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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193823/stellar-performance-mechanisms-underlying-milky-way-orientation-in-dung-beetles
#1
James J Foster, Basil El Jundi, Jochen Smolka, Lana Khaldy, Dan-Eric Nilsson, Marcus J Byrne, Marie Dacke
Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193821/insect-photoreceptor-adaptations-to-night-vision
#2
REVIEW
Anna Honkanen, Esa-Ville Immonen, Iikka Salmela, Kyösti Heimonen, Matti Weckström
Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193813/subtle-changes-in-the-landmark-panorama-disrupt-visual-navigation-in-a-nocturnal-bull-ant
#3
Ajay Narendra, Fiorella Ramirez-Esquivel
The ability of ants to navigate when the visual landmark information is altered has often been tested by creating large and artificial discrepancies in their visual environment. Here, we had an opportunity to slightly modify the natural visual environment around the nest of the nocturnal bull ant Myrmecia pyriformis We achieved this by felling three dead trees, two located along the typical route followed by the foragers of that particular nest and one in a direction perpendicular to their foraging direction...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193809/living-in-the-dark-does-not-mean-a-blind-life-bird-and-mammal-visual-communication-in-dim-light
#4
REVIEW
Vincenzo Penteriani, María Del Mar Delgado
For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193808/the-remarkable-visual-capacities-of-nocturnal-insects-vision-at-the-limits-with-small-eyes-and-tiny-brains
#5
REVIEW
Eric J Warrant
Nocturnal insects have evolved remarkable visual capacities, despite small eyes and tiny brains. They can see colour, control flight and land, react to faint movements in their environment, navigate using dim celestial cues and find their way home after a long and tortuous foraging trip using learned visual landmarks. These impressive visual abilities occur at light levels when only a trickle of photons are being absorbed by each photoreceptor, begging the question of how the visual system nonetheless generates the reliable signals needed to steer behaviour...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191358/retinitis-pigmentosa-and-bilateral-idiopathic-demyelinating-optic-neuritis-in-a-6-year-old-boy-with-ofd1-gene-mutation
#6
Xun Wang, Cong Zheng, Wen Liu, Hui Yang
To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191327/transdermal-spirit-methanol-poisoning-a-case-report
#7
Hatice Dogan, Banu Yilmaz Karakus, Kubra Serefoglu Cabuk, Ozlem Uzun, Huseyin Yenice, Aysun Orucoglu
INTRODUCTION: Methanol is a highly toxic substance and methanol poisoning results in severe health situations. Methanol poisoning occurs when it is consumed by various methods such as orally, by inhalation, and transdermally. Transdermal poisoning is rarely seen and causes severe health complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room due to blurred vision and knee pain. He had wrapped alcohol soaked cotton around his knees because of pain, and left it for 10 hours at night...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178236/photovoltage-field-effect-transistors
#8
Valerio Adinolfi, Edward H Sargent
The detection of infrared radiation enables night vision, health monitoring, optical communications and three-dimensional object recognition. Silicon is widely used in modern electronics, but its electronic bandgap prevents the detection of light at wavelengths longer than about 1,100 nanometres. It is therefore of interest to extend the performance of silicon photodetectors into the infrared spectrum, beyond the bandgap of silicon. Here we demonstrate a photovoltage field-effect transistor that uses silicon for charge transport, but is also sensitive to infrared light owing to the use of a quantum dot light absorber...
February 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152941/transforming-a-unit-s-culture-to-improve-clinical-outcomes
#9
Theresa Woodrum, Michael Romano
: 243 Background: Leadership identified an unhealthy work environment existed in our Oncology Hematology Special Care Unit (OHSCU). This was evidenced by increased turnover, low National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI), and nurse sensitive quality indicator scores. In the fall of 2014 changes were made to the unit with a goal of creating within the unit a culture of clinical excellence, engagement, professionalism, accountability, and improve staff satisfaction. METHODS: Leadership met to define the future state of the unit and develop a vision statement...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133543/visual-outcomes-quality-of-vision-and-quality-of-life-of-diffractive-multifocal-intraocular-lens-implantation-after-myopic-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-a-prospective-observational-case-series
#10
John S M Chang, Jack C M Ng, Vincent K C Chan, Antony K P Law
Purpose. To report visual performance and quality of life after implantation of a bifocal diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) in postmyopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) patients. Methods. Prospective, observational case series. Patients with prior myopic LASIK who had implantation of Tecnis ZMA00/ZMB00 MIOL (Abbott Medical Optics) at Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital were included. Postoperative examinations included monocular and binocular distance, intermediate and near visual acuity (VA), and contrast sensitivity; visual symptoms (0-5); satisfaction (1-5); spectacle independence rate; and quality of life...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113466/comprehensive-and-practical-vision-system-for-self-driving-vehicle-lane-level-localization
#11
Xinxin Du, Kok Kiong Tan
Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is low-cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings...
March 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106237/reading-and-quality-of-life-differences-between-tecnis-zcb00-monofocal-and-tecnis-zmb00-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#12
Francisco de Asís Bartol-Puyal, Paula Talavero, Galadriel Giménez, Irene Altemir, José M Larrosa, Vicente Polo, Luis E Pablo
PURPOSE: To compare the NEI-RQL-42 quality of life questionnaire and the Radner Vissum reading test outcomes after bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of Tecnis ZCB00 monofocal and Tecnis ZMB00 multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS: Forty-two eyes of 21 patients who had phacoemulsification were implanted with Tecnis ZCB00 IOL and 82 eyes of 41 patients were implanted with Tecnis ZMB00 IOL. They answered the NEI-RQL-42 questionnaire before cataract surgery and 3 months after it...
