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Carley A Gwin, Claudia K Gunsch
AIMS: The overarching aims of this study were to determine if microbes found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) carry silver resistance genes and ascertain whether a relationship exists between silver loading and sil silver resistance gene copy numbers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Activated sludge samples were collected from 17 WWTPs across the United States and characterized for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total silver concentration. Gene copy numbers were quantified using qPCR for four common silver resistance genes (silC, silP, silR, and silS)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Val Gebski, Valérie Garès, Emma Gibbs, Karen Byth
We propose methods to determine the minimum number of subjects remaining at risk after which Kaplan-Meier survival plots for time-to-event outcomes should be curtailed, as, once the number remaining at risk drops below this minimum, the survival estimates are no longer meaningful in the context of the investigation. The size of the decrease of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate S(t) at time t if one extra event should occur is considered in two ways. In the first approach, the investigator sets a maximum acceptable absolute decrease in S(t) should one extra event occur...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Francisco Tinahones, Lluis Fajas, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Fernando Cardona
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has gained importance to identify links between the genome and the proteome. Adipose tissue has emerged as an active tissue, which secretes a wide range of molecules that have been related to metabolic and obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes, cardiovascular failure, metabolic syndrome, or cancer. In turn, epigenetics has raised the importance in discerning the possible relationship between metabolic disorders, lifestyle and environment. However, ChIP application in human adipose tissue is limited by several factors, such as sample size, frozen sample availability, high lipid content and cellular composition of the tissue...
2018: PloS One
Matthew B Applegate, Darren Roblyer
Frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) is an established technique capable of determining optical properties and chromophore concentrations in biological tissue. Most FD-DOS systems use either manually positioned, handheld probes or complex arrays of source and detector fibers to acquire data from many tissue locations, allowing for the generation of 2D or 3D maps of tissue. Here, we present a new method to rapidly acquire a wide range of source-detector (SD) separations by mechanically scanning a single SD pair...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Giuseppina Mandalari, Mary L Parker, Myriam M-L Grundy, Terri Grassby, Antonella Smeriglio, Carlo Bisignano, Roberto Raciti, Domenico Trombetta, David J Baer, Peter J Wilde
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility...
February 14, 2018: Nutrients
Daniel Koutny, David Palousek, Libor Pantelejev, Christian Hoeller, Rudolf Pichler, Lukas Tesicky, Jozef Kaiser
This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds...
February 14, 2018: Materials
Katie Braun, Anne Utech, Maria Eugenia Velez, Renee Walker
BACKGROUND: Studied since the 1940s, refeeding syndrome still has no universal definition, thus making comparison of studies difficult. Negative outcomes (eg, metabolic abnormalities) may occur with the use of specialized nutrition, such as parenteral nutrition (PN). Less than half of medical institutions have a nutrition support team (NST) managing PN. Interdisciplinary team management of PN may reduce negative outcomes of PN. The objective of this study was to show the value of the NST by measuring differences in PN variables, especially electrolyte abnormalities (EAs), before and after NST initiation at a large medical center and to identify factors associated with EAs among adult subjects receiving PN...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Morgan Philp, Ronald Shimmon, Mark Tahtouh, Shanlin Fu
Synthetic cathinones are a large class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) that are increasingly prevalent in drug seizures made by law enforcement and other border protection agencies globally. Color testing is a presumptive identification technique indicating the presence or absence of a particular drug class using rapid and uncomplicated chemical methods. Owing to their relatively recent emergence, a color test for the specific identification of synthetic cathinones is not currently available. In this study, we introduce a protocol for the presumptive identification of synthetic cathinones, employing three aqueous reagent solutions: copper(II) nitrate, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine) and sodium acetate...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aurelia C Kucera, Britt J Heidinger
Collection of semen may be useful for a wide range of applications including studies involving sperm quality, sperm telomere dynamics, and epigenetics. Birds are widely used subjects in biological research and are ideal for studies involving repeated sperm samples. However, few resources are currently available for those wishing to learn how to collect and extract DNA from avian sperm. Here we describe cloacal massage, a gentle, non-invasive manual technique for collecting avian sperm. Although this technique is established in the literature, it can be difficult to learn from the available descriptions...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yanjuan Liao, Jingnan Huang, Xu Huang, Shaoji Jiang
Noble metal sculptured thin films have attracted great research interest last decade as competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. However, the influences of the deposition conditions and the morphology on the plasmonic properties and SERS performance of the metal sculptured thin films have not been well understood due to the complexities of the morphology. In this work, the influences of the deposition angle and the height are investigated in both experiment and numerical simulation. A more accurate geometrical model based on the binarized scanning electron microscope images has been utilized to study the near-field plasmonic properties of Ag column thin films by taking account of the geometry irregularities, size distributions and random arrangement of the columns...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ganesh R Bhand, Manorama G Lakhe, Ashwini B Rohom, Priyanka U Londhe, Sulabha K Kulkarni, Nandu B Chaure
