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Luis Ig Ribeiro, Philip W Ind
As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC...
October 20, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
A W Van Der Wal, P J A M Van Ooij, J A De Ru
OBJECTIVE: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in divers may be caused by either inner-ear barotrauma or inner-ear decompression sickness. There is no consensus on the best treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in divers. METHOD: A literature review and three cases of divers with sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy are presented. RESULTS: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulted in hearing improvement in 80 per cent of patients: 39 per cent had hearing improvement and 41 per cent had full recovery...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Tao Xiong, Hongju Chen, Rong Luo, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased the need for evidence-based treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms. Presently, no therapies are available to effectively treat individuals with all of the symptoms of this disorder. It has been suggested that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may alleviate the biochemical dysfunction and clinical symptoms of ASD. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment with hyperbaric oxygen:1. improves core symptoms of ASD, including social communication problems and stereotypical and repetitive behaviors;2...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Matthew E Smith, James R Tysome
OBJECTIVE: Balloon eustachian tuboplasty (BET) has entered clinical use as a treatment for eustachian tube dysfunction. Some surgeons perform myringotomy prior to BET due to concerns that the increase in middle ear (ME) pressure caused by BET may cause otic barotrauma. We investigated the ME pressure changes occurring during BET in cadavers. STUDY DESIGN: Human cadaver investigation of a surgical technique SETTING: Laboratory study at a tertiary referral center...
October 11, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Elisa Damiani, Alex Dyson, Lucia Zacchetti, Abele Donati, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia may compromise cell metabolism and organ function. Supplemental oxygen (O2) at high concentrations may prove ineffective, and issues relating to hyperoxia, barotrauma, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal oxygenation are well documented. Old reports suggest the potential safety and efficacy of alternative routes for O2 administration, such as intravenous or intestinal. We re-explored these routes in rat models of hypoxemia. METHODS: Hypoxemia was induced in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized rats by breathing a hypoxic gas mix (FiO2 0...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Nikolaj Hjort Schmidt, Kasper Hansen, Henrik Lauridsen, Annie Vesterby, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Alf Brubakk, Michael Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: The most common complications of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) are related to pressure changes on gas-containing cavities. Therefore, inability to auto-inflate the middle ear may result in transient or permanent hearing loss. However, it seems that middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) does not develop more often in mechanically ventilated patients than in ambulatory patients. This might be explained by deep sedation of these patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether anaesthesia and/or neuromuscular blockade can influence Eustachian tube (ET) function...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Natalia Petrasheskaya, Hyun-Jin Tae, Ismayil Ahmet, Mark I Talan, Edward G Lakatta, Li Lin
The rat carotid balloon injury is a well-established surgical model that has been used to study arterial remodeling and vascular cell proliferation. It is also a valuable model system to test, and to evaluate therapeutics and drugs that negate maladaptive remodeling in the vessel. The injury, or barotrauma, in the vessel lumen caused by an inflated balloon via an inserted catheter induces subsequent neointimal growth, often leading to hyperplasia or thickening of the vessel wall that narrows, or obstructs the lumen...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cathal N O'Leary, James W Ryan, Gillian Corbett, Carole A Ridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
P Benson Ham, Brice Hwang, Linda J Wise, K Christian Walters, Walter L Pipkin, Charles G Howell, Jatinder Bhatia, Robyn Hatley
Conventional treatment of respiratory failure involves positive pressure ventilation that can worsen lung damage. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is typically used when conventional therapy fails. In this study, we evaluated the use of venovenous (VV)-ECMO for the treatment of severe pediatric respiratory failure at our institution. A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients (age 1-18) placed on ECMO in the last 15 years (1999-2014) by the pediatric surgery team for respiratory failure was performed...
