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Christina Gambacorta, Jian Ding, Suzanne P McKee, Dennis M Levi
Abnormal early visual development can result in a constellation of neural and visual deficits collectively known as amblyopia. Among the many deficits, a common finding is that both saccadic and manual reaction times to targets presented to the amblyopic eye are substantially delayed when compared to the fellow eye or to normal eyes. Given the well-known deficits in contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic eye, a natural question is whether the prolonged reaction times are simply a consequence of reduced stimulus visibility...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Yo Iwata, Tomoya Handa, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Toshiaki Goseki, Nobuyuki Shoji
We evaluated amblyopia treatment, comparing training with glasses only and training with glasses and the Occlu-pad, a binocular open-type amblyopia training device. Forty-six children (4.8 ± 1.1 years) diagnosed with anisometropic amblyopia, all wearing complete correction glasses, were treated either with glasses only, or with glasses in combination with the Occlu-pad (training time: 2 days a week, 30 minutes per day). We compared visual acuity scores at 3 and 6 months after treatment had started, and examined the compliance rate for the Occlu-pad training...
2018: BioMed Research International
Veit Sturm, Josef Guber, Marcio Silva, Jan Heckmann, Claudia Zawinka
BACKGROUND: Congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE) is an uncommon benign lesion with characteristic clinical features. Ophthalmoscopically it appears as a small localized, well circumscribed, pigmented tumor in the foveal region. In contrast to the more common flat congenital hypertrophy of the RPE the CSHRPE has an elevated nodular appearance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of three patients with CSHRPE. Clinical morphological features using different imaging techniques are presented...
April 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Sophie Bryselbout, Veronique Promelle, Florent Pracca, Solange Milazzo
INTRODUCTION: Consecutive exotropia is one of the complications of esotropia surgery. Its prevalence is estimated at 4%-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for consecutive exotropia in the aftermath of surgical treatment of esotropia. METHODS: Seventy-four patients examined in our strabismus consultation for a consecutive exotropia from January 2010 to June 2016 were retrospectively included. The age of onset of esotropia, the presence of amblyopia, the age of esotropia surgery and chosen procedure, the refractive errors, the anomalies of ocular motility, the age of onset of the consecutive exotropia and its angle of deviation were reported...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Martin McKibbin, Tracey M Farragher, Darren Shickle
Objective: To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Methods and analysis: Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models...
2018: BMJ Open Ophthalmology
Chuan Hou, William V Good, Anthony M Norcia
Purpose: Vernier and grating acuity can be measured with swept-parameter visual evoked potentials (sVEP). However, whether sVEP Vernier and grating acuities are comparable in predicting letter acuity has not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the validity and reliability of sVEP Vernier and grating acuity for the detection of amblyopia in adults. Methods: Three types of acuity were measured in 36 adults with amblyopia and 36 age-matched normal-vision controls...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Yi-Zhong Wang, Lori Dao, Cynthia L Beauchamp, Joel N Leffler, Eileen E Birch
Purpose: Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jiafeng Wang, Lixia Feng, Yonghua Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Robert F Hess
In this study, we investigated the effect of optical treatment on sensory eye balance in anisometropic amblyopia. Fourteen individuals (age: 13.7 ± 8.4 years old) with previously untreated anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled in the study. The average magnitude of their anisometropia (spherical equivalent) was 4.02 ± 1.19 DS. Their best corrected monocular visual acuity and sensory eye balance were measured before and after a 2-month period of full refractive correction (i.e., our optical treatment). Spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (at 5 m) was measured monocularly using the Tumbling E Chart...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Jitender Jinagal, Gaurav Gupta, Parul C Gupta, Sonam Yangzes, Rishiraj Singh, Rohit Gupta, Jagat Ram
INTRODUCTION: To report visual outcomes and risk factors of pediatric traumatic cataracts in a tertiary care referral center in northern India. METHODS: We analyzed medical records of traumatic cataracts in the pediatric age group (1-15 years) operated for cataract surgery with or without posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation with or without primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy between 2004 and 2012. Causative agents, types of trauma, demographic factors, surgical interventions, complications, and visual acuity were recorded and compared among different groups...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Robert G Alexander, Stephen L Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde
Microsaccade research has recently reached a critical mass of studies that allows, for the first time, a comprehensive review of how microsaccadic dynamics change in neurological and ophthalmic disease. We discuss the various pathological conditions that affect microsaccades, their impact on microsaccadic and other fixational eye movement dynamics, and the incipient studies that point to microsaccadic features as potential indicators of differential and early diagnoses of multiple clinical conditions, from movement disorders to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to amblyopia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Simar Rajan Singh, Sonam Yangzes, Rohit Gupta, Jagat Ram
We describe a surgical technique for the correction of isolated congenital lenticular coloboma associated with high corneal astigmatism. Transscleral fixation of the capsular bag with a single eyelet Cionni capsular tension ring was followed by in-the-bag implantation of a toric intraocular lens (IOL). This lead to complete correction of the lenticular defect and perfect alignment of the toric lens. In this case, the child attained an unaided distance visual acuity of 20/30 following amblyopia therapy and a well-aligned toric IOL at 12 months of follow-up...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Reşat Duman, Huban Atilla, Emine Çatak
Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors for strabismus in patients with anisometropia by comparing degree of anisometropia, depth of amblyopia, and binocular visual function in anisometropic patients with and without strabismus. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five anisometropic patients older than 5 years with amblyopia in one eye who were followed in the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Unit between May 2009 and April 2010 were included in this study...
