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Aerospace medicine

Aaqil Rifai, Nhiem Tran, Desmond W M Lau, Aaron James Elbourne, Hualin Zhan, Alastair Stacey, Avik Sarker, Edwin Lawrence Harrop Mayes, Elena P Ivanova, Russell J Crawford, Phong A Tran, Brant C Gibson, Andrew D Greentree, Elena Pirogova, Kate Fox
Additive manufacturing using selective laser melted titanium (SLM-Ti) is used to create of bespoke items across many diverse fields such as medicine, defence and aerospace. Despite great progress in orthopaedic implant applications, such as for 'just in time' implants, significant challenges remain with regards to material osseointegration and the susceptibility to bacterial colonization on the implant. Here, we show that polycrystalline diamond coatings on these titanium samples can enhance biological scaffold interaction improving medical implant applicability...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ming-Hsien Lin, Chwan-Fwu Lin, Shih-Chun Yang, Chi-Feng Hung, Jia-You Fang
The employment of nanoparticles has markedly increased in recent years for different applications such as aerospace technology, electronics, biology, and medicine. The exposure of nanoparticles to humans is inevitable nowadays. Neutrophils act as the predominant phagocytic cells for first-line defense to be recruited to an inflammatory site against xenobiotics. It is important to explore how neutrophils interact with nanoparticles to elicit immune responses. Different types of nanoparticles have been studied to reveal a potential interaction to neutrophils in vitro and in vivo...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Pawan Kapoor, Deepak Gaur
All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Michael T Walkingstick, Eric S Krage, Richard R Brey
Depleted uranium (DU) munitions were initially used by the United States (U.S.) military during the first Persian Gulf War in 1991 in order to penetrate heavily armored vehicles. However, as a result of friendly fire, several U.S. military personnel received intakes from DU munitions. One of the ongoing concerns for these wounded veterans is the potential long-term exposure received from DU embedded fragments. The United States Army Institute of Public Health (AIPH) is the first laboratory that analyzes the urine bioassays from Army Soldiers that are injured with DU fragments...
March 2018: Health Physics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
David Shumway Jones, Gerald M Oppenheimer
Most historians, epidemiologists, and physicians credit the Framing-ham Heart Study for introducing the term "risk factor" to public health and medicine. Many add that the term came from life insurance companies. This familiar history is incorrect. Taking advantage of the expanding availability of digitized and full-text searchable journals, textbooks, newspapers, and other sources, we have uncovered a deeper and broader history. Antecedent concepts (such as risk, factor, predisposition) have ancient roots...
2017: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Valerie E Martindale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
M Vellas, C Fualdes, J E Morley, C Dray, L Rodriguez-Manas, A Meyer, L Michel, Y Rolland, Y Gourinat
An open discussion between experts from life sciences and aeronautics has been held in order to investigate how both area of research overlap and could be relevant to each other, precisely on the topic of aging. Similarities in aging processes and prediction methodologies have been identified between human aging and aircraft aging. Two axis of collaboration have been raised: 1) The identification of the determinants in Aircraft aging (structural aging). 2) The development of P4 Systems medicine inspired new methodologies in the predictive maintenance...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Meryem Zerrik, Houda Echchachoui, Zakaria Iloughmane, Choukri El'mhadi, Salaheddine Elkhader, Laila Benaissa, Mohamed Chemsi
BACKGROUND: ''Cannon ball'' opacities on chest X-rays are a common manifestation of hematogenous dissemination of a malignant tumor in the lungs. They indicate an advanced stage of disease with a very grim prognosis in terms of cure and survival. In aerospace medicine, this aspect means the patient is unfit for flight duties. Nonmetastatic etiologies of pulmonary nodules are rare. We report a case of cannon ball opacities discovered fortuitously during an admission visit. CASE REPORT: A 23-yr-old flight attendant candidate came to the Aeromedical Expertise Center of the Military Hospital in Rabat for medical evaluation...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Lie Sun, Danian Hu
The construction of nine high-end technical installations (hereafter Project NGI, for Nine Great Installations or ) in the 1960s and 1970s was an indispensable part of the development of China's defense and heavy industries. The project put more than 1400 machines into operation or trial operation during the Culture Revolution (1966-1976), and they served essential technical functions in sectors such as aviation, aerospace, machinery, metallurgy, and electronics, and directly advancing the development of these fields...
September 2017: Endeavour
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Bernd Johannes, Stefanie Rothe, André Gens, Soeren Westphal, Katja Birkenfeld, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger, Carla Ledderhos
BACKGROUND: The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). METHODS: The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sunil Kumar, Suchandan K Das
Nanoporous aluminium has great importance for large scale production of automobile and aerospace spare parts due to its lightweight and non-corrosive nature. It is also suitable for various packaging applications of edible things, electronic components, and medicines. We have used triaxial tensile deformation methodology to create a nanoporous structure of aluminium using molecular dynamics simulation. The surface area and solid volume have been calculated to characterize the 3-D nanoporous structure of aluminium...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Heather J Mahaney, Valarie M Schroeder, Genny M Maupin
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the use of statin therapy in U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia in terms of compliance with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and effectiveness in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: This was a mixed design, 8-yr retrospective study that included 8185 participants with isolated hypercholesterolemia, of which 1458 (17.81%) were prescribed statin monotherapy...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Erik S DeSoucy, Scott A Zakaluzny, Joseph M Galante
BACKGROUND: Graduating military preliminary interns are often required to fill flight surgeon billets. General surgery preliminary interns get experience evaluating surgical and trauma patients, but receive very little training in primary care and flight medicine. At a joint military and civilian training program, we developed a supplemental curriculum to help transition our interns into flight medicine. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, we developed a lecture series focused on aerospace medicine, primary care, and specialty topics including dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry, and women's health...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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