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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740711/mitral-valve-repair-and-subvalvular-intervention-for-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-and-propensity-matched-studies
#1
Christos G Mihos, Steve Xydas, Evin Yucel, Romain Capoulade, Roy F Williams, Maurice Mawad, Guillermo Garcia, Orlando Santana
BACKGROUND: Combining a ring annuloplasty (Ring) with a mitral subvalvular intervention (Ring + subvalvular) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) may improve mitral valve (MV) repair durability. However, the outcomes of this strategy compared with a Ring only, have not been clearly defined. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed utilizing randomized controlled and propensity matched studies which compared a Ring + subvalvular versus Ring MV repair for the treatment of secondary MR...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740581/the-parathyroid-gland-and-heart-disease
#2
Spandana J Brown, Mary D Ruppe, Laila S Tabatabai
The parathyroid glands are critical to maintaining calcium homeostasis through actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Recent clinical and molecular research has shown that direct and indirect actions of PTH also affect the heart and vasculature through downstream actions of G protein-coupled receptors in the myocardium and endothelial cells. Patients with disorders of the parathyroid gland have higher incidences of hypertension, arrhythmias, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and calcific disease which translate into increased cardiac morbidity and mortality...
April 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736756/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#3
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
June 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734850/progression-and-reversibility-of-stretch-induced-atrial-remodeling-characterization-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Emma McLennan, Dominik Linz, Rajiv Mahajan, Thomas A Agbaedeng, Geoffrey Lee, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, Dennis H Lau
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and across the developed nations, it contributes to increasing hospitalizations and healthcare burden. Several comorbidities and risk factors including hypertension, heart failure, obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity are known to play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of AF and atrial stretch or dilatation may play a central mechanistic role. The impact of atrial stretch in the development of AF can vary dependent on the underlying disease...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734243/caveolin-1-related-autophagy-initiated-by-aldosterone-induced-oxidation-promotes-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-defenestration
#5
Xiaoying Luo, Dan Wang, Xuan Luo, Xintao Zhu, Guozhen Wang, Zuowei Ning, Yang Li, Xiaoxin Ma, Renqiang Yang, Siyi Jin, Yun Huang, Ying Meng, Xu Li
Aldosterone, with pro-oxidation and pro-autophagy capabilities, plays a key role in liver fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-promoted liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) defenestration remain unknown. Caveolin 1 (Cav1) displays close links with autophagy and fenestration. Hence, we aim to investigate the role of Cav1-related autophagy in LSECs defenestration. We found the increase of aldosterone/MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) level, oxidation, autophagy, and defenestration in LSECs in the human fibrotic liver, BDL or hyperaldosteronism models; while antagonizing aldosterone or inhibiting autophagy relieved LSECs defenestration in BDL-induced fibrosis or hyperaldosteronism models...
July 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731126/mir%C3%A2-132-in-atrial-fibrillation-directly-targets-connective-tissue-growth-factor
#6
Gang Qiao, Dongsheng Xia, Zhaoyun Cheng, Guobao Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently occurring, persistent cardiac arrhythmia, and the hallmark of AF‑dependent structural remodeling is atrial fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important in the process of fibrosis. The association between miRNA and CTGF in AF‑dependent fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine if microRNA (miR)‑132 was able to regulate CTGF with an anti‑fibrotic effect in AF. A total of ten dogs or patients were assigned to control (n=4) and AF groups (n=6)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728692/magnetic-resonance-in-transthyretin%C3%A2-cardiac-amyloidosis
#7
Ana Martinez-Naharro, Thomas A Treibel, Amna Abdel-Gadir, Heerajnarain Bulluck, Giulia Zumbo, Daniel S Knight, Tushar Kotecha, Rohin Francis, David F Hutt, Tamer Rezk, Stefania Rosmini, Candida C Quarta, Carol J Whelan, Peter Kellman, Julian D Gillmore, James C Moon, Philip N Hawkins, Marianna Fontana
BACKGROUND: Cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping, is emerging as a reference standard for diagnosis and characterization of cardiac amyloidosis. OBJECTIVES: The authors used CMR with extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement to characterize cardiac involvement in relation to outcome in ATTR. METHODS: Subjects comprised 263 patients with cardiac ATTR corroborated by grade 2 to 3 (99m)Tc-DPD ((99m)Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid) cardiac uptake, 17 with suspected cardiac ATTR (grade 1 (99m)Tc-DPD), and 12 asymptomatic individuals with amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR) mutations...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727907/novel-role-of-surfactant-protein-a-in-bacterial-sinusitis
#8
George T Noutsios, Amanda L Willis, Julie G Ledford, Eugene H Chang
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disorder of the upper airway characterized by chronic inflammation and significant sinonasal remodeling. CRS is comprised of 2 major subgroups, based on whether polyps are present or absent. In some cases, it is characterized by colonization with opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Staphylococcus aureus, and other bacteria. The innate immune system of the sinonasal epithelium is the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens...
