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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720880/pattern-of-retinal-morphological-and-functional-decay-in-a-light-inducible-rhodopsin-mutant-mouse
#1
Claudia Gargini, Elena Novelli, Ilaria Piano, Martina Biagioni, Enrica Strettoi
Hallmarks of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a family of genetic diseases, are a typical rod-cone-degeneration with initial night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, followed by decreased daylight sight and progressive visual acuity loss up to legal blindness. Great heterogeneity in nature and function of mutated genes, variety of mutations for each of them, variability in phenotypic appearance and transmission modality contribute to make RP a still incurable disease. Translational research relies on appropriate animal models mimicking the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the human pathology...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715957/the-transduction-cascade-in-retinal-on-bipolar-cells-signal-processing-and-disease
#2
Kirill A Martemyanov, Alapakkam P Sampath
Our robust visual experience is based on the reliable transfer of information from our photoreceptor cells, the rods and cones, to higher brain centers. At the very first synapse of the visual system, information is split into two separate pathways, ON and OFF, which encode increments and decrements in light intensity, respectively. The importance of this segregation is borne out in the fact that receptive fields in higher visual centers maintain a separation between ON and OFF regions. In the past decade, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of ON signals have been identified, which is unique in its use of a G-protein signaling cascade...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706175/-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-falls-in-tertiary-hospital-inpatients
#3
Eun Ju Choi, Young Shin Lee, Eun Jung Yang, Ji Hui Kim, Yeon Hee Kim, Hyeoun Ae Park
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore characteristics of and risk factors for accidental inpatient falls. METHODS: Participants were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on the fall history of inpatients in a tertiary hospital in Seoul between June 2014 and May 2015. Data on falls were obtained from the fall report forms and data on risk factors were obtained from the electronic nursing records. Characteristics of fallers and non-fallers were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681906/refractive-changes-induced-by-spherical-aberration-in-laser-correction-procedures-an-adaptive-optics-study
#4
Alfredo Amigó, Paula Martinez-Sorribes, Margarita Recuerda
PURPOSE: To study the effect on vision of induced negative and positive spherical aberration within the range of laser vision correction procedures. METHODS: In 10 eyes (mean age: 35.8 years) under cyclopegic conditions, spherical aberration values from -0.75 to +0.75 µm in 0.25-µm steps were induced by an adaptive optics system. Astigmatism and spherical refraction were corrected, whereas the other natural aberrations remained untouched. Visual acuity, depth of focus defined as the interval of vision for which the target was still perceived acceptable, contrast sensitivity, and change in spherical refraction associated with the variation in pupil diameter from 6 to 2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671403/refractive-eye-surgery-helping-patients-make-informed-decisions-about-lasik
#5
John M Wilkinson, Elizabeth W Cozine, Amir R Kahn
A variety of refractive surgery techniques, which reshape the corneal stroma using laser energy, have been marketed as simple and safe alternatives to glasses or contact lenses. Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common of these procedures. Although there are few high-quality prospective studies of long-term outcomes, complications, or stability for refractive surgery procedures, there is at least general agreement that more than 90% of appropriately selected patients achieve excellent uncorrected distance vision...
