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Barotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061926/baro-otolagia-secondary-to-cholesteatoma
#1
Revadi Govindaraju, Meenakshi Adaikappan, Raman Rajagopalan
BACKGROUND: Baro-otalgia is a common complaint among passengers in an aircraft, in particular those who had a recent upper respiratory tract infection. The underlying pathophysiology is secondary to unequal aeration of the middle ear cleft with the surrounding atmosphere and it can be explained using Boyle's Law. We describe an unusual presentation of baro-otalgia in a pilot secondary to cholesteatoma obstructing the aditus despite normal middle ear pressure equalization provided by a grommet in the ear...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061917/upper-respiratory-infections-and-barotrauma-among-commercial-pilots
#2
Nina Monrad Boel, Mads Klokker
BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties despite the risk of incapacitation. Now, 10 yr later, this new study examines if the attention to URIs has improved. METHOD: This study was conducted at the Danish Aeromedical Centre over the course of 1 yr with 463 valid respondents to a questionnaire on URIs and ENT barotrauma...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012128/death-of-a-seven-month-old-child-in-a-washing-machine-a-case-report
#3
Antonio Osculati, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Laura Re, Marta Sozzi, Francesca Castelli, Luisa Andrello, Claudia Vignali
The authors present a case which brings out a unique modality of child homicide by placing the baby in a washing machine and turning it on. The murder was perpetrated by the baby's mother, who suffered from a serious depressive disorder. A postmortem RX and then a forensic autopsy were performed, followed by histologic examinations and toxicology. On the basis of the results of the autopsy, as well as the histology and the negative toxicological data, the cause of death was identified as acute asphyxia. This diagnosis was rendered in light of the absence of other causes of death, as well as the presence of typical signs of asphyxia, such as epicardial and pleural petechiae and, above all, the microscopic examinations, which pointed out a massive acute pulmonary emphysema...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966206/middle-ear-barotrauma-causing-transient-facial-nerve-paralysis-after-scuba-diving
#4
Matthew Lee Carmichael, K Paul Boyev
Middle ear barotrauma is a well known entity with typical injury occurring when diving or ascending in a commercial jetliner. Patients often present with symptoms of acute onset otalgia, hearing loss and sometimes haemotympanum (with or without tympanic membrane perforation). On rare occasions, facial nerve paralysis can occur when the tympanic segment of the facial nerve is dehiscent within the middle ear. We present a case of spontaneously resolving facial nerve palsy associated with middle ear barotrauma following a brief, shallow dive...
December 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957356/pneumomediastinum-secondary-to-barotrauma-after-recreational-nitrous-oxide-inhalation
#5
H Jeddy, Farhan Rashid, H Bhutta, B Lorenzi, A Charalabopoulos
We present a case of a seventeen-year-old patient, admitted in the care of the surgical team following inhalation of nitrous oxide at high pressure, leading to extensive pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema. We discuss the subsequent investigations and management for this patient. In the absence of history of airway injury and respiratory problems including asthma and with no oesophageal perforation on investigations, the diagnostic and management challenges encountered have been discussed which will help in future management of similar cases...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903671/sports-related-lung-injury-during-breath-hold-diving
#6
Tanja Mijacika, Zeljko Dujic
The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889667/the-impact-of-a-pulmonary-recruitment-maneuver-to-reduce-post-laparoscopic-shoulder-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Kyoungho Ryu, Wonjun Choi, Jaegeum Shim, Taejong Song
OBJECTIVE: A pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) can effectively reduce post-laparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP). However, a high-pressure PRM may cause pulmonary barotrauma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a PRM using two different maximum inspiratory pressures (40 and 60cmH2O) for reducing PLSP. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30), a 40 cmH2O PRM group (n=30), and a 60 cmH2O PRM group (n=30)...
January 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875060/open-versus-thoracoscopic-rfa-assisted-lung-resection
#8
Anna Poupalou, Michael Kontos, Evangelos Felekouras, Apostolos Papalois, Nikolaos Kavantzas, George Agrogiannis, Fatima Yagoubi, Periklis Tomos
The purpose of this study was to evaluate Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA)-assisted lung parenchymal transection through thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. Twelve domestic pigs underwent RFA-assisted lingulectomy: six through thoracotomy (group A), and six with thoracoscopy (group B). There was no mortality, no bleeding, or air leak intra- or postoperatively in either of the groups, and no conversion to open thoracotomy in group B. Group A had longer operating period and more pleural adhesions. A barotrauma, a skin burn, and a localized infection were observed in this group...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873331/low-tidal-volume-reduces-lung-inflammation-induced-by-liquid-ventilation-in-piglets-with-severe-lung-injury
#9
Lijun Jiang, Huizhen Feng, Xiaofan Chen, Kaifeng Liang, Chengyao Ni
Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively...
November 21, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861453/barotrauma-risk-with-direct-connection-of-oxygen-tubing-to-an-endotracheal-tube
#10
Paul A Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855477/recruitment-manoeuvres-for-adults-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-receiving-mechanical-ventilation
#11
REVIEW
Carol Hodgson, Ewan C Goligher, Meredith E Young, Jennifer L Keating, Anne E Holland, Lorena Romero, Scott J Bradley, David Tuxen
BACKGROUND: Recruitment manoeuvres involve transient elevations in airway pressure applied during mechanical ventilation to open ('recruit') collapsed lung units and increase the number of alveoli participating in tidal ventilation. Recruitment manoeuvres are often used to treat patients in intensive care who have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the effect of this treatment on clinical outcomes has not been well established. This systematic review is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2009...
