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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#1
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897118/smoking-and-eye-pathologies-a-systemic-review-part-i-anterior-eye-segment-pathologies
#2
Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health and is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, associated with lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease and cardiovascular disease. AIM: The analysis of the influence of tobacco smoking on pathology of the anterior segment of the eye in adults and children. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, was published during the period 2000-2016...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#3
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895445/amblyopic-related-frontal-changes-in-an-orientation-discrimination-task-a-research-of-p3a-event-related-potentials-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#4
J Zhao, X B Yang, J L Wang, S J Wang, R Gong, Z Zheng, L Q Liu
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic deficits in the primary and secondary visual cortex have been demonstrated broadly. However, the cognitive process at late stage originating in higher brain area in amblyopes hasn't been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the late cognitive process at the frontal lobe in anisometropic amblyopes of a distinct degree, using visual event-related potential (ERP) techniques. METHODS: Thirteen severe anisometropic amblyopes, 14 mild-to-moderate anisometropic amblyopes, and 13 control subjects participated in this study...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882486/vep-analysis-methods-in-children-with-optic-nerve-hypoplasia-relationship-to-visual-acuity-and-optic-disc-diameter
#5
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: Assessing vision in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is challenging due to multi-directional infantile nystagmus, the range of optic nerve loss, and cognitive delay. This study examined visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and averaging techniques in children with ONH. The assumption is that EEG epochs with inconsistent temporal phase would be associated with nystagmus, signal reduction due to axon loss, and visual inattention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 children (average age 2...
November 23, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864655/imitating-the-effect-of-amblyopia-on-vep-based-acuity-estimates
#6
Sven P Heinrich, Celia M Bock, Michael Bach
PURPOSE: Acuity testing based on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) overestimates acuity in patients with amblyopia. We hypothesized that distortion and fragmentation of the stimulus in amblyopia impede recognition of optotypes, while it leaves the pattern onset response in the VEP mostly unaffected, resulting in overestimation of acuity. METHODS: Acuity VEPs were recorded in visually normal participants with the stimulus degraded by patterned polymethyl methacrylate panes, which induce distortion and fragmentation...
November 18, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856748/rapid-recovery-from-the-effects-of-early-monocular-deprivation-is-enabled-by-temporary-inactivation-of-the-retinas
#7
Ming-Fai Fong, Donald E Mitchell, Kevin R Duffy, Mark F Bear
A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex...
November 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843434/peters-anomaly-in-twins-a-case-report-of-a-rare-incident-with-novel-comorbidities
#8
Hashem S Almarzouki, Alaa A Tayyib, Hassan A Khayat, Raed E Alsulami, Saeed M Alzahrani, Abdulaziz S Alkahtani, Loai S Alghifees
INTRODUCTION: Peters anomaly is a rare developmental malformation involving the anterior segment of the eye, which culminates in amblyopia or congenital blindness. Multiple ocular and/or systemic malformations have been observed with this anomaly, and novel comorbidities continue to be reported. CASE PRESENTATION: The probands were monozygotic twin boys (twin I and twin II) born to consanguineous parents at 36 weeks of gestation. Coarse facial features and deep-seated eyes were noted at birth...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832261/new-treatments-for-amblyopia-to-patch-or-play
#9
John Sloper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832248/binocular-ipad-game-vs-patching-for-treatment-of-amblyopia-in-children-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Lori Dao, Cynthia L Beauchamp, Joel N Leffler, Eileen E Birch
Importance: Fellow eye patching has long been the standard treatment for amblyopia, but it does not always restore 20/20 vision or teach the eyes to work together. Amblyopia can be treated with binocular games that rebalance contrast between the eyes so that a child may overcome suppression. However, it is unclear whether binocular treatment is comparable to patching in treating amblyopia. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a binocular iPad (Apple Inc) adventure game as amblyopia treatment and compare this binocular treatment with patching, the current standard of care...
November 10, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830207/the-role-of-interactive-binocular-treatment-system-in-amblyopia-therapy
#11
Zhale Rajavi, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Ebrahim Amini Sharifi, Narges Behradfar, Mehdi Yaseri
PURPOSE: To determine the role of Interactive Binocular Treatment (I-BiT™) as a complementary method of patching in amblyopia therapy. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 unilateral amblyopic children (25 male/25 female) between 3 and 10 years with either best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤20/30 in the amblyopic eye or a difference of BCVA ≥ 2 lines between the two eyes were included. They were randomly classified into the case and control groups (25 in each)...
