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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623820/spectral-selectivity-model-for-light-transmission-by-the-intermediate-filaments-in-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#1
Igor Khmelinskii, Tatiana Golubeva, Elena Korneeva, Mikhail Inyushin, Lidia Zueva, Vladimir Makarov
Presently we continue our studies of the quantum mechanism of light energy transmission in the form of excitons by axisymmetric nanostructures with electrically conductive walls. Using our theoretical model, we analyzed the light energy transmission by biopolymers forming optical channels within retinal Müller cells. There are specialized intermediate filaments (IF) 10-18nm in diameter, built of electrically conductive polypeptides. Presently, we analyzed the spectral selectivity of these nanostructures. We found that their transmission spectrum depends on their diameter and wall thickness...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619486/extended-depth-of-focus-contact-lenses-vs-two-commercial-multifocals-part-2-visual-performance-after-1-week-of-lens-wear
#2
Ravi C Bakaraju, Daniel Tilia, Jennifer Sha, Jennie Diec, Jiyoon Chung, Danny Kho, Shona Delaney, Anna Munro, Varghese Thomas
PURPOSE: To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. METHODS: In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617310/development-of-an-automatic-testing-platform-for-aviator-s-night-vision-goggle-honeycomb-defect-inspection
#3
Bo-Lin Jian, Chao-Chung Peng
Due to the direct influence of night vision equipment availability on the safety of night-time aerial reconnaissance, maintenance needs to be carried out regularly. Unfortunately, some defects are not easy to observe or are not even detectable by human eyes. As a consequence, this study proposed a novel automatic defect detection system for aviator's night vision imaging systems AN/AVS-6(V)1 and AN/AVS-6(V)2. An auto-focusing process consisting of a sharpness calculation and a gradient-based variable step search method is applied to achieve an automatic detection system for honeycomb defects...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586495/meta-analysis-of-the-fda-reports-on-patient-reported-outcomes-using-the-three-latest-platforms-for-lasik
#4
Majid Moshirfar, Tirth J Shah, David Franklin Skanchy, Steve H Linn, Daniel S Durrie
PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of the three latest U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers on patient-reported outcomes after LASIK. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of patient-reported FDA data, an aggregated total of 718 eyes undergoing LASIK using VISX iDesign (Abbott Medical Optics Manufacturing, Milpitas, CA), Alcon Contoura (Alcon Research, Ltd., Fort Worth, TX), and Nidek CATz (Nidek Co. Ltd., Gamagori, Japan) lasers were evaluated for overall changes in visual symptoms postoperatively...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574003/antiretinal-antibody-proven-autoimmune-retinopathy
#5
Sharanya Abraham, S Sudharshan, Muna Bhende, Sudha K Ganesh, Sriram Gopal
A young female presented with bilateral subacute onset of progressive decrease in night vision and reduced peripheral field of vision. The short duration and rapid progression of symptoms along with the lack of family history of night blindness prompted a diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR). Fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, visual fields, and electroretinogram were suggestive of AIR. A differential diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was also made. Antiretinal autoantibodies were detected in the blood sample...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564700/nighttime-driving-in-older-adults-effects-of-glare-and-association-with-mesopic-visual-function
#6
Janessa A Kimlin, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
Purpose: To examine the associations between nighttime driving performance of older drivers and photopic, mesopic, and glare-based tests of visual function. Methods: Participants included 26 older drivers (71.8 ± 6.3 years), with minimal or no eye disease, but who reported vision-related nighttime driving difficulties. Nighttime driving performance was assessed on a closed-road circuit, which included intermittent glare. An overall driving performance score was calculated based on detection of signs, pedestrians, wooden animals and road markings, lane-keeping, and avoidance of low contrast hazards...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531101/phrog-a-multimodal-feature-for-place-recognition
#7
Fabien Bonardi, Samia Ainouz, Rémi Boutteau, Yohan Dupuis, Xavier Savatier, Pascal Vasseur
Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different spectral ranges. For instance, an infrared camera is helpful for night vision in combination with a visible camera. In this paper, we emphasize our work on testing usual feature point extractors under both constraints: repeatability across spectral ranges and long-term appearance...
