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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059259/ge-sub-0-975-sub-sn-sub-0-025-sub-320%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-256-imager-chip-for-1-6-1-9%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-infrared-vision
#1
Chiao Chang, Hui Li, Chien-Te Ku, Shih-Guo Yang, Hung Hsiang Cheng, Joshua Hendrickson, Richard A Soref, Greg Sun
We report the experimental fabrication and testing of a GeSn-based 320×256 image sensor focal plane array operating at -15°C in the 1.6-1.9 μm spectral range. For image readout, the 2D pixel array of Ge/GeSn/Ge p-i-n heterophotodiodes was flip-chip bonded to a customized silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit. The resulting camera chip was operated using back-side illumination. Successful imaging of a tungsten-filament light bulb was attained with observation of gray-scale "hot spot" infrared features not seen using a visible-light camera...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057410/out-of-the-ground-two-coexisting-fossorial-toad-species-differ-in-their-emergence-and-movement-patterns
#2
Diana Székely, Dan Cogălniceanu, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël
Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051986/wavefront-guided-versus-wavefront-optimized-photorefractive-keratectomy-visual-and-military-task-performance
#3
Denise S Ryan, Rose K Sia, Richard D Stutzman, Joseph F Pasternak, Robin S Howard, Christopher L Howell, Tana Maurer, Mark F Torres, Kraig S Bower
PURPOSE: To compare visual performance, marksmanship performance, and threshold target identification following wavefront-guided (WFG) versus wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, active duty U.S. military Soldiers, age 21 or over, electing to undergo PRK were randomized to undergo WFG (n = 27) or WFO (n = 27) PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism. Binocular visual performance was assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively: Super Vision Test high contrast, Super Vision Test contrast sensitivity (CS), and 25% contrast acuity with night vision goggle filter...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011820/importance-of-the-antenniform-legs-but-not-vision-for-homing-by-the-neotropical-whip-spider-paraphrynus-laevifrons
#4
Verner P Bingman, Jacob M Graving, Eileen A Hebets, Daniel D Wiegmann
Amplypygids, or whip spiders, are nocturnal, predatory arthropods that display a robust ability to navigate to their home refuge. Prior field observations and displacement studies in amblypygids demonstrated an ability to home from distances as far away as 10 meters. In the current study, micro-transmitters were used to take morning position fixes of individual Paraphrynus laevifrons following an experimental displacement of 10 m from their home refuge. The intent was to assess the relative importance of vision compared to sensory input acquired from the antenniform legs for navigation as well as other aspects of their spatial behavior...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003982/assessment-of-contrast-sensitivity-loss-after-intrastromal-femtosecond-laser-and-lasik-procedure
#5
Elsa L C Mai, Ie-Bin Lian, David C K Chang
AIM: To assess the loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) function for INTRACOR or intrastromal femtosecond laser presbyopia procedure to conventional LASIK procedures. METHODS: Patients were recruited from a refractive surgery center for either INTRACOR or conventional LASIK. INTRACOR was performed on 8 eyes and LASIK was performed for 40 eyes in an overlapping period. Pre-operative evaluation and post-operative follow up for up to three months was done. Drops of CS in 4 spatial frequency (3 cpd, 6 cpd, 12 cpd and 18 cpd) right before and 3mo after the surgery were compared by Wilcoxon signed ranks test...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002560/clinical-characteristics-mutation-spectrum-and-prevalence-of-%C3%A3-land-eye-disease-incomplete-congenital-stationary-night-blindness-in-denmark
#6
Marianne N Hove, Kevser Z Kilic-Biyik, Alana Trotter, Karen Grønskov, Birgit Sander, Michael Larsen, Joseph Carroll, Torben Bech-Hansen, Thomas Rosenberg
Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from 1980 to 2014. A subset of affected males underwent ophthalmologic examinations including psychophysical tests, full-field electroretinography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993590/prevalence-of-anti-retinal-antibodies-in-acute-zonal-occult-outer-retinopathy-azoor-a-comprehensive-review-of-25-cases
#7
Cynthia X Qian, Angeline Wang, David L DeMill, Thiran Jayasundera, Kari Branham, Maria Fernanda Abalem, Naheed Khan, John R Heckenlively
PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive review and to investigate the presence and role of autoimmune antibodies in 25 cases of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) identified using the classification originally proposed by J.Donald Gass. DESIGN: Observational case series METHODS: Setting: Institutional Study Population: Twenty-five patients were identified by characteristic symptoms (abrupt onset of photopsias, followed by large scotomata at or connected to the blind spot), ocular findings (paucity of pigmentary changes with no sign of vitreous inflammation and abnormal electroretinogram in at least one eye,) and a negative family history for retinitis pigmentosa...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965823/feasibility-of-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-rct-and-concurrent-observational-sub-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-modified-ward-night-lighting-on-inpatient-fall-rates-and-sleep-quality-a-protocol-for-a-pilot-trial
#8
Satyan R Chari, Simon Smith, Alison Mudge, Alex A Black, Mariana Figueiro, Muhtashimuddin Ahmed, Mark Devitt, Terry P Haines