September 2016: American Surgeon
Melisa Melek Tuncer, Seda Turkoglu Babakurban, Erdinc Aydin
BACKGROUND: Barotrauma is a frequent problem in aviation medicine. Eustachian tube dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of barotrauma. Function of the Eustachian tube can be indirectly assessed by multifrequency tympanometry, which provides valuable information about the resistance and permeability of the middle ear in a wide frequency range. The aim of this study was to research whether multifrequency tympanometry could be used for assessing middle ear impairments in pilots...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Pasquale Giugliano, Francesco Massoni, Antonello Crisci, Serafino Ricci
Lesions of the digestive tract due to barotrauma resulting from compressed air application are not common, are rarely lethal, and largely affect the sigmoid and descending colon. Moreover, their pathogenic mechanism is a topic of discussion because these lesions have multiple characteristics. Here, the authors describe an autoptic case of death from lesions of the ascending and transverse segments, with perforations and bleeding suffusions as well as ischemic areas covered the colonic wall that was extremely thinned, congested, and hemorrhagic, with considerable flattening leading to disappearance of the mucosal folds and with numerous petechial hemorrhages...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Stefanie Jansen, Moritz Friedo Meyer, Manuela Boor, Moritz Felsch, Heinz-Dieter Kluenter, Eberhard Daniel Pracht, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of middle ear barotrauma (MEB) and to establish risk factors of MEB after repeated saltwater dives. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study 28 divers were examined over 6 consecutive days of diving in the Red Sea, Egypt. Participants underwent an otoscopic examination before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. In addition, they performed Valsalva maneuver (VM) and were questioned about dive-related complaints...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Ahmed Ahmed El-Nawawy, Amina Sedky Al-Halawany, Manal Abdelmalik Antonios, Reem Gamal Newegy
OBJECTIVE: Pneumothorax should be considered a medical emergency and requires a high index of suspicion and prompt recognition and intervention. AIMS: The objective of the study was to evaluate cases developing pneumothorax following admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over a 5-year period. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Case notes of all PICU patients (n = 1298) were reviewed, revealing that 135 cases (10.4%) developed pneumothorax, and these were compared with those patients who did not...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Kyu Nam Kim, Dong Won Kim, Mi Ae Jeong, Yeong Hun Sin, Soo Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Not only arterial hypoxemia but acute lung injury also has become the major concerns of one-lung ventilation (OLV). The use of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) for OLV offers the potential advantages of lower airway pressure and intrapulmonary shunt, which result in a reduced risk of barotrauma and improved oxygenation, respectively. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials and KoreaMedto find publications comparing the effects of PCV with those of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) during intraoperative OLV in adults...
August 31, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Xiang-Dong Mu, Peng Jia, Li Gao, Li Su, Cheng Zhang, Ren-Gui Wang, Guang-Fa Wang
BACKGROUND: Although radiological features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) immunocompromised patients have been reported by other authors, there were no studies on the radiological stages of PCP previously. This study aimed to elucidate the radiological stages and prognoses of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of radiological manifestations and prognoses of 105 non-AIDS PCP immunocompromised patients from August 2009 to April 2016 was conducted...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
L V Duggan, B Ballantyne Scott, J A Law, I R Morris, M F Murphy, D E Griesdale
BACKGROUND: Transtracheal jet ventilation (TTJV) is recommended in several airway guidelines as a potentially life-saving procedure during the 'Can't Intubate Can't Oxygenate' (CICO) emergency. Some studies have questioned its effectiveness. METHODS: Our goal was to determine the complication rates of TTJV in the CICO emergency compared with the emergency setting where CICO is not described (non-CICO emergency) or elective surgical setting. Several databases of published and unpublished literature were searched systematically for studies describing TTJV in human subjects...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Ji Eun Choi, Il Joon Moon, Hankyeol Kim, Kieun Lee, Yang-Sun Cho, Won-Ho Chung
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sudden hearing loss and dizziness after barotrauma should be suspected of barotraumatic perilymph fistula (PLF). Early surgical repair of PLF showed better hearing outcomes. Therefore, diagnostic criteria should help surgical indications of barotraumatic PLF. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish diagnostic criteria for barotraumatic PLF. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (26 ears) underwent surgery on suspicion of barotraumatic PLF...
August 26, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Irene Dot, Purificación Pérez-Teran, Manuel-Andrés Samper, Joan-Ramon Masclans
Muscle involvement is found in most critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diaphragmatic muscle alteration, initially included in this category, has been differentiated in recent years, and a specific type of muscular dysfunction has been shown to occur in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. We found this muscle dysfunction to appear in this subgroup of patients shortly after the start of mechanical ventilation, observing it to be mainly associated with certain control modes, and also with sepsis and/or multi-organ failure...
August 20, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
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