May 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644816/fast-and-accurate-poisson-denoising-with-trainable-nonlinear-diffusion
#6
Wensen Feng, Peng Qiao, Yunjin Chen
The degradation of the acquired signal by Poisson noise is a common problem for various imaging applications, such as medical imaging, night vision, and microscopy. Up to now, many state-of-the-art Poisson denoising techniques mainly concentrate on achieving utmost performance, with little consideration for the computation efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we aim to propose an efficient Poisson denoising model with both high computational efficiency and recovery quality. To this end, we exploit the newly developed trainable nonlinear reaction diffusion (TNRD) model which has proven an extremely fast image restoration approach with performance surpassing recent state-of-the-arts...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643494/identification-of-pathogenic-variants-in-the-chm-gene-in-two-korean-patients-with-choroideremia
#7
Kunho Bae, Ju Sun Song, Chung Lee, Nayoung K D Kim, Woong Yang Park, Byoung Joon Kim, Chang Seok Ki, Sang Jin Kim
Choroideremia is a rare X-linked disorder causing progressive chorioretinal atrophy. Affected patients develop night blindness with progressive peripheral vision loss and eventual blindness. Herein, we report two Korean families with choroideremia. Multimodal imaging studies showed that the probands had progressive loss of visual field with characteristic chorioretinal atrophy, while electroretinography demonstrated nearly extinguished cone and rod responses compatible with choroideremia. Sanger sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intronic regions of the CHM gene revealed a novel small deletion at a splice site (c...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623820/spectral-selectivity-model-for-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#8
Igor Khmelinskii, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Mikhail Inyushin, Lidia Zueva, Vladimir Makarov
Presently we continue our studies of the quantum mechanism of light energy transmission in the form of excitons by axisymmetric nanostructures with electrically conductive walls. Using our theoretical model, we analyzed the light energy transmission by biopolymers forming optical channels within retinal Müller cells. There are specialized intermediate filaments (IF) 10-18nm in diameter, built of electrically conductive polypeptides. Presently, we analyzed the spectral selectivity of these nanostructures. We found that their transmission spectrum depends on their diameter and wall thickness...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619486/extended-depth-of-focus-contact-lenses-vs-two-commercial-multifocals-part-2-visual-performance-after-1-week-of-lens-wear
#9
Ravi C Bakaraju, Daniel Tilia, Jennifer Sha, Jennie Diec, Jiyoon Chung, Danny Kho, Shona Delaney, Anna Munro, Varghese Thomas
PURPOSE: To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. METHODS: In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617310/development-of-an-automatic-testing-platform-for-aviator-s-night-vision-goggle-honeycomb-defect-inspection
#10
Bo-Lin Jian, Chao-Chung Peng
Due to the direct influence of night vision equipment availability on the safety of night-time aerial reconnaissance, maintenance needs to be carried out regularly. Unfortunately, some defects are not easy to observe or are not even detectable by human eyes. As a consequence, this study proposed a novel automatic defect detection system for aviator's night vision imaging systems AN/AVS-6(V)1 and AN/AVS-6(V)2. An auto-focusing process consisting of a sharpness calculation and a gradient-based variable step search method is applied to achieve an automatic detection system for honeycomb defects...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586495/meta-analysis-of-the-fda-reports-on-patient-reported-outcomes-using-the-three-latest-platforms-for-lasik
#11
Majid Moshirfar, Tirth J Shah, David Franklin Skanchy, Steve H Linn, Daniel S Durrie
PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of the three latest U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers on patient-reported outcomes after LASIK. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of patient-reported FDA data, an aggregated total of 718 eyes undergoing LASIK using VISX iDesign (Abbott Medical Optics Manufacturing, Milpitas, CA), Alcon Contoura (Alcon Research, Ltd., Fort Worth, TX), and Nidek CATz (Nidek Co. Ltd., Gamagori, Japan) lasers were evaluated for overall changes in visual symptoms postoperatively...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574003/antiretinal-antibody-proven-autoimmune-retinopathy
#12
Sharanya Abraham, S Sudharshan, Muna Bhende, Sudha K Ganesh, Sriram Gopal
A young female presented with bilateral subacute onset of progressive decrease in night vision and reduced peripheral field of vision. The short duration and rapid progression of symptoms along with the lack of family history of night blindness prompted a diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR). Fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, visual fields, and electroretinogram were suggestive of AIR. A differential diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was also made. Antiretinal autoantibodies were detected in the blood sample...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564700/nighttime-driving-in-older-adults-effects-of-glare-and-association-with-mesopic-visual-function
#13
Janessa A Kimlin, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
Purpose: To examine the associations between nighttime driving performance of older drivers and photopic, mesopic, and glare-based tests of visual function. Methods: Participants included 26 older drivers (71.8 ± 6.3 years), with minimal or no eye disease, but who reported vision-related nighttime driving difficulties. Nighttime driving performance was assessed on a closed-road circuit, which included intermittent glare. An overall driving performance score was calculated based on detection of signs, pedestrians, wooden animals and road markings, lane-keeping, and avoidance of low contrast hazards...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531101/phrog-a-multimodal-feature-for-place-recognition
#14
Fabien Bonardi, Samia Ainouz, Rémi Boutteau, Yohan Dupuis, Xavier Savatier, Pascal Vasseur
Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different spectral ranges. For instance, an infrared camera is helpful for night vision in combination with a visible camera. In this paper, we emphasize our work on testing usual feature point extractors under both constraints: repeatability across spectral ranges and long-term appearance...