BACKGROUND: Falls among hospitalised patients impose a considerable burden on health systems globally and prevention is a priority. Some patient-level interventions have been effective in reducing falls, but others have not. An alternative and promising approach to reducing inpatient falls is through the modification of the hospital physical environment and the night lighting of hospital wards is a leading candidate for investigation. In this pilot trial, we will determine the feasibility of conducting a main trial to evaluate the effects of modified night lighting on inpatient ward level fall rates...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957338/comparison-of-the-optical-quality-between-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-and-femtosecond-laser-lasik
#9
Ying Jin, Yan Wang, Lulu Xu, Tong Zuo, Hua Li, Rui Dou, Jiamei Zhang
Purpose. To investigate the visual quality after SMILE and Femto-LASIK. Methods. About 123 eyes from 63 patients were enrolled in this study. The parameters were measured preoperatively and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively using Sirius System. Results. The MTF curve increase slightly from low to high frequency at 3 mm and 6 mm pupil diameter after SMILE surgery (P < 0.05) during the follow-up time comparing with the preoperative values. And the SR has a significant increase at various pupil diameters as well (P < 0...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932862/role-of-the-treating-surgeon-in-the-consent-process-for-elective-refractive-surgery
#10
Steven C Schallhorn, Stephen J Hannan, David Teenan, Julie M Schallhorn
PURPOSE: To compare patient's perception of consent quality, clinical and quality-of-life outcomes after laser vision correction (LVC) and refractive lens exchange (RLE) between patients who met their treating surgeon prior to the day of surgery (PDOS) or on the day of surgery (DOS). DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative case series. SETTING: Optical Express, Glasgow, UK. METHODS: Patients treated between October 2015 and June 2016 (3972 LVC and 979 RLE patients) who attended 1-day and 1-month postoperative aftercare and answered a questionnaire were included in this study...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906097/a-10-year-old-child-presenting-with-syndromic-paucity-of-bile-ducts-alagille-syndrome-a-case-report
#11
Girish Kumar Pati, Ayaskanta Singh, Preetam Nath, Jimmy Narayan, Pradeep Kumar Padhi, Prasanta Kumar Parida, Kaumudee Pattnaik, Chittaranjan Panda, Shivaram Prasad Singh
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission, manifests with five major features: paucity of interlobular bile ducts, characteristic facies, posterior embryotoxon, vertebral defects, and peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Globally, only 500 cases have so far been reported, with only five cases reported in the Indian subcontinent. Rarely, Alagille syndrome also presents with skin manifestations and early-onset chronic liver disease, which was found in our case...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905344/concurrent-retinitis-pigmentosa-and-pigmented-paravenous-retinochoroidal-atrophy-phenotypes-in-the-same-patient
#12
Dhanashree Ratra, Dhileesh P Chandrasekharan, P Aruldas, Vineet Ratra
We report a unique case of a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) phenotype in one eye and pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) phenotype in the other eye. We describe in detail the symptoms, clinical findings, and investigations done for a 32-year-old Indian woman. This patient had phenotypical picture resembling typical RP in the right eye, with characteristic symptoms of night blindness and constricted field of vision and a nonrecordable electroretinogram (ERG). The left eye of the same patient revealed typical PPRCA phenotype, with no night blindness, normal field, and normal ERG...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868168/use-perceptions-and-benefits-of-automotive-technologies-among-aging-drivers
#13
REVIEW
David W Eby, Lisa J Molnar, Liang Zhang, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Sergiu Stanciu
Advanced in-vehicle technologies have been proposed as a potential way to keep older adults driving for as long as they can safely do so, by taking into account the common declines in functional abilities experienced by older adults. The purpose of this report was to synthesize the knowledge about older drivers and advanced in-vehicle technologies, focusing on three areas: use (how older drivers use these technologies), perception (what they think about the technologies), and outcomes (the safety and/or comfort benefits of the technologies)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845062/myopic-defocus-in-the-evening-is-more-effective-at-inhibiting-eye-growth-than-defocus-in-the-morning-effects-on-rhythms-in-axial-length-and-choroid-thickness-in-chicks
#14
Debora L Nickla, Pearl Thai, Rinita Zanzerkia Trahan, Kristen Totonelly
Animal models have shown that myopic defocus is a potent inhibitor of ocular growth: brief (1-2 h) daily periods of defocus are sufficient to counter the effects of much longer periods of hyperopic defocus, or emmetropic vision. While the variables of duration and frequency have been well-documented with regard to effect, we ask whether the efficacy of the exposures might also depend on the time of day that they are given. We also ask whether there are differential effects on the rhythms in axial length or choroidal thickness...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828202/night-vision-integrated-performance-model-impact-of-a-recent-change-on-the-model-s-predictive-accuracy
#15
Richard Vollmerhausen
The U. S. Army has adopted the targeting task performance (TTP) image quality metric for formal analyses of electro-optical imager performance. The most recent release of the model, NVIPM, changes the way TTP is calculated in order to improve the accuracy of facial identification. Predictions of the original and modified models are compared to both laboratory and field data. The change degrades NVIPM predictive accuracy for the tactical vehicle target set which is often used in hardware procurement specifications...