July 20, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727099/identification-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-testicular-semen-of-sex-reversed-female-xx-and-normal-male-xy-rainbow-trout
#9
J Nynca, M Adamek, A Ciereszko
Masculinized females, named sex-reversed females (SRF), have a male phenotype but retain the female genotype (XX) and all spermatozoa produced in their testes carry the X chromosome. Masculinization of females leads to incomplete testicular development and the production of lower-quality semen. The mechanism of masculinization is unknown at present. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify differentially abundant proteins in testicular semen of normal males and SRF using a difference in-gel electrophoresis approach...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713934/upregulation-of-connexin-43-and-apoptosis%C3%A2-associated-protein-expression-by-high-glucose-in-h9c2-cells-was-improved-by-resveratrol-via-the-autophagy-signaling-pathway
#10
Guang-Yu Wang, Ya-Guang Bi, Xiang-Dong Liu, Jun-Feng Han, Meng Wei, Qing-Yong Zhang
The expression of connexin43 (Cx43) protein and the apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes may be regulated by autophagy and associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. It is possible that the beneficial effect of resveratrol on diabetic cardiomyocytes occurs via the autophagy pathway. However, it remains to be elucidated whether resveratrol treatment may attenuate the hyperglycemia‑induced remodeling of Cx43 and apoptosis through the regulation of autophagy. H9c2 cardiac cells were incubated with 5.5 and 25 mM glucose, 25 mM glucose with chloroquine (50 µM), and 25 mM glucose with or without resveratrol (10, 25 µM) for 24 h...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#11
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711603/mir-139-5p-inhibits-proliferation-and-promoted-apoptosis-of-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-downregulating-the-brg1-gene
#12
Huanying Zhang, Zhongmei Sun, Lianfeng Yu, Jie Sun
MicroRNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the role of microRNAs in asthma needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that miR-139-5p was greatly decreased in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells from asthmatic humans as well as ASM cells stimulated with cytokines. Overexpression of miR-139-5p markedly suppressed ASM cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of miR-139-5p had the opposite effect. Further study verified that Brg1, a chromatin remodeling factor, was upregulated in ASM cells treated with cytokines and acted as a direct target of miR-139-5p...
July 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710931/ligustrazine-modulates-renal-cysteine-biosynthesis-in-rats-exposed-to-cadmium
#13
Wenhua Kuang, Xu Zhang, Wufu Zhu, Zhou Lan
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ligustrazine (TMP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity and its relevant mechanism. TMP (50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into rats 1h prior to CdCl2 exposure (at a Cd dose of 0.6mg/kg). TMP reversed Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, evidenced by the relatively normal architecture of the renal cortex. Additionally, TMP alleviated renal oxidative stress of rats that were exposed to Cd, evidenced by the decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), elevated levels of glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG (glutathione disulfide) ratios...
