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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424296/cell-type-specific-changes-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-induced-by-rod-death-and-cone-reorganization-in-rats
#1
Wan-Qing Yu, Norberto M Grzywacz, Eun-Jin Lee, Greg D Field
We have determined the impact of rod death and cone reorganization on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (RFs) and spontaneous activity of distinct RGC types.  We compared RGC function between healthy and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) model rats (S334ter-3) at a time when nearly all rods were lost, but cones remained. This allowed us to determine the impact of rod death on cone-mediated visual signaling -- a relevant time point because the diagnosis of RP frequently occurs when patients are night-blind, but daytime vision persists...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417841/benign-episodic-unilateral-mydriasis-in-a-flight-nurse
#2
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: Benign episodic unilateral mydriasis is one cause of anisocoria. This phenomenon is thought to be related to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. There is a documented association with migraines, but asymptomatic cases have also been reported. A challenge with all cases is the level of investigation required to exclude more sinister causes of nervous system dysfunction. In a dynamic flight environment, additional considerations need to be made, such as varying light levels and use of night vision devices...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417832/color-vision-in-color-display-night-vision-goggles
#3
Eric P Liggins, William P Serle
INTRODUCTION: Aircrew viewing eyepiece-injected symbology on color display night vision goggles (CDNVGs) are performing a visual task involving color under highly unnatural viewing conditions. Their performance in discriminating different colors and responding to color cues is unknown. METHODS: Experimental laboratory measurements of 1) color discrimination and 2) visual search performance are reported under adaptation conditions representative of a CDNVG. Color discrimination was measured using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm that probes color space uniformly around a white point...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407161/preliminary-evidence-of-successful-near-vision-enhancement-with-a-new-technique-presbyopic-allogenic-refractive-lenticule-pearl-corneal-inlay-using-a-smile-lenticule
#4
Soosan Jacob, Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Ramalingam Aravind, A I Saijimol
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique (PrEsbyopic Allogenic Refractive Lenticule [PEARL] inlay) using an allogenic corneal inlay prepared from a small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) lenticule. METHODS: A SMILE lenticule of specified thickness (mean: 61.5 ± 3.32 µm) was trephined at the center to 1-mm diameter and implanted in the cornea on the coaxially sighted light reflex under a femtosecond laser-created cap of 120 µm in the nondominant eye of presbyopic patients...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371363/diurnal-expression-of-proteins-in-the-retina-of-the-blind-cone-rod-homeobox-crx-mouse-and-the-129-sv-mouse-a-proteomic-study
#5
Morten Møller, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Maja Ludvigsen, Bent Honoré, Henrik Vorum
PURPOSE: The vertebrate retina contains a circadian clock participating in adaptations to day and night vision. This peripheral clock is independent of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retinal clock is located in several cell types, including the photoreceptors. To investigate the role of the circadian clock of the photoreceptor cells in regulation of retinal protein rhythms, we analysed diurnal protein expression in the photoreceptor-deficient cone-rod homeobox knockout mouse (Crx(-/-) ) and the 129/Sv mouse...
March 28, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367499/the-effect-of-multispectral-image-fusion-enhancement-on-human-efficiency
#6
Jennifer L Bittner, M Trent Schill, Fairul Mohd-Zaid, Leslie M Blaha
The visual system can be highly influenced by changes to visual presentation. Thus, numerous techniques have been developed to augment imagery in an attempt to improve human perception. The current paper examines the potential impact of one such enhancement, multispectral image fusion, where imagery captured in varying spectral bands (e.g., visible, thermal, night vision) is algorithmically combined to produce an output to strengthen visual perception. We employ ideal observer analysis over a series of experimental conditions to (1) establish a framework for testing the impact of image fusion over the varying aspects surrounding its implementation (e...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361169/magnetic-activation-in-the-brain-of-the-migratory-northern-wheatear-oenanthe-oenanthe
#7
D Elbers, M Bulte, F Bairlein, H Mouritsen, D Heyers
Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests the involvement of the visual and trigeminal sensory systems in avian magnetoreception. The constantly growing array of new genetic approaches becoming available to scientists would bear great potential to contribute to a generally accepted understanding of the mechanisms underlying this ability, but would require to breed migratory birds in captivity. Here we show that the transcontinental night-migratory Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), which is currently the only migratory songbird successfully being bred in reasonable numbers in captivity, shows magnetic-field-induced neuronal activation in the trigeminal brainstem areas receiving their input through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356705/novel-splice-site-mutation-in-ttll5-causes-cone-dystrophy-in-a-consanguineous-family
#8
Miguel de Sousa Dias, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Meunier, Juliette Varin, Steven Blanchard, Fiona Boyard, José-Alain Sahel, Christina Zeitz
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and genetic findings of one family with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy (CD) and to identify the causative mutation. METHODS: An institutional study of three family members from two generations. The clinical examination included best-corrected Snellen visual acuity measurement, fundoscopy, the Farnsworth D-15 color vision test, a full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that incorporated the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards and methodology, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and infrared (IR), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317678/quality-of-vision-after-wavefront-guided-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-or-photorefractive-keratectomy-contralateral-eye-evaluation
#9
Michele D Lee, Edward E Manche
PURPOSE: To compare quality of vision between laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). SETTING: Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHODS: Patients had refractive surgery, with 1 eye treated with LASIK and the other with PRK. Eyes were randomized for dominance. The patients completed a questionnaire assessing quality of vision in each eye at the initial visit and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively...
