation reported in space, spatial memory and navigation performances could be more largely impaired by gravity changes. Hippocampus, a key structure for spatial memory, receives inputs from gravity-sensing otolith organs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key molecules in the rat hippocampus that contribute to an adaptation to altered gravity in terms of spatial memory performance. METHODS: Gene expression of hippocampus and spatial memory after continuous two-weeks exposure to 2 G hypergravity (HG) were examined using a microarray analysis followed by real-time PCR methods and radial arm maze testing, respectively...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067973/alzheimer-s-disease-an-alternative-approach
#15
REVIEW
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative cortical dementia. It starts with memory loss, spatial disorientation in people above the age of 65 yr with a preference to females. Its incidence is expected to increase threefold by 2050. It affects almost one out of ten persons above the age of 65 years. Majority of patients are sporadic, but a very small percentage is autosomal dominant. The pathomechanisms postulated include amyloid cascade hypothesis according to which mutation in amyloid precursor protein causes Aβ aggregation...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046181/instrument-failure-stress-and-spatial-disorientation-leading-to-a-fatal-crash-with-a-large-aircraft
#16
Arne Tribukait, Ola Eiken
BACKGROUND: An aircraft's orientation relative to the ground cannot be perceived via the sense of balance or the somatosensory system. When devoid of external visual references, the pilot must rely on instruments. A sudden unexpected instrument indication is a challenge to the pilot, who might have to question the instrument instead of responding with the controls. In this case report we analyze, from a human-factors perspective, how a limited instrument failure led to a fatal accident...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037661/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy-rescues-disruptions-in-organization-of-exploratory-movements-associated-with-usher-syndrome-type-1c-in-mice
#17
Tia N Donaldson, Kelsey T Jennings, Lucia A Cherep, Adam M McNeela, Frederic F Depreux, Francine M Jodelka, Michelle L Hastings, Douglas G Wallace
Usher syndrome, Type 1C (USH1C) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which a mutation in the gene encoding harmonin is associated with multi-sensory deficits (i.e., auditory, vestibular, and visual). USH1C (Usher) mice, engineered with a human USH1C mutation, exhibit these multi-sensory deficits by circling behavior and lack of response to sound. Administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutic that corrects expression of the mutated USH1C gene, has been shown to increase harmonin levels, reduce circling behavior, and improve vestibular and auditory function...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#18
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894832/visual-effects-on-the-subjective-visual-vertical-and-subjective-postural-head-vertical-during-static-roll-tilt
#19
Atsushi Tamura, Yoshiro Wada, Akihiro Kurita, Takeshi Matsunobu, Takuo Inui, Akihiro Shiotani
OBJECTIVES: Tilt perception is part of the perception of spatial orientation. It is determined not only by the allocentric gravity axis, but also by a second allocentric axis induced by visual information as well as by the egocentric body (head) axis induced by somatosensory information. The aim of this study was to quantify roll-tilt perception using the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the newly developed subjective postural head vertical (SPHV) and to investigate the visual effects on both during static roll-tilt...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751302/smartphone-based-endoscope-system-for-advanced-point-of-care-diagnostics-feasibility-study
#20
Jung Kweon Bae, Andrey Vavilin, Joon S You, Hyeongeun Kim, Seon Young Ryu, Jeong Hun Jang, Woonggyu Jung
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic technique is often applied for the diagnosis of diseases affecting internal organs and image-guidance of surgical procedures. Although the endoscope has become an indispensable tool in the clinic, its utility has been limited to medical offices or operating rooms because of the large size of its ancillary devices. In addition, the basic design and imaging capability of the system have remained relatively unchanged for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a smartphone-based endoscope system capable of advanced endoscopic functionalities in a compact size and at an affordable cost and to demonstrate its feasibility of point-of-care through human subject imaging...
July 27, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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