May 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511025/co-inheritance-of-the-membrane-frizzled-related-protein-ocular-phenotype-and-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib
#15
Maha Mameesh, Anuradha Ganesh, Beena Harikrishna, Sana Al Zuhaibi, Patrick Scott, Sami Al Kalbani, Khalid Al Thihli
AIM: To report co-occurrence of two rare recessive conditions, the membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP)-related ocular phenotype and glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b), in three siblings in an Omani family. BACKGROUND: Biallelic mutations in the MFRP gene (chromosome 11q23) result in a distinct ocular phenotype characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, foveoschisis, optic nerve head drusen, and posterior microphthalmos. GSD-1b is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in SLC37A4 gene located in the same chromosomal region...
May 16, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490481/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-chronic-malabsorption-an-ophthalmic-manifestation-of-a-systemic-condition
#16
James Cheshire, Sai Kolli
A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral corneal xerosis, bilateral Bitot's spots and inferior ulceration of the right cornea...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488860/flexible-and-highly-photosensitive-electrolyte-gated-organic-transistors-with-ionogel-silver-nanowire-membranes
#17
Haihua Xu, QingQing Zhu, Ying Lv, Kan Deng, Yinghua Deng, Qiaoliang Li, Suwen Qi, Wenwen Chen, Huisheng Zhang
Flexible and low-voltage photosensors with high near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for realization of interacting humans with robots and environments by thermal imaging or night vision techniques. In this work, we for the first time develop an easy and cost-effective process to fabricate flexible and ultrathin electrolyte-gated organic phototransistors (EGOPTs) with high transparent nanocomposite membranes of high-conductivity silver nanowire (AgNW) networks and large-capacitance iontronic films. A high responsivity of 1...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481301/convolutional-neural-network-based-human-detection-in-nighttime-images-using-visible-light-camera-sensors
#18
Jong Hyun Kim, Hyung Gil Hong, Kang Ryoung Park
Because intelligent surveillance systems have recently undergone rapid growth, research on accurately detecting humans in videos captured at a long distance is growing in importance. The existing research using visible light cameras has mainly focused on methods of human detection for daytime hours when there is outside light, but human detection during nighttime hours when there is no outside light is difficult. Thus, methods that employ additional near-infrared (NIR) illuminators and NIR cameras or thermal cameras have been used...
May 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424296/cell-type-specific-changes-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-induced-by-rod-death-and-cone-reorganization-in-rats
#19
Wan-Qing Yu, Norberto M Grzywacz, Eun-Jin Lee, Greg D Field
We have determined the impact of rod death and cone reorganization on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (RFs) and spontaneous activity of distinct RGC types.  We compared RGC function between healthy and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) model rats (S334ter-3) at a time when nearly all rods were lost, but cones remained. This allowed us to determine the impact of rod death on cone-mediated visual signaling -- a relevant time point because the diagnosis of RP frequently occurs when patients are night-blind, but daytime vision persists...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417841/benign-episodic-unilateral-mydriasis-in-a-flight-nurse
#20
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: Benign episodic unilateral mydriasis is one cause of anisocoria. This phenomenon is thought to be related to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. There is a documented association with migraines, but asymptomatic cases have also been reported. A challenge with all cases is the level of investigation required to exclude more sinister causes of nervous system dysfunction. In a dynamic flight environment, additional considerations need to be made, such as varying light levels and use of night vision devices...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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