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Night vision

Hadas Newman, Sergiu C Blumen, Itzhak Braverman, Rana Hanna, Beatrice Tiosano, Ido Perlman, Tamar Ben-Yosef
Purpose: To investigate the genetic basis for severe visual complaints by Bukharan Jewish patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing were used to test for NRL, PABPN1, and NR2E3 mutations. Complete ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence. Detailed electroretinography (ERG) testing was conducted including expanded International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol for light-adapted and dark-adapted conditions, measurements of S-cone function, and ON-OFF light-adapted ERG...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mauro Sassi, Nunzio Buccheri, Myles Rooney, Chiara Botta, Francesco Bruni, Umberto Giovanella, Sergio Brovelli, Luca Beverina
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yonghua Wu, Elizabeth A Hadly, Wenjia Teng, Yuyang Hao, Wei Liang, Yu Liu, Haitao Wang
Owls (Strigiformes) represent a fascinating group of birds that are the ecological night-time counterparts to diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes). The nocturnality of owls, unusual within birds, has favored an exceptional visual system that is highly tuned for hunting at night, yet the molecular basis for this adaptation is lacking. Here, using a comparative evolutionary analysis of 120 vision genes obtained by retinal transcriptome sequencing, we found strong positive selection for low-light vision genes in owls, which contributes to their remarkable nocturnal vision...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alex R Bowers, Sarah S Sheldon, Dawn K DeCarlo, Eli Peli
PURPOSE: To investigate the telescope use and driving patterns of bioptic drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A questionnaire addressing telescope use and driving patterns was administered by telephone interview to three groups of bioptic drivers: AMD (n = 31; median 76 years); non-AMD first licensed with a bioptic (n = 38; 53 years); and non-AMD first licensed without a bioptic (n = 47; 37 years). Driving patterns of bioptic AMD drivers were also compared with those of normal vision (NV) drivers (n = 36; 74 years) and nonbioptic AMD drivers (n = 34; 79 years)...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Doo-Seung Um, Youngsu Lee, Seongdong Lim, Jonghwa Park, Wen-Chun Yen, Yu-Lun Chueh, Hyung-Jun Kim, Hyunhyub Ko
Development of broadband photodetectors is of great importance for applications in high-capacity optical communication, night vision, and biomedical imaging systems. While heterostructured photodetectors can expand light detection range, fabrication of heterostructures via epitaxial growth or wafer bonding still faces significant challenges because of problems such as lattice and thermal mismatches. Here, a transfer printing technique is used for the heterogeneous integration of InGaAs nanomembranes on silicon semiconductors and thus the formation of van der Waals heterojunction photodiodes, which can enhance the spectral response and photoresponsivity of Si photodiodes...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jocelyn Cammack, John Whight, Vinette Cross, Andrew T Rider, Andrew R Webster, Andrew Stockman
An appreciation of the relation between laboratory measures of visual deficit and everyday perceptual experience is fundamental to understanding the impact of a visual condition on patients and so to a fuller characterization of the disorder. This study aims to understand better the interpretative processes by which modified sensory information is perceived by a patient with congenital stationary night blindness and the adaptive strategies that are devised to deal with their measurable visual loss. Psychophysical measurements of temporal resolution, spectral sensitivity, and color discrimination were conducted on a 78-year-old male patient with the condition, who was also interviewed at length about the ways in which his diagnosis affected his daily life...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Oluwatoyin Helen Onakpoya, Caroline Olufunlayo Adeoti, Tunji Sunday Oluleye, Iyiade Adeseye Ajayi, Timothy Majengbasan, Olayemi Kolawole Olorundare
BACKGROUND: To review the visual status and clinical presentation of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODOLOGY: Multicenter, retrospective, and analytical review was conducted of the visual status and clinical characteristics of patients with RP at first presentation from January 2007 to December 2011. Main outcome measure was the World Health Organization's visual status classification in relation to sex and age at presentation. Data analysis by SPSS (version 15) and statistical significance was assumed at P<0...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Andrea Barbieri, Elisa Bandini, Filippo Monti, Vakayil K Praveen, Nicola Armaroli
In recent years, the interest in near-infrared (NIR) emitting molecules and materials has increased significantly, thanks to the expansion of the potential technological applications of NIR luminescence in several areas such as bioimaging, sensors, telecommunications, and night-vision displays. This progress has been facilitated by the development of new synthetic routes for the targeted functionalization and expansion of established molecular frameworks and by the availability of simpler and cheaper NIR detectors...
August 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
John S M Chang, Vincent K C Chan, Jack C M Ng, Antony K P Law
Background. The vision with diffractive toric multifocal intraocular lenses after cataract surgery in long eyes has not been studied previously. Objectives. To report visual performance after bilateral implantation of a diffractive toric multifocal intraocular lens in high myopes. Methods. Prospective, observational case series to include patients with axial length of ≥26 mm and corneal astigmatism of >1 dioptre who underwent bilateral AT LISA 909M implantation. Postoperative examinations included photopic and mesopic distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity; photopic contrast sensitivity; visual symptoms (0-5); satisfaction (1-5); and spectacle independence rate...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
J Mehlan, J Steinberg, L Traber, T Katz, S J Linke
PURPOSE: To evaluate the objective and subjective outcome after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on recurrent corneal erosions (Hamburg protocol). METHODS: For the standardized PTK according to Hamburg protocol a manual abrasio corneae performed with 20 % alcohol is followed by an excimer ablation depth of ≥15 μm (group1 15 μm; group 2 > 15 μm ablation depth) and 7 mm optical zone. All patients (N = 48) were invited for follow-up examinations and the evaluation of changes concerning subjective symptoms...
