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Grey out in pilot

Karin Radrich, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Imaging of tissue oxygenation is important in several applications associated with patient care. Optical sensing is commonly applied for assessing oxygen saturation but is often restricted to local measurements or else it requires spectral and spatial information at the expense of time. Many methods proposed so far require assumptions on the properties of measured tissue. In this study we investigated a computational method that uses only multispectral information and quantitatively computes tissue oxygen saturation independently of tissue optical properties...
January 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Yin Zhang, Xiong Ying Wu, Lai Li Wang, Xue Mei Ding
Industrial production of apparel consumes large quantity of freshwater and discharges effluents that intensify the problem of freshwater shortage and water pollution. The industrial water footprint (IWF) of a piece of apparel includes the water footprint (WF) of the fabric, apparel accessories (e.g. zipper, fastener, sewing thread) and industrial production processes. The objective of this paper is to carry out a pilot study on IWF accounting for three kinds of typical zipper (i.e. metal zipper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) zipper and polyoxymethylene copolymer (Co-POM) zipper) that are commonly used for apparel production...
2014: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jop Mostert, Thea Heersema, Manju Mahajan, Jeroen Van Der Grond, Mark A Van Buchem, Jacques De Keyser
Preclinical studies suggest that fluoxetine may have neuroprotective properties. In this pilot study forty-two patients with secondary or primary progressive MS were randomized to receive fluoxetine 20 mg twice daily or placebo for 2 years. Every 3 months the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), 9-hole peg test (9-HPT) and ambulation index (AI) were assessed. Brain MRI scans, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, Fatigue Impact Scale, Guy's neurological disability Scale and SF-36 were performed at baseline, year 1 and year 2...
2013: ISRN Neurology
Wietse A Tol, Vivi Stavrou, M Claire Greene, Christina Mergenthaler, Mark van Ommeren, Claudia García Moreno
BACKGROUND: Sexual and other forms of gender-based violence are common in conflict settings and are known risk factors for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. We present findings from a systematic review of the academic and grey literature focused on the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support interventions for populations exposed to sexual and other forms of gender-based violence in the context of armed conflicts. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PubMed/ Medline, psycINFO, and PILOTS, as well as grey literature to search for evaluations of interventions, without date limitations...
2013: Conflict and Health
M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili
Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals...
1997: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Shehla Zaidi, Maryam Bigdeli, Noureen Aleem, Arash Rashidian
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine...
2013: PloS One
Richard Stott, Jennifer Wild, Nick Grey, Sheena Liness, Emma Warnock-Parkes, Siobhan Commins, Jennifer Readings, Georgina Bremner, Elizabeth Woodward, Anke Ehlers, David M Clark
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have established that individual cognitive therapy based on the Clark and Wells (1995) model is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder that is superior to a range of alternative psychological and pharmacological interventions. Normally the treatment involves up to 14 weekly face-to-face therapy sessions. AIM: To develop an internet based version of the treatment that requires less therapist time. METHOD: An internet-delivered version of cognitive therapy (iCT) for social anxiety disorder is described...
July 2013: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Harry Gebhard, Robby Bowles, Jonathan Dyke, Tatianna Saleh, Stephen Doty, Lawrence Bonassar, Roger Härtl
STUDY TYPE:  Basic science Introduction:  Chronic back pain due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is among the most important medical conditions causing morbidity and significant health care costs. Surgical treatment options include disc replacement or fusion surgery, but are associated with significant short- and long-term risks.1 Biological tissue-engineering of human intervertebral discs (IVD) could offer an important alternative.2 Recent in vitro data from our group have shown successful engineering and growth of ovine intervertebral disc composites with circumferentially aligned collagen fibrils in the annulus fibrosus (AF) (Figure 1)...
August 2010: Evidence-based Spine-care Journal
Monika Kastner, Andrea C Tricco, Charlene Soobiah, Erin Lillie, Laure Perrier, Tanya Horsley, Vivian Welch, Elise Cogo, Jesmin Antony, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: A knowledge synthesis attempts to summarize all pertinent studies on a specific question, can improve the understanding of inconsistencies in diverse evidence, and can identify gaps in research evidence to define future research agendas. Knowledge synthesis activities in healthcare have largely focused on systematic reviews of interventions. However, a wider range of synthesis methods has emerged in the last decade addressing different types of questions (e.g., realist synthesis to explore mediating mechanisms and moderators of interventions)...
2012: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Kunwar S S Bhatia, Carmen C M Cho, Cina S L Tong, Yolanda Y P Lee, Edmund H Y Yuen, Anil T Ahuja
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate shear wave elastography (SWE) for focal lesions in major salivary glands. METHODS: Sixty lesions (49 parotid, 11 submandibular) undergoing routine ultrasound (grey scale and Doppler) also underwent SWE before US-guided needle aspiration for cytology. Quantitative indices of the shear elastic modulus (stiffness) were compared with cytological results. RESULTS: Fifty-five lesions were benign (21 pleomorphic adenomas, 18 Warthin's tumours; 16 others) and 5 malignant (2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 myoepithelial carcinoma, 1 B-cell lymphoma, 1 nodal metastasis)...