May 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511025/co-inheritance-of-the-membrane-frizzled-related-protein-ocular-phenotype-and-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib
#8
Maha Mameesh, Anuradha Ganesh, Beena Harikrishna, Sana Al Zuhaibi, Patrick Scott, Sami Al Kalbani, Khalid Al Thihli
AIM: To report co-occurrence of two rare recessive conditions, the membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP)-related ocular phenotype and glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD-1b), in three siblings in an Omani family. BACKGROUND: Biallelic mutations in the MFRP gene (chromosome 11q23) result in a distinct ocular phenotype characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, foveoschisis, optic nerve head drusen, and posterior microphthalmos. GSD-1b is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by mutations in SLC37A4 gene located in the same chromosomal region...
May 16, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490481/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-chronic-malabsorption-an-ophthalmic-manifestation-of-a-systemic-condition
#9
James Cheshire, Sai Kolli
A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral corneal xerosis, bilateral Bitot's spots and inferior ulceration of the right cornea...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488860/flexible-and-highly-photosensitive-electrolyte-gated-organic-transistors-with-ionogel-silver-nanowire-membranes
#10
Haihua Xu, QingQing Zhu, Ying Lv, Kan Deng, Yinghua Deng, Qiaoliang Li, Suwen Qi, Wenwen Chen, Huisheng Zhang
Flexible and low-voltage photosensors with high near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for realization of interacting humans with robots and environments by thermal imaging or night vision techniques. In this work, we for the first time develop an easy and cost-effective process to fabricate flexible and ultrathin electrolyte-gated organic phototransistors (EGOPTs) with high transparent nanocomposite membranes of high-conductivity silver nanowire (AgNW) networks and large-capacitance iontronic films. A high responsivity of 1...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481301/convolutional-neural-network-based-human-detection-in-nighttime-images-using-visible-light-camera-sensors
#11
Jong Hyun Kim, Hyung Gil Hong, Kang Ryoung Park
Because intelligent surveillance systems have recently undergone rapid growth, research on accurately detecting humans in videos captured at a long distance is growing in importance. The existing research using visible light cameras has mainly focused on methods of human detection for daytime hours when there is outside light, but human detection during nighttime hours when there is no outside light is difficult. Thus, methods that employ additional near-infrared (NIR) illuminators and NIR cameras or thermal cameras have been used...
May 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424296/cell-type-specific-changes-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-induced-by-rod-death-and-cone-reorganization-in-rats
#12
Wan-Qing Yu, Norberto M Grzywacz, Eun-Jin Lee, Greg D Field
We have determined the impact of rod death and cone reorganization on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (RFs) and spontaneous activity of distinct RGC types.  We compared RGC function between healthy and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) model rats (S334ter-3) at a time when nearly all rods were lost, but cones remained. This allowed us to determine the impact of rod death on cone-mediated visual signaling -- a relevant time point because the diagnosis of RP frequently occurs when patients are night-blind, but daytime vision persists...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417841/benign-episodic-unilateral-mydriasis-in-a-flight-nurse
#13
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: Benign episodic unilateral mydriasis is one cause of anisocoria. This phenomenon is thought to be related to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. There is a documented association with migraines, but asymptomatic cases have also been reported. A challenge with all cases is the level of investigation required to exclude more sinister causes of nervous system dysfunction. In a dynamic flight environment, additional considerations need to be made, such as varying light levels and use of night vision devices...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417832/color-vision-in-color-display-night-vision-goggles
#14
Eric P Liggins, William P Serle
INTRODUCTION: Aircrew viewing eyepiece-injected symbology on color display night vision goggles (CDNVGs) are performing a visual task involving color under highly unnatural viewing conditions. Their performance in discriminating different colors and responding to color cues is unknown. METHODS: Experimental laboratory measurements of 1) color discrimination and 2) visual search performance are reported under adaptation conditions representative of a CDNVG. Color discrimination was measured using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm that probes color space uniformly around a white point...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407161/preliminary-evidence-of-successful-near-vision-enhancement-with-a-new-technique-presbyopic-allogenic-refractive-lenticule-pearl-corneal-inlay-using-a-smile-lenticule
