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Barotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616357/preliminary-experience-on-the-safety-and-tolerability-of-mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-in-subjects-with-artificial-airway
#1
Miguel Sánchez-García, Passio Santos, Gema Rodríguez-Trigo, Fernando Martínez-Sagasti, Tomás Fariña-González, Ángela Del Pino-Ramírez, Carlos Cardenal-Sánchez, Beatriz Busto-González, Mónica Requesens-Solera, Mercedes Nieto-Cabrera, Francisco Romero-Romero, Antonio Núñez-Reiz
BACKGROUND: Catheter suctioning of respiratory secretions in intubated subjects is limited to the proximal airway and associated with traumatic lesions to the mucosa and poor tolerance. "Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation" exerts positive pressure, followed by an abrupt drop to negative pressure. Potential advantages of this technique are aspiration of distal airway secretions, avoiding trauma, and improving tolerance. METHODS: We applied insufflation of 50 cmH2 O for 3 s and exsufflation of - 45 cmH2 O for 4 s in patients with an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy cannula requiring secretion suctioning...
April 3, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595579/prevention-of-otic-barotrauma-in-aviation-a-systematic-review
#2
Peter Ryan, Alexander Treble, Nirmal Patel, Nicholas Jufas
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the published evidence relating to the prevention of otic barotrauma in aviation. In particular, this review sought to identify procedures, techniques, devices, and medications for the prevention of otic barotrauma as well as evaluate the evidence relating to their efficacy. DATA SOURCES: Ten databases including Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched using the full historical range...
March 27, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595532/development-of-an-ex-situ-limb-perfusion-system-for-a-rodent-model
#3
Emre Gok, Fares Alghanem, Ruth Moon, Erin Guy, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Robert H Bartlett, Kagan Ozer
Ex-situ perfusion (ESP) is a promising method in preserving vascularized composite tissue allografts (VCAs) with potential to widen donor procurement to larger geographic areas. To optimize the method of preservation, we developed a small animal model to conduct biomolecular investigations. Twenty rat hind limbs (18.2 ± 1.3 g) were procured and connected to our custom-made ESP system. Perfusion pressure and flow parameters were measured with hourly blood gas analysis under near-normothermic (30-35˚C) conditions...
March 26, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571230/analysis-of-factors-related-to-failure-in-the-pressure-test-a-six-year-experience-in-taiwan
#4
Wei-Shih Tseng, Man-Yuan Huang, Hui-Chieh Lee, Wen-Shyan Huang, Bor-Hwang Kang
Introduction: The Republic of China Navy instituted the pressure test as one of the selection tools for diving troops and submarine crews. We analyzed factors associated with failure in the pressure test. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study designed to investigate pressure test failure in Navy recruits between January 2010 and August 2015. The recruits received pressurization in a hyperbaric chamber to a simulated depth of 112 feet of seawater (fsw) at a rate of 25 fsw/minute...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571228/an-anti-barotrauma-system-for-preventing-barotrauma-during-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#5
Moon Song, Se Jeon Hoon, Tae Min Shin
In the present study, a tympanometry-based anti-barotrauma (ABT) device was designed using eardrum admittance measurements to develop an objective method of preventing barotrauma that occurs during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy. The middle ear space requires active equalization, and barotrauma of these tissues during HBO₂therapy constitutes the most common treatment-associated injury. Decongestant nasal sprays and nasal steroids are used, but their efficacy is questionable to prevent middle ear barotrauma (MEB) during HBO₂ treatment...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553050/molecular-mechanisms-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#6
REVIEW
Lin Chen, Hai-Fa Xia, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Objective: Mechanical ventilation (MV) has long been used as a life-sustaining approach for several decades. However, researchers realized that MV not only brings benefits to patients but also cause lung injury if used improperly, which is termed as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This review aimed to discuss the pathogenesis of VILI and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data Sources: This review was based on articles in the PubMed database up to December 2017 using the following keywords: "ventilator-induced lung injury", "pathogenesis", "mechanism", and "biotrauma"...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518848/-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-connective-tissue-disease-patients-clinical-manifestation-and-prognostic-factors-related-to-hospital-mortality
#7
X Huang, L Weng, L Yi, M Li, Y Y Feng, Y Tian, J G Xia, Q Y Zhan, B Du
Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of hospital death in connective tissue disease patients with acute respiratory failure caused by pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) admitted to two medical intensive care units(MICU). Methods: A retrospective review was conducted for all connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with acute respiratory failure from PCP in MICU of 2 academic medical centers between 2010 and 2015. The patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors. Demographic and clinical data, including laboratory, radiological and microbiological findings, as well as therapy, clinical course, mortality and prognostic factors of hospital mortality were included in the analysis...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502731/controversies-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-otosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
John T McElveen, J Walter Kutz
Controversies have been associated with the etiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of otosclerosis since Valsalva first described stapes fixation as a cause of hearing loss. Although the exact mechanism of the bone remodeling associated with otosclerosis remains uncertain, stapedotomy has been accepted as the surgical treatment of most patients with stapedial otosclerosis. There remains a disparity of opinion, however, regarding the role of preoperative imaging, surgical technique, implant selection, and medical therapy for cochlear otosclerosis...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466051/effect-of-a-syringe-aspiration-technique-versus-a-mechanical-suction-technique-and-use-of-n-butylscopolammonium-bromide-on-the-quantity-and-quality-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-samples-obtained-from-horses-with-the-summer-pasture-endophenotype-of-equine
#9