October 17, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820927/south-american-weakly-electric-fish-gymnotiformes-are-long-wavelength-sensitive-cone-monochromats
#16
Da-Wei Liu, Ying Lu, Hong Young Yan, Harold H Zakon
Losses of cone opsin genes are noted in animals that are nocturnal or rely on senses other than vision. We investigated the cone opsin repertoire of night-active South American weakly electric fish. We obtained opsin gene sequences from genomic DNA of 3 gymnotiforms (Eigenmannia virescens, Sternopygus macrurus, Apteronotus albifrons) and the assembled genome of the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). We identified genes for long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) and medium-wavelength-sensitive cone opsins (RH2) and rod opsins (RH1)...
November 8, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810175/altered-sleep-wake-patterns-in-blindness-a-combined-actigraphy-and-psychometric-study
#17
S Aubin, C Gacon, P Jennum, M Ptito, R Kupers
OBJECTIVE: Light plays an important role in the synchronization of the internal biological clock and the environmental day/night pattern. Thus, absence of vision is often associated with both increases in reported sleep disturbances and incidence of free-running circadian rhythms. In this study we discuss variability in the sleep-wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. METHODS: Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls...
August 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800277/objective-determination-of-retinal-function-in-bietti-crystalline-retinopathy
#18
Dorukcan Akıncıoğlu, Ümit Yolcu, Abdullah İlhan, Fatih Çakır Gündoğan
A 44-year-old female patient without any known systemic or ocular disease presented with progressive visual loss and night vision disturbance. Visual acuity was 0.6 in the right eye and 0.2 in the left eye. Tiny, yellow crystalline deposits were seen on fundus examination. In addition, areas of retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris atrophy were detected. Rod and cone responses were depressed in full-field flash electroretinogram. Multifocal electroretinogram testing showed severe foveal function disturbance with less severe but still depressed responses toward the periphery...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796129/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycythaemia-vera-state-of-the-art
#19
Imelda Marton, Zsófia Simon, Zita Borbényi
Polycythaemia vera (PV), a condition characterized by blood hyperviscosity due to the expansion of the erythrocyte mass is the most common entity among all Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Arterial and venous thrombotic events are leading determinants of morbidity and mortality but impairment of quality of life due to vasomotor symptoms (erythromelalgia, pruritus) and disease-associated symptoms (tiredness, fatigue, pruritus, night sweats, vision problems, headache, concentration loss, abdominal discomfort, early satiety, fever, weight loss) are also present...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779951/neck-muscle-strain-in-air-force-pilots-wearing-night-vision-goggles
#20
Magnus Wallquist Pousette, Riccardo Lo Martire, Jan Linder, Mats Kristoffersson, Björn O Äng
INTRODUCTION: Flight-induced neck pain is common in high performance jet pilots, with incidents frequently attributed to high Gz flight maneuvers. The additional load of helmet-mounted night vision goggles (NVG) is believed to increase the risk, possibly from neck muscle strain in counteracting muscles. Hence, the aim was to investigate the effect of NVG on neck muscle strain as well as on the activity level distribution through a simulated flight session in air force pilots. METHODS: In this post hoc randomized crossover trial, four senior air force pilots each completed two identical 1...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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