December 2016: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821110/ocular-findings-in-patients-with-spastic-type-cerebral-palsy
#12
Myung Jin Park, Yung Ju Yoo, Chin Youb Chung, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, and cortical visual impairment are observed in 50 to 90 % of patients with cerebral palsy. Ocular abnormalities are known to differ according to cerebral palsy type, and spastic type has been reported to be more likely to be associated with ocular defects than the athetoid and ataxic types. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 105 consecutive children with spastic type of cerebral palsy who underwent ophthalmologic examination between July 2003 and March 2006...
November 8, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813517/benchmarks-for-outcome-indicators-in-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#13
B R Nihalani, D K VanderVeen
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to establish benchmarks for outcome indicators that may help ascertain the quality of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Patients and methodsA retrospective chart review of patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation, by multiple surgeons in a tertiary-care center, from November 2005 to February 2016 was conducted. Patients with ocular comorbidities that would affect the outcomes were excluded...
November 4, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813515/elbow-splinting-as-a-method-to-increase-patching-compliance-in-amblyopia-therapy
#14
K Sabri, B Easterbrook, B Wakeman, V Mehta, R Riyaz
PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing elbow splints as a method of increasing amblyopic patching compliance in pediatric ophthalmology patients who fail to comply with prescribed patching regimens.Patients and methodsPatients <6 years of age who were not adhering to pre-specified patching guidelines were prescribed elbow splints in order to increase patching compliance at the discretion of a pediatric ophthalmologist. If the child was non-compliant (patching <50% of specified time or consistently removing patch), parents were asked to try using the elbow splints until patching compliance was achieved...
November 4, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812703/effect-of-a-binocular-ipad-game-vs-part-time-patching-in-children-aged-5-to-12-years-with-amblyopia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Jonathan M Holmes, Vivian M Manh, Elizabeth L Lazar, Roy W Beck, Eileen E Birch, Raymond T Kraker, Eric R Crouch, S Ayse Erzurum, Nausheen Khuddus, Allison I Summers, David K Wallace
Importance: A binocular approach to treating anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia has recently been advocated. Initial studies have yielded promising results, suggesting that a larger randomized clinical trial is warranted. Objective: To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted in community and institutional practices from September 16, 2014, to August 28, 2015...
November 3, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812701/binocular-treatment-of-amblyopia-in-children-teething-problems-on-the-path-to-clinical-practice
#16
Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809833/interocular-anatomical-and-visual-functional-differences-in-pediatric-patients-with-unilateral-cataracts
#17
Erping Long, Jingjing Chen, Zhenzhen Liu, Zhuoling Lin, Qianzhong Cao, Xiayin Zhang, Xiaoyan Li, Lixia Luo, Haotian Lin, Weirong Chen, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND: Congenital cataracts are often complicated by anterior segment dysgenesis. This study aims to compare bilateral anterior segment parameters, macular thickness, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in pediatric cataract patients at 3 months after unilateral cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: Fifty-three pediatric patients with uncomplicated unilateral total cataracts were included. At 3 months post-surgery, bilateral corneal thickness at the thinnest location (CTTL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber volume (ACV) were measured using Pentacam...
November 3, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802486/the-relationship-between-fusion-suppression-and-diplopia-in-normal-and-amblyopic-vision
#18
Daniel P Spiegel, Alex S Baldwin, Robert F Hess
Purpose: Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Methods: Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799735/infantile-esotropia-risk-factors-associated-with-reoperation
#19
Adriano Magli, Luca Rombetto, Francesco Matarazzo, Roberta Carelli
The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799733/steady-state-pattern-electroretinogram-and-frequency-doubling-technology-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#20
Costantino Schiavi, Filippo Tassi, Alessandro Finzi, Ernesto Strobbe, Mauro Cellini
BACKGROUND: Steady-state pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry can be used to selectively investigate the activity of the M-Y ganglion cells in adult anisometropic amblyopes. METHODS: Fifteen normal subjects (mean 27.8±4.1 years) and 15 adults with anisometropic amblyopia (mean 28.7±5.9 years) were analyzed using steady-state PERG and FDT. RESULTS: The amplitude of steady-state PERG was significantly different not only among the control group and both the amblyopic eye (P=0...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
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