Monodispersed and highly luminescence cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared in a single pot by colloidal reaction method. The QDs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to study the structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties. The growth temperature played an important role to control the particle size...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Vivek Borse, Adisha Kashikar, Rohit Srivastava
Quantum dots are the semiconductor nanocrystals having unique optical and electronic properties. Quantum dots are category of fluorescent labels utilized for biological tagging, biosensing, bioassays, bioimaging and in vivo imaging as they exhibit very small size, signal brightness, photostability, tuning of light emission range, longer photoluminescence decay time as compared to organic dyes. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MPA-CdTe QDs) using hydrothermal method...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
J H Yao, Y W Li, X B Song, Y F Zhang, J Yan
The ZnFe2O4 samples with the triblock copolymer P123 (P123) additive quantity of 0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 8 wt.% and 10 wt.% were prepared by a very facile homogeneous precipitation method followed by high temperature sintering. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results revealed that the five prepared samples are all normal spinel zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4); the sample with the P123 additive quantity of 8 wt...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
A Silambarasu, A Manikandan, K Balakrishnan, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, E Manikandan, Jagathrakshakan Sundeep Aanand
Spinel MnFe2O4 nanostructures were synthesized by simple, economical and eco-friendly microwave combustion (MCM) and conventional combustion (CCM) methods using metal nitrates and glycine used as the fuel, instead of toxic inorganic/organic catalyst, template and surfactant. Powder XRD and FT-IR, EDX and SAED results were confirmed the products have a cubic phase spinel structure. EDX and SAED results confirmed purity and high crystallinity without any other secondary phase impurities. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis indicate that the MCM and CCM products consist of nano- and microstructures, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Diego R Carvalho, Isaias B Aragao, Daniela Zanchet
We synthesized Pt supported catalysts by the glucose assisted hydrothermal method, in which a carbon template was used to form a porous CeO2 structure upon calcination. Special emphasis was given to evaluate the influence of calcination parameters in the structural and textural properties of the catalysts and the final impact in the catalytic activity of CO oxidation reaction under hydrogen rich atmosphere (PROX-CO). We show that at 350 °C the carbon matrix was already mostly burnt and that higher temperatures and holding times mostly increase the CeO2 crystallite sizes...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Chengkun Guo, Xianghua Kong, Hengxing Ji
Obstacles associated with graphene as transparent conductive films mainly consist of the difficulties in high-quality graphene synthesis, efficient transfer and doping of samples with lateral size of tens of centimeters for practical applications. Herein we demonstrate a hot-roll-pressing transfer technique followed by wet-chemical doping of large area graphene film grown on copper foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This method enabled cost-effective and ultraclean transfer of single-layer graphene with an arbitrary size onto transparent ethylene vinyl acetate/polyethylene terephthalate (EVA/PET) substrate without any polymer residues...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jinzhu Wu, Yaxiu Feng, Yanbin Shao, Yanchun Sun
Nitrogen and silicon co-doped carbon nanodots (N/Si-CDs) were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal carbonization of folic acid and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane with the assistance of glycerol. The resultant N/Si-CDs present intense excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL) emission owing to their monodisperse sizes and specific surface states. In comparison to nitrogen single doped CDs (N-CDs), the co-doped N/Si-CDs possess better PL properties following different emission manner due to the synergistic effects of the nitrogen and silicon dopants...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ayoub Yari Boroujeni, Marwan Al-Haik, Anahita Emami, Roozbeh Kalhor
Integrating nano-sized reinforcing materials into carbon fiber polymer composites (CFRPs) could enhance several aspects of their mechanical performance; e.g., interfacial strength, delamination resistance and vibrations attenuation. In this study, ZnO nanorods were grown on the surface of carbon fibers to create hybrid reinforcements. The hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods was tuned such that relatively long (>2.0 μm) nanorods can be grown. This synthesis technique requires pre-deposition of a thin seeding layer of ZnO particulates on the carbon fibers to initiate the ZnO nanorods growth...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
P Bhavani, A Manikandan, P Paulraj, A Dinesh, M Durka, S Arul Antony
Spinel ZnAl2O4 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple, economical and eco-friendly microwave irradiation (MIM) and conventional heating methods (CHM), using metal nitrates and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plant extract, which play a dual role of both oxidizing and reducing nature. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern results were confirmed that the samples have a single-phase cubic spinel structure with high crystalline nature of ZnAl2O4...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Qi Luo, Xueshuang Deng, Wenhan Chen, Hai Guo, Wei Ou-Yang, Xiaohong Chen, Sumei Huang
We report a simple method for the fabrication of a three-layered plasmonic structure of silicon substrate-Au nanospheres-upconversion particles (UCNPs) that displays up to 101-fold fluorescence enhancement. Monodispersed pure hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb,Er core and NaYF4:Yb,Er@NaYF4 core@shell nanocrystals were prepared by a solvothermal method. Two dimensional (2D) assembled Au spheres were prepared on a Si substrate, and then, 2D arrays of UCNPs were deposited on the grown 2D monolayered Au spheres by a self-organizing process...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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