October 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Daniel H Chang
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. METHODS: In this retrospective-prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50-81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Bruno F Simões, Filipa L Sampaio, Ronald H Douglas, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Nicholas R Casewell, Robert A Harrison, Nathan S Hart, Julian C Partridge, David M Hunt, David J Gower
Much of what is known about the molecular evolution of vertebrate vision comes from studies of mammals, birds and fish. Reptiles (especially snakes) have barely been sampled in previous studies despite their exceptional diversity of retinal photoreceptor complements. Here, we analyze opsin gene sequences and ocular media transmission for up to 69 species to investigate snake visual evolution. Most snakes express three visual opsin genes (rh1, sws1, and lws). These opsin genes (especially rh1 and sws1) have undergone much evolutionary change, including modifications of amino acid residues at sites of known importance for spectral tuning, with several tuning site combinations unknown elsewhere among vertebrates...
October 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Zhiqiang Zhou, Mingjie Dong, Xiaozhu Xie, Zhifeng Gao
Because of the poor lighting conditions at night time, visible images are often fused with corresponding infrared (IR) images for context enhancement of the scenes in night vision. In this paper, we present a novel night-vision context enhancement algorithm through IR and visible image fusion with the guided filter. First, to enhance the visibility of poorly illuminated details in the visible image before the fusion, an adaptive enhancement method is developed by incorporating the processes of dynamic range compression and contrast restoration based on the guided filter...
August 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Marcus Ang, Mohd Farook, Hla M Htoon, Donald Tan, Jodhbir S Mehta
PURPOSE: To describe simulated night vision, night-vision symptoms, and refractive outcomes after small-incision lenticule extraction. SETTING: Tertiary referral eye center, Singapore. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: All patients had small-incision lenticule extraction using the Visumax 500 kHz femtosecond laser system. The main outcome measure was simulated night vision logMAR corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) using the super vision test-night vision goggle vision chart at 12 months...
August 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Richard A Tyrrell, Joanne M Wood, D Alfred Owens, Stephanie Whetsel Borzendowski, Ashley Stafford Sewall
Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities...
September 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
H Tegetmeyer
Background: The symptom "visual snow" describes the continuous perception of tiny flickering dots within the whole visual field of both eyes. The diagnosis of a visual snow syndrome requires the appearance of typical additional visual symptoms and the exclusion of ophthalmological or neurological causes, or pharmacological influences. Patients and Methods: Three male and four female subjects between 13 and 36 years of age referred with visual snow were investigated and asked about their symptoms. A complete ophthalmological investigation, including binocular fundoscopy, was performed in all patients...
August 10, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Maja Bohac, Marija Anticic, Natasa Draca, Bojan Kozomara, Iva Dekaris, Nikica Gabric, Sudi Patel
PURPOSE: To compare refractive stability, endothelial cell count (ECC), incidence of complications, and patients' satisfaction between a rigid Verisyse (group I, n = 198) and foldable Veriflex (group II, n = 212) phakic intraocular lenses (pIOL) over 36 months postop. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Patients' satisfaction and incidence of photic phenomena were evaluated at one month and one year postop. Data were analyzed to determine difference between groups for astigmatism, mean spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) monocular distance visual acuity, complication rate (acute and chronic), and ECC...
August 3, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Luis Carretié, Elisabeth Ruiz-Padial
Planet Earth's motion yields a 50 % day-50 % night yearly balance in every latitude or longitude, so survival must be guaranteed in very different light conditions in many species, including human. Cone- and rod-dominant vision, respectively specialized in light and darkness, present several processing differences, which are-at least partially-reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs). The present experiment aimed at characterizing exogenous attention to threatening (spiders) and neutral (wheels) distractors in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0...
November 2016: Brain Topography
Ankita Singhal, Ying Guo, Milos Matkovic, Gebhard Schertler, Xavier Deupi, Elsa Cy Yan, Joerg Standfuss
Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is an inherited and non-progressive retinal dysfunction. Here, we present the crystal structure of CSNB-causing T94I(2.61) rhodopsin in the active conformation at 2.3 Å resolution. The introduced hydrophobic side chain prolongs the lifetime of the G protein activating metarhodopsin-II state by establishing a direct van der Waals contact with K296(7.43), the site of retinal attachment. This is in stark contrast to the light-activated state of the CSNB-causing G90D(2...
October 2016: EMBO Reports
Ji-Sun Paik, Suk-Woo Yang, Shin Hae Park
BACKGROUND: Cyclic strabismus is a very rare condition of ocular motility characterized by alternating strabismus and orthotropia. We report a patient with a 48-h cycle of vertical deviation associated with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy that spontaneously resolved. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old woman experienced sudden onset vertical double vision. She had already been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Asymmetric enlargement of the inferior and medial rectus muscles was demonstrated in her left eye on computed tomography, and was compatible with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
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