17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849332/pulmonary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-pathological-changes-induced-by-blast-injury-in-a-rabbit-model
#12
Si Yu Wu, Geng Fen Han, Jian Yi Kang, Liang Chao Zhang, Ai Min Wang, Jian Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Vascular leakage has been proven to play a critical role in the incidence and development of explosive pulmonary barotrauma. Quantitatively investigated in the present study was the severity of vascular leakage in a gradient blast injury series, as well as ultrastructural evidence relating to pulmonary vascular leakage. METHODS: One hundred adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups according to distance from the detonator (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and sham control)...
September 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847813/jet-ventilation-during-rigid-bronchoscopy-in-adults-a-focused-review
#13
REVIEW
Laurie Putz, Alain Mayné, Anne-Sophie Dincq
The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844486/measurement-of-middle-ear-pressure-changes-during-balloon-eustachian-tuboplasty-a-pilot-study
#14
Ingo Todt, Tarek Abdel-Aziz, Philipp Mittmann, Martin Lehmann, Jörg Ebmeyer, Lars-Uwe Scholtz, Holger Sudhoff
CONCLUSION: The middle ear pressure changes detected during BET can be directly attributed to the balloon inflation and may represent a second, immediate, mechanism of action of BET. BET seems to be safe with respect to the risk of a barotrauma. Further human studies are now necessary to confirm the results and gain more insight into the mechanism of action of BET. OBJECTIVE: Since the introduction of Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty (BET) as a treatment of chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, the precise mechanism of action is unknown...
November 15, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842752/management-of-sedation-and-paralysis
#15
REVIEW
Michael A Fierro, Raquel R Bartz
Sedatives are administered to decrease patient discomfort and agitation during mechanical ventilation and to maintain patient-ventilator synchrony. Titration of infusions and or bolus dosing to maintain light sedation goals according to validated scales is recommended. However, it is important to consider deeper sedation for patients with refractory patient-ventilator dyssynchrony (PVD) to prevent volutrauma and barotrauma. Deep sedation plus muscle relaxants may be required to treat PVD or to reduce oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production...
December 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842744/ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#16
REVIEW
Jeremy R Beitler, Atul Malhotra, B Taylor Thompson
Prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) can attenuate multiorgan failure and improve survival in at-risk patients. Clinically significant VILI occurs from volutrauma, barotrauma, atelectrauma, biotrauma, and shear strain. Differences in regional mechanics are important in VILI pathogenesis. Several interventions are available to protect against VILI. However, most patients at risk of lung injury do not develop VILI. VILI occurs most readily in patients with concomitant physiologic insults. VILI prevention strategies must balance risk of lung injury with untoward side effects from the preventive effort, and may be most effective when targeted to subsets of patients at increased risk...
December 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836357/does-the-ex-utero-intrapartum-treatment-to-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-procedure-change-morbidity-outcomes-for-high-risk-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-survivors
#17
Hester F Shieh, Jay M Wilson, Catherine A Sheils, C Jason Smithers, Virginia S Kharasch, Ronald E Becker, Mollie Studley, Donna Morash, Terry L Buchmiller
PURPOSE: In high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), significant barotrauma or death can occur before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be initiated. We previously examined ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)-to-ECMO in our most severe CDH patients, but demonstrated no survival advantage. We now report morbidity outcomes in survivors of this high-risk cohort to determine whether EXIT-to-ECMO conferred any benefit. METHODS: All CDH survivors with <15% predicted lung volume (PPLV) from September 1999 to December 2010 were included...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811492/massive-subcutaneous-emphysema-and-bilateral-tension-pneumothoraces-after-supplemental-oxygen-delivery-via-an-airway-exchange-catheter-a-case-report
#18
Abraham H Hulst, Hans J Avis, Markus W Hollmann, Markus F Stevens
A patient suffered massive subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral tension pneumothoraces after receiving supplemental oxygen through an airway exchange catheter (AEC). Complications of AEC placement include misplacement, direct injury to the larynx, bronchi or lung, barotrauma related to oxygen supplementation, and a loss of airway. We review these complications and discuss the specific risks of supplementing oxygen using an AEC. We suggest measures to limit pressure from the oxygen source and warn against advancing an AEC too far into the tracheobronchial tree...
January 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796837/emergency-ventilation-with-the-ventrain-%C3%A2-through-an-airway-exchange-catheter-in-a-porcine-model-of-complete-upper-airway-obstruction
#19
Michiel W P de Wolf, Reiner Gottschall, Niels P Preussler, Markus Paxian, Dietmar Enk
PURPOSE: During difficult airway management, oxygen insufflation through airway-exchange and intubating catheters (AEC/IC) can lead to life-threatening hyperinflation. Ventrain(®) was originally designed to facilitate emergency ventilation using active expiration through short, small-bore cannulas. Herein, we studied its efficacy (oxygenation and ventilation) and safety (avoidance of hyperinflation) in a long, small-bore AEC. METHODS: In six anesthetized pigs, the upper airway was obstructed, except for a 100 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter AEC...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792818/spontaneous-laryngeal-barotrauma-depicted-on-ct
#20
Daniel T Ginat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
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