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Barotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450472/otorhinolaryngology-and-diving-part-1-otorhinolaryngological-hazards-related-to-compressed-gas-scuba-diving-a-review
#1
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390285/use-of-univent-tube-for-intermittent-lung-isolation-during-thoracoscopic-mediastinal-tracheal-resection-and-reconstruction-a-case-report
#2
Yabing Zhang, Juan Xin, Ye Ma, Qian Li, Bin Liu
RATIONALE: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea primary is a rare neoplasm and commonly misdiagnosed. Lung isolation during surgery and ventilation pose a tremendous challenge to anesthesiologists. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors describe a novel technique of lung isolation and ventilation with a Univent tube during thoracoscopic mediastinal tracheal resection and reconstruction in a female patient. DIAGNOSES: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma, nonsmall cell carcinoma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379268/glaucoma-related-retinal-oximetry-a-technology-update
#3
REVIEW
Zhu Li Yap, Sushma Verma, Yi Fang Lee, Charles Ong, Aditi Mohla, Shamira A Perera
There are two long-standing theories about the pathogenesis of glaucoma - barotrauma and the effect of vascular hypoxia. Currently, it is still unknown whether diminished blood flow is the cause or result of glaucomatous atrophy of ganglion cells and the optic nerve. Though many other imaging techniques used to directly assess ocular blood flow have been well studied, they are limited by their inability to directly assess metabolism in the ocular tissues or measure the oxygen carrying capacity in the vessels...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347913/an-unusual-case-of-infective-pneumocephalus-case-report-of-pneumocephalus-exacerbated-by-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#4
Abdus Samad Ansari, Brittany B Dennis, Dilip Shah, Winfred Baah
BACKGROUND: Pneumocephalus, illustrated by air in the cranial vault is relatively infrequent and generally associated with neurosurgery, trauma, meningitis and barotrauma. However cases of spontaneous non-traumatic pneumocephalus remain rare. While the relationship between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and atraumatic pneumocephalus has been previously reported, to our knowledge the rare presentation associated with sinus wall osteomyelitis has never been described. We summarize here the case of a 67-year-old woman's acute presentation of Streptococcus salvarius infection after a sudden drop in her consciousness...
January 18, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332785/the-squeeze-an-interesting-case-of-mask-barotrauma
#5
Ewan Barron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315176/outcome-measures-for-baro-challenge-induced-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#6
Bhavesh V Tailor, Matthew E Smith, Peter J A Hutchinson, James R Tysome
OBJECTIVES: Baro-challenge-induced Eustachian tube dysfunction (baro-induced ETD) is characterized by failure of the Eustachian tube (ET) to open adequately to permit middle-ear pressure regulation during ambient pressure changes. There are no well-characterized tests for identifying the condition, which makes both patient diagnosis and research into treatment efficacy challenging. This systematic review evaluates ET function tests as potential outcome measures for baro-induced ETD. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched (database inception to March 2017) and reference lists reviewed for all relevant English Language articles...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281192/dried-salted-plum-consumption-ameliorates-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-induced-otalgia-severity-at-the-first-chamber-session-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#7
Fan-Chun Meng, Chih-Hao Shen, Di Wu, Chi-Ming Chu, Cheng-Ping Shih, Hung-Che Lin, Chung-Kan Peng, Shun Cheng Chang, Kun-Lun Huang
PURPOSE: One of the most common complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy is middle ear barotrauma (MEB), occasionally causing otalgia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dried salted plum consumption on MEB and otalgia associated with HBO₂ therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing the first chamber session of HBO₂ therapy were included in the present prospective randomized controlled trial. The Valsalva maneuver was administered to all patients before HBO₂...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279722/current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#8
REVIEW
Leif Erik Walther
Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière's disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278538/a-fire-extinguisher-death-the-macklin-effect
#9
Ryan Blumenthal, Brigitte Hänert-van der Zee
We present the case of an adult white man found dead in a psychiatric institution with fine white powder (monoammonium phosphate) deposited over the entire face after he insufflated the contents of a dry chemical fire extinguisher. Fine white powder was present within the mouth and sinuses and lined the upper airways. On opening the thoracic cavity, approximately 500 g of fine white powder was present within the right thoracic cavity. The esophagus was ruptured. Traumatic emphysema of the posterior sternum wall was present (pneumomediastinum)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241233/hyperbaric-oxygen-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-artery-occlusion
#10
Mark J Elder, John A Rawstron, Michael Davis
INTRODUCTION: Acute retinal artery occlusion (ARAO) is a major cause of sudden, painless visual loss, often leaving no useful vision in the affected eye. Its incidence is cited at 0.85 per 100,000 persons per year but may be higher because of under-reporting. The natural history is difficult to study, but a spontaneous resolution rate of < 1-8% for acute, non-arteritic ARAO has been cited. Occurrence in an only eye is devastating for the patient. There is currently no consensus regarding management of ARAO and little evidence to support any treatment modality...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241231/influence-of-repetitive-diving-in-freshwater-on-pressure-equalization-and-eustachian-tube-function-in-recreational-scuba-divers
#11
Stefanie Jansen, Manuela Boor, Moritz F Meyer, Eberhard D Pracht, Ruth Volland, Heinz D Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during freshwater dives on Eustachian tube function and the middle ear, assessed by the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT). METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included 23 divers over three consecutive days of diving in freshwater lakes in Nordhausen, Germany. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp)...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241230/influence-of-repetitive-diving-in-saltwater-on-pressure-equalization-and-eustachian-tube-function-in-recreational-scuba-divers
#12
Moritz F Meyer, Manuela Boor, Stefanie Jansen, Eberhard D Pracht, Moritz Felsch, Heinz D Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: We investigated in a prospective, observational trial the feasibility of using the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT) to measure the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during open seawater dives on Eustachian tube function. METHODS: The study included 28 adult divers during six consecutive days of diving in the Red Sea. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp)...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199768/invasive-versus-non-invasive-ventilation-for-acute-respiratory-failure-in-neuromuscular-disease-and-chest-wall-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Fang Luo, Djillali Annane, David Orlikowski, Li He, Mi Yang, Muke Zhou, Guan J Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure is a common life-threatening complication of acute onset neuromuscular diseases, and may exacerbate chronic hypoventilation in patients with neuromuscular disease or chest wall disorders. Standard management includes oxygen supplementation, physiotherapy, cough assistance, and, whenever needed, antibiotics and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) via nasal, buccal or full-face devices has become routine practice in many centres...