Jacquelyn E Bowser, Lais R R Costa, Alba U Rodil, Christine T Lopp, Melanie E Johnson, Robert W Wills, Cyprianna E Swiderski
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling techniques and the use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on the quantity and quality of BAL fluid (BALF) samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. ANIMALS 8 horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. PROCEDURES BAL was performed bilaterally (right and left lung sites) with a flexible videoendoscope passed through the left or right nasal passage. During lavage of the first lung site, a BALF sample was collected by means of either gentle syringe aspiration or mechanical suction with a pressure-regulated wall-mounted suction pump...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460254/diagnosis-of-arterial-gas-embolism-in-scuba-diving-modification-suggestion-of-autopsy-techniques-and-experience-in-eight-cases
#10
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450472/otorhinolaryngology-and-diving-part-1-otorhinolaryngological-hazards-related-to-compressed-gas-scuba-diving-a-review
#11
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390285/use-of-univent-tube-for-intermittent-lung-isolation-during-thoracoscopic-mediastinal-tracheal-resection-and-reconstruction-a-case-report
#12
Yabing Zhang, Juan Xin, Ye Ma, Qian Li, Bin Liu
RATIONALE: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea primary is a rare neoplasm and commonly misdiagnosed. Lung isolation during surgery and ventilation pose a tremendous challenge to anesthesiologists. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors describe a novel technique of lung isolation and ventilation with a Univent tube during thoracoscopic mediastinal tracheal resection and reconstruction in a female patient. DIAGNOSES: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma, nonsmall cell carcinoma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379268/glaucoma-related-retinal-oximetry-a-technology-update
#13
REVIEW
Zhu Li Yap, Sushma Verma, Yi Fang Lee, Charles Ong, Aditi Mohla, Shamira A Perera
There are two long-standing theories about the pathogenesis of glaucoma - barotrauma and the effect of vascular hypoxia. Currently, it is still unknown whether diminished blood flow is the cause or result of glaucomatous atrophy of ganglion cells and the optic nerve. Though many other imaging techniques used to directly assess ocular blood flow have been well studied, they are limited by their inability to directly assess metabolism in the ocular tissues or measure the oxygen carrying capacity in the vessels...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347913/an-unusual-case-of-infective-pneumocephalus-case-report-of-pneumocephalus-exacerbated-by-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#14
Abdus Samad Ansari, Brittany B Dennis, Dilip Shah, Winfred Baah
BACKGROUND: Pneumocephalus, illustrated by air in the cranial vault is relatively infrequent and generally associated with neurosurgery, trauma, meningitis and barotrauma. However cases of spontaneous non-traumatic pneumocephalus remain rare. While the relationship between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and atraumatic pneumocephalus has been previously reported, to our knowledge the rare presentation associated with sinus wall osteomyelitis has never been described. We summarize here the case of a 67-year-old woman's acute presentation of Streptococcus salvarius infection after a sudden drop in her consciousness...
January 18, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332785/the-squeeze-an-interesting-case-of-mask-barotrauma
#15
Ewan Barron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315176/outcome-measures-for-baro-challenge-induced-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#16
Bhavesh V Tailor, Matthew E Smith, Peter J A Hutchinson, James R Tysome
OBJECTIVES: Baro-challenge-induced Eustachian tube dysfunction (baro-induced ETD) is characterized by failure of the Eustachian tube (ET) to open adequately to permit middle-ear pressure regulation during ambient pressure changes. There are no well-characterized tests for identifying the condition, which makes both patient diagnosis and research into treatment efficacy challenging. This systematic review evaluates ET function tests as potential outcome measures for baro-induced ETD. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched (database inception to March 2017) and reference lists reviewed for all relevant English Language articles...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281192/dried-salted-plum-consumption-ameliorates-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-induced-otalgia-severity-at-the-first-chamber-session-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Fan-Chun Meng, Chih-Hao Shen, Di Wu, Chi-Ming Chu, Cheng-Ping Shih, Hung-Che Lin, Chung-Kan Peng, Shun Cheng Chang, Kun-Lun Huang
PURPOSE: One of the most common complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy is middle ear barotrauma (MEB), occasionally causing otalgia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dried salted plum consumption on MEB and otalgia associated with HBO₂ therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing the first chamber session of HBO₂ therapy were included in the present prospective randomized controlled trial. The Valsalva maneuver was administered to all patients before HBO₂...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279722/current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#18
REVIEW
Leif Erik Walther
Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière's disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278538/a-fire-extinguisher-death-the-macklin-effect
#19
Ryan Blumenthal, Brigitte Hänert-van der Zee
We present the case of an adult white man found dead in a psychiatric institution with fine white powder (monoammonium phosphate) deposited over the entire face after he insufflated the contents of a dry chemical fire extinguisher. Fine white powder was present within the mouth and sinuses and lined the upper airways. On opening the thoracic cavity, approximately 500 g of fine white powder was present within the right thoracic cavity. The esophagus was ruptured. Traumatic emphysema of the posterior sternum wall was present (pneumomediastinum)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241233/hyperbaric-oxygen-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-artery-occlusion
#20
Mark J Elder, John A Rawstron, Michael Davis
INTRODUCTION: Acute retinal artery occlusion (ARAO) is a major cause of sudden, painless visual loss, often leaving no useful vision in the affected eye. Its incidence is cited at 0.85 per 100,000 persons per year but may be higher because of under-reporting. The natural history is difficult to study, but a spontaneous resolution rate of < 1-8% for acute, non-arteritic ARAO has been cited. Occurrence in an only eye is devastating for the patient. There is currently no consensus regarding management of ARAO and little evidence to support any treatment modality...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
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