February 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
Zhao-Xia Cao, An-Guo Liu, Tian-Tian Zhu, Xiao-Juan Li, Yu-Ting Wei, Xing-Ke Yan
Acupuncture has been found effective for the treatment of amblyopia, and its mechanism has been investigated. A review of recently published research results indicated that when used to treat amblyopia, acupuncture induced changes in the action of neurotransmitters in the visual system, promoted the secretion and synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and stimulated the expression of genes related to visual plasticity.
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Ying Zhao, Pingbao Wang, Xiaobo Xia, Qian Tan, Weitao Song, Qing Chen
To explore surgical treatment for persistent pupillary membrane (PPM) and its effect.
 Methods: The medical records and postoperative follow-up data for 12 consecutive patients (16 eyes), who were submitted to PPM resection in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from March 2011 to August 2016, were retrospectively reviewed.
 Results: Among 12 consecutive patients (16 eyes), 8 patients (12 eyes) with PPM and clear lens were submitted to simply PPM resection, and 4 patients (4 eyes) with PPM and cataract were submitted to PPM resection combined with cataract surgery...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Vivekanand U Warkad, Lapam Panda, Pradeep Behera, Taraprasad Das, Bikash C Mohanta, Rohit Khanna
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and other ocular comorbidities among tribal children in an urban school population in eastern India. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, vision screening tests were administered to tribal school children. Demographic data, including name, age, sex, home district, height, and weight of each child, and examination data, including unaided and pinhole visual acuity, external eye examination with a flashlight, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and undilated fundus photography, were collected...
March 16, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Daphna Mezad-Koursh, Amir Rosenblatt, Hadas Newman, Chaim Stolovitch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the BinoVision home system as measured by improvement of visual acuity in the patient's amblyopic eye. METHODS: An open-label prospective pilot-trial of the system was conducted with amblyopic children aged 4-8 years at the pediatric ophthalmology unit, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, January 2014 to October 2015. Participants were assigned to the study or sham group for treatment with BinoVision for 8 or 12 weeks. Patients were instructed to watch animated television shows and videos at home using the BinoVision device for 60 minutes, 6 days a week...
March 16, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Christiane Al-Haddad, Carl-Joe Mehanna, Karine Ismail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated macular thickness in deprivational amblyopia and compared it to matched controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors present a cross-sectional study of patients with amblyopia from pediatric cataract and matched controls. Macular high-definition optical coherence tomography scans of each eye were acquired. Central macular thickness (CMT) and parafoveal thicknesses at 500 μm, 1,000 μm, and 1,500 μm in the nasal, temporal, inferior, and superior locations were measured...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
A V Dolzhich, S E Avetisov
PURPOSE: to assess the neurophysiological effect and clinical effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation in combination with drug therapy in amblyopic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 healthy children in the age of 5-12 years and 97 patients of the same age with refractive strabismic amblyopia. All study subjects underwent standard examination including ophthalmological (visometry, refractometry in normal conditions and in cycloplegia, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, type of vision), neurophysiological methods (determination of retinal electric sensitivity threshold, electric lability of optic nerve, amplitude and latency period of visual evoked potentials, electroencephalogram wave amplitudes, localization of peak electrical activity area of the cerebral cortex), assessment of neuropsychic development and estimation of mental development coefficient with age tests...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Karin Mimouni, Moshe Lusky, Michal Kramer, Michael Gdalevich, Dov Weinberger, Michael Mimouni
PURPOSE: To examine, for the first time, whether cyclosporine intake has an early isolated effect on the optic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational case series consisted of 192 eyes of 98 patients treated with cyclosporine. Patient age and duration and dosage of cyclosporine were recorded, and visual acuity, optic nerve function, visual fields, and visual evoked potential (VEP) were tested. Fundus examination was also performed. Patients with glaucoma, vascular retinopathies, and deep amblyopia were excluded...
March 12, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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