January 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296131/the-reproductive-strategy-and-the-vibrational-duet-of-the-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the
#10
Rachele Nieri, Valerio Mazzoni
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24-hour period enabled us to detect and describe two male and one female signal...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291200/-stabilizing-effect-of-orthokeratology-lenses-ten-year-follow-up-results
#11
E P Tarutta, T Yu Verzhanskaya
The global prevalence of myopia in adults varies between 20-50% in Europe and the US and 60-90% in Asian countries. According to WHO, myopia is one of the five leading causes of blindness and low vision in the world. Prevention or deceleration of myopia progression is an important public health problem. In recent years, orthokeratology (ortho-k) contact lenses worn at night have been found effective in slowing down the progression of myopia, however, the follow-up period in related studies is no longer than five years...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289227/naturally-occurring-fluorescence-in-frogs
#12
Carlos Taboada, Andrés E Brunetti, Federico N Pedron, Fausto Carnevale Neto, Darío A Estrin, Sara E Bari, Lucía B Chemes, Norberto Peporine Lopes, María G Lagorio, Julián Faivovich
Fluorescence, the absorption of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation reemitted at longer wavelengths, has been suggested to play several biological roles in metazoans. This phenomenon is uncommon in tetrapods, being restricted mostly to parrots and marine turtles. We report fluorescence in amphibians, in the tree frog Hypsiboas punctatus, showing that fluorescence in living frogs is produced by a combination of lymph and glandular emission, with pigmentary cell filtering in the skin. The chemical origin of fluorescence was traced to a class of fluorescent compounds derived from dihydroisoquinolinone, here named hyloins...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260368/-research-progress-of-treatment-strategies-for-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
T W Qian, X Xu
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary retinal disorders characterized by photoreceptor cell death, associated with night blindness, vision loss, progressive peripheral visual field loss and abnormalities in the electroretinogram. A number of gene defects have so far been associated with RP, which cause a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor function, followed by cone photoreceptor dysfunction and eventually complete blindness. The rate of blindness related to RP is high...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251083/predictive-factors-for-photic-phenomena-after-refractive-rotationally-asymmetric-multifocal-intraocular-lens-implantation
#14
Hungwon Tchah, Kiyeun Nam, Aeri Yoo
AIM: To investigate the independent factors associated with photic phenomena in patients implanted with refractive, rotationally asymmetric, multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs). METHODS: Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients who underwent unilateral cataract surgery, followed by implantation of rotationally asymmetric MIOLs were included. Distance and near visual acuity outcomes, intraocular aberrations, preferred reading distances, preoperative and postoperative refractive errors, mesopic and photopic pupil diameters, and the mesopic and photopic kappa angles were assessed...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193823/stellar-performance-mechanisms-underlying-milky-way-orientation-in-dung-beetles
#15
James J Foster, Basil El Jundi, Jochen Smolka, Lana Khaldy, Dan-Eric Nilsson, Marcus J Byrne, Marie Dacke
Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193821/insect-photoreceptor-adaptations-to-night-vision
#16
REVIEW
Anna Honkanen, Esa-Ville Immonen, Iikka Salmela, Kyösti Heimonen, Matti Weckström
Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193813/subtle-changes-in-the-landmark-panorama-disrupt-visual-navigation-in-a-nocturnal-bull-ant
#17
Ajay Narendra, Fiorella Ramirez-Esquivel
The ability of ants to navigate when the visual landmark information is altered has often been tested by creating large and artificial discrepancies in their visual environment. Here, we had an opportunity to slightly modify the natural visual environment around the nest of the nocturnal bull ant Myrmecia pyriformis We achieved this by felling three dead trees, two located along the typical route followed by the foragers of that particular nest and one in a direction perpendicular to their foraging direction...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193809/living-in-the-dark-does-not-mean-a-blind-life-bird-and-mammal-visual-communication-in-dim-light
#18
REVIEW
Vincenzo Penteriani, María Del Mar Delgado
For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193808/the-remarkable-visual-capacities-of-nocturnal-insects-vision-at-the-limits-with-small-eyes-and-tiny-brains
#19
REVIEW
Eric J Warrant
Nocturnal insects have evolved remarkable visual capacities, despite small eyes and tiny brains. They can see colour, control flight and land, react to faint movements in their environment, navigate using dim celestial cues and find their way home after a long and tortuous foraging trip using learned visual landmarks. These impressive visual abilities occur at light levels when only a trickle of photons are being absorbed by each photoreceptor, begging the question of how the visual system nonetheless generates the reliable signals needed to steer behaviour...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191358/retinitis-pigmentosa-and-bilateral-idiopathic-demyelinating-optic-neuritis-in-a-6-year-old-boy-with-ofd1-gene-mutation
#20
Xun Wang, Cong Zheng, Wen Liu, Hui Yang
To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
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