January 2, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059259/ge-sub-0-975-sub-sn-sub-0-025-sub-320%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-256-imager-chip-for-1-6-1-9%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-infrared-vision
#13
Chiao Chang, Hui Li, Chien-Te Ku, Shih-Guo Yang, Hung Hsiang Cheng, Joshua Hendrickson, Richard A Soref, Greg Sun
We report the experimental fabrication and testing of a GeSn-based 320×256 image sensor focal plane array operating at -15°C in the 1.6-1.9 μm spectral range. For image readout, the 2D pixel array of Ge/GeSn/Ge p-i-n heterophotodiodes was flip-chip bonded to a customized silicon CMOS readout integrated circuit. The resulting camera chip was operated using back-side illumination. Successful imaging of a tungsten-filament light bulb was attained with observation of gray-scale "hot spot" infrared features not seen using a visible-light camera...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057410/out-of-the-ground-two-coexisting-fossorial-toad-species-differ-in-their-emergence-and-movement-patterns
#14
Diana Székely, Dan Cogălniceanu, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël
Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051986/wavefront-guided-versus-wavefront-optimized-photorefractive-keratectomy-visual-and-military-task-performance
#15
Denise S Ryan, Rose K Sia, Richard D Stutzman, Joseph F Pasternak, Robin S Howard, Christopher L Howell, Tana Maurer, Mark F Torres, Kraig S Bower
PURPOSE: To compare visual performance, marksmanship performance, and threshold target identification following wavefront-guided (WFG) versus wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, active duty U.S. military Soldiers, age 21 or over, electing to undergo PRK were randomized to undergo WFG (n = 27) or WFO (n = 27) PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism. Binocular visual performance was assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively: Super Vision Test high contrast, Super Vision Test contrast sensitivity (CS), and 25% contrast acuity with night vision goggle filter...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011820/importance-of-the-antenniform-legs-but-not-vision-for-homing-by-the-neotropical-whip-spider-paraphrynus-laevifrons
#16
Verner P Bingman, Jacob M Graving, Eileen A Hebets, Daniel D Wiegmann
Amplypygids, or whip spiders, are nocturnal, predatory arthropods that display a robust ability to navigate to their home refuge. Prior field observations and displacement studies in amblypygids demonstrated an ability to home from distances as far away as 10 meters. In the current study, micro-transmitters were used to take morning position fixes of individual Paraphrynus laevifrons following an experimental displacement of 10 m from their home refuge. The intent was to assess the relative importance of vision compared to sensory input acquired from the antenniform legs for navigation as well as other aspects of their spatial behavior...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003982/assessment-of-contrast-sensitivity-loss-after-intrastromal-femtosecond-laser-and-lasik-procedure
#17
Elsa L C Mai, Ie-Bin Lian, David C K Chang
AIM: To assess the loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) function for INTRACOR or intrastromal femtosecond laser presbyopia procedure to conventional LASIK procedures. METHODS: Patients were recruited from a refractive surgery center for either INTRACOR or conventional LASIK. INTRACOR was performed on 8 eyes and LASIK was performed for 40 eyes in an overlapping period. Pre-operative evaluation and post-operative follow up for up to three months was done. Drops of CS in 4 spatial frequency (3 cpd, 6 cpd, 12 cpd and 18 cpd) right before and 3mo after the surgery were compared by Wilcoxon signed ranks test...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002560/clinical-characteristics-mutation-spectrum-and-prevalence-of-%C3%A3-land-eye-disease-incomplete-congenital-stationary-night-blindness-in-denmark
#18
Marianne N Hove, Kevser Z Kilic-Biyik, Alana Trotter, Karen Grønskov, Birgit Sander, Michael Larsen, Joseph Carroll, Torben Bech-Hansen, Thomas Rosenberg
Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from 1980 to 2014. A subset of affected males underwent ophthalmologic examinations including psychophysical tests, full-field electroretinography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993590/prevalence-of-anti-retinal-antibodies-in-acute-zonal-occult-outer-retinopathy-azoor-a-comprehensive-review-of-25-cases
#19
Cynthia X Qian, Angeline Wang, David L DeMill, Thiran Jayasundera, Kari Branham, Maria Fernanda Abalem, Naheed Khan, John R Heckenlively
PURPOSE: To perform a comprehensive review and to investigate the presence and role of autoimmune antibodies in 25 cases of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) identified using the classification originally proposed by J.Donald Gass. DESIGN: Observational case series METHODS: Setting: Institutional Study Population: Twenty-five patients were identified by characteristic symptoms (abrupt onset of photopsias, followed by large scotomata at or connected to the blind spot), ocular findings (paucity of pigmentary changes with no sign of vitreous inflammation and abnormal electroretinogram in at least one eye,) and a negative family history for retinitis pigmentosa...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965823/feasibility-of-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-rct-and-concurrent-observational-sub-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-modified-ward-night-lighting-on-inpatient-fall-rates-and-sleep-quality-a-protocol-for-a-pilot-trial
#20
Satyan R Chari, Simon Smith, Alison Mudge, Alex A Black, Mariana Figueiro, Muhtashimuddin Ahmed, Mark Devitt, Terry P Haines
BACKGROUND: Falls among hospitalised patients impose a considerable burden on health systems globally and prevention is a priority. Some patient-level interventions have been effective in reducing falls, but others have not. An alternative and promising approach to reducing inpatient falls is through the modification of the hospital physical environment and the night lighting of hospital wards is a leading candidate for investigation. In this pilot trial, we will determine the feasibility of conducting a main trial to evaluate the effects of modified night lighting on inpatient ward level fall rates...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
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