#15
Soosan Jacob, Dhivya Ashok Kumar, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Ramalingam Aravind, A I Saijimol
PURPOSE: To describe a new technique (PrEsbyopic Allogenic Refractive Lenticule [PEARL] inlay) using an allogenic corneal inlay prepared from a small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) lenticule. METHODS: A SMILE lenticule of specified thickness (mean: 61.5 ± 3.32 µm) was trephined at the center to 1-mm diameter and implanted in the cornea on the coaxially sighted light reflex under a femtosecond laser-created cap of 120 µm in the nondominant eye of presbyopic patients...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371363/diurnal-expression-of-proteins-in-the-retina-of-the-blind-cone-rod-homeobox-crx-mouse-and-the-129-sv-mouse-a-proteomic-study
#16
Morten Møller, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Maja Ludvigsen, Bent Honoré, Henrik Vorum
PURPOSE: The vertebrate retina contains a circadian clock participating in adaptations to day and night vision. This peripheral clock is independent of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retinal clock is located in several cell types, including the photoreceptors. To investigate the role of the circadian clock of the photoreceptor cells in regulation of retinal protein rhythms, we analysed diurnal protein expression in the photoreceptor-deficient cone-rod homeobox knockout mouse (Crx(-/-) ) and the 129/Sv mouse...
March 28, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367499/the-effect-of-multispectral-image-fusion-enhancement-on-human-efficiency
#17
Jennifer L Bittner, M Trent Schill, Fairul Mohd-Zaid, Leslie M Blaha
The visual system can be highly influenced by changes to visual presentation. Thus, numerous techniques have been developed to augment imagery in an attempt to improve human perception. The current paper examines the potential impact of one such enhancement, multispectral image fusion, where imagery captured in varying spectral bands (e.g., visible, thermal, night vision) is algorithmically combined to produce an output to strengthen visual perception. We employ ideal observer analysis over a series of experimental conditions to (1) establish a framework for testing the impact of image fusion over the varying aspects surrounding its implementation (e...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361169/magnetic-activation-in-the-brain-of-the-migratory-northern-wheatear-oenanthe-oenanthe
#18
D Elbers, M Bulte, F Bairlein, H Mouritsen, D Heyers
Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests the involvement of the visual and trigeminal sensory systems in avian magnetoreception. The constantly growing array of new genetic approaches becoming available to scientists would bear great potential to contribute to a generally accepted understanding of the mechanisms underlying this ability, but would require to breed migratory birds in captivity. Here we show that the transcontinental night-migratory Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), which is currently the only migratory songbird successfully being bred in reasonable numbers in captivity, shows magnetic-field-induced neuronal activation in the trigeminal brainstem areas receiving their input through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356705/novel-splice-site-mutation-in-ttll5-causes-cone-dystrophy-in-a-consanguineous-family
#19
Miguel de Sousa Dias, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Meunier, Juliette Varin, Steven Blanchard, Fiona Boyard, José-Alain Sahel, Christina Zeitz
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and genetic findings of one family with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy (CD) and to identify the causative mutation. METHODS: An institutional study of three family members from two generations. The clinical examination included best-corrected Snellen visual acuity measurement, fundoscopy, the Farnsworth D-15 color vision test, a full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that incorporated the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards and methodology, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and infrared (IR), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317678/quality-of-vision-after-wavefront-guided-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-or-photorefractive-keratectomy-contralateral-eye-evaluation
#20
Michele D Lee, Edward E Manche
PURPOSE: To compare quality of vision between laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). SETTING: Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHODS: Patients had refractive surgery, with 1 eye treated with LASIK and the other with PRK. Eyes were randomized for dominance. The patients completed a questionnaire assessing quality of vision in each eye at the initial visit and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively...
January 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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