May 2012: European Radiology
Aliki Christou, Judith M Katzenellenbogen, Sandra C Thompson
BACKGROUND: Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population...
2010: BMC Public Health
Nitin Mukerji, Julian Cahill, Alessandro Paluzzi, Damian Holliman, Shuaib Dambatta, Philip J Kane
Neurosurgical registrars are frequently called upon by A&E staff and physicians to interpret emergency head CT (computed tomography) scans out of hours. This appears to reflect the reduced threshold for scanning patients and the nonavailability of a radiologist to report these scans. This study was undertaken to assess the safety of such practices. Five neurosurgical registrars, blinded to each other and to the radiology reports, interpreted 50 consecutive emergency head CT scans (both trauma and nontrauma) from the hospital's imaging system as a pilot study...
April 2009: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Anne L Kitchener, Amanda Harman, David J Kay, Carmen A McCartney, Karen E Mate, John C Rodger
This study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the Eastern Grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern Australia. First, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (PZP) demonstrated that ZP proteins, primarily the ZP3 component of PZP, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. Immunisation with 300 microg of a non-glycosylated recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) protein in complete Freund's adjuvant produced a similar, significant and sustained antibody response, and none of the immunised kangaroos (n=7) produced offspring during the following breeding season compared with four out of the six control animals...
January 2009: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Milla Solismaa, Sauli Laaksonen, Minna Nylund, Elisa Pitkänen, Riitta Airakorpi, Antti Oksanen
BACKGROUND: In autumn 2006, Finnish meat inspection data revealed lesions in tendons, muscles and ligaments of bovine hind legs leading to partial condemnation of carcasses. In gross pathological examination at Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Oulu (now Fish and Wildlife Health) Research Unit, Onchocerca sp. (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae) nematodes were detected in lesions. Due to this, a pilot study was made in order to find out what filarioid nematodes do occur in cattle, horses and sheep in Finland...
June 16, 2008: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jean-Pierre Unger, Pierre De Paepe, Patricia Ghilbert, Werner Soors, Andrew Green
PURPOSE: To review the evidence basis of international aid and health policy. CONTEXT OF CASE: Current international aid policy is largely neoliberal in its promotion of commoditization and privatisation. We review this policy's responsibility for the lack of effectiveness in disease control and poor access to care in low and middle-income countries. DATA SOURCES: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments are examined in both scientific and grey literature...
September 18, 2006: International Journal of Integrated Care
Frank Du Tré, Reinhilde Jacobs, Sean Styven, Daniel van Steenberghe
The objective of this paper is to develop a novel digital subtraction technique for serial intra-oral radiography, which would allow the detection of subtle variations in grey values. Digital images of the maxilla of a dried human skull and of a fresh pig mandible were acquired using intra-oral photostimulable phosphor plates (Digora FMX, Soredex, Helsinki) with an aluminium calibration stepwedge incorporated in the filmholder. Exposures were made with an X-ray tube for intra-oral radiography (Prostyle Intra, Planmeca, Helsinki)...
September 2006: Clinical Oral Investigations
W H Barth, D C McCurnin, K Dee Carey, G D V Hankins
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of constructing time-intensity (TI) curves from the intervillous space with an intravascular ultrasound contrast agent and computer assisted video densitometry. STUDY DESIGN: We sedated nine pregnant baboons, optimized the grey scale and color Doppler images of their placentas, and then fixed the transducers in place. For each injection of contrast, we recorded images on videotape without changing the ultrasound image processing functions...
June 2006: Placenta
C McGough, C Baldwin, G Frost, H J N Andreyev
Up to 12000 patients with gynaecological, urological and rectal cancer undergo radical pelvic radiotherapy annually in the UK. More than 70% develop acute inflammatory changes causing gastrointestinal symptoms during treatment because healthy bowel tissue is encompassed in the radiation field. In total, 50% go on to develop chronic bowel symptoms, which affect quality of life due to permanent changes in the small and large intestine. Nutritional intervention may influence acute and chronic bowel symptoms but the validity of the advice given to patients is not clear...
June 14, 2004: British Journal of Cancer
D Gaffié, A Guillaume, P Quandieu
When fighter aircrafts change directions, the pilots are subject to a centrifuge force. This force can be enough to induce the pilot loss of consciousness (LOC). The physiological cause of this LOC is a brain hypoxia which results from the increase of the hydrostatic pressure. Under gradual onset rate + Gz acceleration (GOR+Gz), the brain hypoxia occurs with visual prodromes familiar to fighter pilots. In this case, they feel a reduction of the peripheral vision (Grey-out), followed by a loss of the central vision (Black-out)...
February 1993: Physiologist
J Grey-Lloyd
This article describes an evaluation of CD-ROMs carried out at four NHS Trust Libraries in Wales. It covers interactive CD-ROMs which take the form of either computer assisted learning programs, encyclopaedia or well-known text books.
March 1998: Health Libraries Review
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