July 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710117/genetic-and-epigenetic-drivers-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-net
#14
Annunziata Di Domenico, Tabea Wiedmer, Ilaria Marinoni, Aurel Perren
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract and the lung are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors. The molecular characterization and the clinical classification of these tumors have been evolving slowly and show differences according to organs of origin. Novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing revealed new molecular aspects of NET over the last years. Notably, whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) approaches underlined the very low mutation rate of well differentiated NET of all organs compared to other malignancies, while the engagement of epigenetic changes in driving NET evolution is emerging...
July 14, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707396/role-of-abnormal-repolarization-in-the-mechanism-of-cardiac-arrhythmia
#15
O E Osadchii
In cardiac patients, life-threatening tachyarrhythmia is often precipitated by abnormal changes in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. Repolarization abnormalities typically evolve as a consequence of impaired function of outward K(+) currents in cardiac myocytes, which may be caused by genetic defects or result from various acquired pathophysiological conditions, including electrical remodelling in cardiac disease, ion channel modulation by clinically used pharmacological agents, and systemic electrolyte disorders seen in heart failure, such as hypokalaemia...
July 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#16
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705316/cell-specific-pathways-supporting-persistent-fibrosis-in-heart-failure
#17
Stephen D Farris, Creighton Don, Deri Helterline, Christopher Costa, Tabitha Plummer, Susanne Steffes, Claudius Mahr, Nahush A Mokadam, April Stempien-Otero
BACKGROUND: Only limited data exist describing the histologic and noncardiomyocyte function of human myocardium in end-stage heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine changes in noncardiomyocyte cellular activity in patients with end-stage HF after left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-induced remodeling to identify mechanisms impeding recovery. METHODS: Myocardium was obtained from subjects undergoing LVAD placement and/or heart transplantation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704420/relation-between-high-levels-of-myeloperoxidase-in-the-culprit-artery-and-microvascular-obstruction-infarct-size-and-reverse-remodeling-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#18
Karim Stamboul, Marianne Zeller, Luc Rochette, Yves Cottin, Alexandre Cochet, Thibault Leclercq, Guillaume Porot, Charles Guenancia, Marie Fichot, Nicolas Maillot, Catherine Vergely, Luc Lorgis
MAIN OBJECTIVE: To better understand the role of myeloperoxidases (MPO) in microvascular obstruction (MO) phenomenon and infarct size (IS) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHOD: 40 consecutive patients classified according to the median level of MPO in the culprit artery. A CMR study was performed during the week following AMI and at 6 months, with late gadolinium enhancement sequences. RESULTS: Persistent MO was observed in the same proportion (50 vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704260/%C3%AE-solanine-reverses-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-angiogenesis-in-experimental-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#19
Xiaowei Nie, Youai Dai, Jianxin Tan, Yuan Chen, Guowei Qin, Wenjun Mao, Jian Zou, Yanhua Chang, Qian Wang, Jingyu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Similar to cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, which leads to obliteration of the small pulmonary arteriole, with marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and/or endothelial cells dysfunction. Aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes is closely associated with susceptibility to PAH. We hypothesized that α-solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in members of the nightshade family known to have antitumor activity in different cancers, reverses experimental PAH by activating the tumor suppressor-axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701554/evolution-of-ageing-costs-of-reproduction-and-the-fecundity-longevity-trade-off-in-eusocial-insects
#20
Pierre Blacher, Timothy J Huggins, Andrew F G Bourke
Eusocial insects provide special opportunities to elucidate the evolution of ageing as queens have apparently evaded costs of reproduction and reversed the fecundity-longevity trade-off generally observed in non-social organisms. But how reproduction affects longevity in eusocial insects has rarely been tested experimentally. In this study, we took advantage of the reproductive plasticity of workers to test the causal role of reproduction in determining longevity in eusocial insects. Using the eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we found that, in whole colonies, in which workers could freely 'choose' whether to become reproductive, workers' level of ovarian activation was significantly positively associated with longevity and ovary-active workers significantly outlived ovary-inactive workers...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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