December 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194585/complex-interactions-between-hypoxia-ischemia-and-inflammation-in-preterm-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Robert Galinsky, Christopher A Lear, Justin M Dean, Guido Wassink, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Mhoyra Fraser, Joanne O Davidson, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Children surviving preterm birth have a high risk of disability, particularly cognitive and learning problems. There is extensive clinical and experimental evidence that disability is now primarily related to dysmaturation of white and gray matter, defined by failure of oligodendrocyte maturation and neuronal dendritic arborization, rather than cell death alone. The etiology of this dysmaturation is multifactorial, with contributions from hypoxia-ischemia, infection/inflammation and barotrauma. Intriguingly, these factors can interact to both increase and decrease damage...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157881/deformation-of-avian-middle-ear-structures-under-static-pressure-loads-and-potential-regulation-mechanisms
#15
Raf Claes, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Joris J J Dirckx, Peter Aerts
Static pressure changes can alter the configuration and mechanical behavior of the chain of ossicles, which may affect the acoustic transfer function. In mammals, the Eustachian tube plays an important role in restoring ambient middle ear pressure, hence restoring the acoustic transfer function and excluding barotrauma of the middle and inner ear. Ambient pressure fluctuations can be potentially extreme in birds and due to the simple structure of the avian middle ear (one ossicle, one muscle), regulation of the middle ear pressure via reflexive opening of the pharyngotympanic tube appears all the more important...
November 7, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152209/case-control-study-hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-persistent-post-concussion-syndrome-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Paul G Harch, Susan R Andrews, Edward F Fogarty, Juliette Lucarini, Keith W Van Meter
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are epidemic in United States Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Treatment of the combined diagnoses is limited. The aim of this study is to assess safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) for mild TBI PPCS and PTSD. Thirty military subjects aged 18-65 with PPCS with or without PTSD and from one or more blast-induced mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries that were a minimum of 1 year old and occurred after 9/11/2001 were studied...
July 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116695/repetitive-freshwater-diving-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-barotrauma
#17
Stefanie Jansen, Moritz Friedo Meyer, Manuela Boor, Ruth Volland, Eberhard Daniel Pracht, Heinz Dieter Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the influence of repetitive scuba diving in fresh water on the middle ear mucosa. The prevalence of middle ear barotrauma (MEB) and risk factors for MEB were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, Level of evidence 1b. METHODS: During three days, 23 divers made 144 repetitive dives in a freshwater lake. Participants underwent otoscopic examinations and were questioned about ENT-related complaints in the morning before the first dive, in between the dives and after the last dive...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109900/preventable-diving-related-ocular-barotrauma-a-case-report
#18
Serkan Ergözen
The mystical beauty of the subaquatic world is undoubtedly attractive, and many techniques and forms of equipment have been developed in the last few decades to allow us to explore the underwater world. A swimmer or diver needs swimming goggles or a diving mask to have clear vision because of the refraction problem between the eye and the water interface. Although these items are effective for clear vision, they can result in "ocular or facial barotrauma of descent" during diving. It is possible to prevent these types of barotrauma with correct techniques and precautions, thus enabling the continuation of recreational diving without recurrence...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#19
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070267/barosinusitis-comprehensive-review-and-proposed-new-classification-system
#20
Reza Vaezeafshar, Alkis J Psaltis, Vidya K Rao, David Zarabanda, Zara M Patel, Jayakar V Nayak
BACKGROUND: Barosinusitis, or sinus barotrauma, may arise from changes in ambient pressure that are not compensated by force equalization mechanisms within the paranasal sinuses. Barosinusitis is most commonly seen with barometric changes during flight or diving. Understanding and better classifying the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of barosinusitis are essential to improve patient care. OBJECTIVES: To perform a comprehensive review of the available literature regarding sinus barotrauma...
October 1, 2017: Allergy & Rhinology
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