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Steven F Grieco, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Experience-dependent critical period plasticity has been extensively studied in the visual cortex. Monocular deprivation during the critical period affects ocular dominance, limits visual performance, and contributes to the pathological etiology of amblyopia. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signaling through its tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 is essential for the normal development of the nervous system, and has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. We discovered recently that NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in PV neurons is critical for the initiation of critical period visual cortical plasticity by controlling excitatory synaptic inputs onto PV neurons and thus PV-cell mediated cortical inhibition that occurs following visual deprivation...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Monika Wipf, Corinne Bok-Beaube, Anja Palmowski-Wolfe
Cyclic strabismus is a rare disease of unknown origin. If untreated, it leads to manifest strabismus with the risk of amblyopia in children. Treatment is generally surgical. Here we report on three children in whom cyclic esotropia was successfully treated with one bimedial injection of 5 IU Botox ® . All patients remained orthotropic with good stereo functions at the last follow-ups at 16, 11, and 8 months. Botulinum toxin offered a minimally invasive treatment option in these patients.
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Yo Iwata, Tomoya Handa, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Toshiaki Goseki, Nobuyuki Shoji
PURPOSE: In recent years, amblyopia treatment device that can be used with both eyes open have been reported. The Occlu-pad is a device that can present images of tablet terminals to one eye only under binocular open conditions. Till date, no study has reported the effectiveness of Occlu-pad training for anisometropic amblyopia in a series of cases. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Occlu-pad for the management of anisometropic amblyopia without the use of occlusion therapy (eyepatch)...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
Brian Allen, Melanie A Schmitt, Burton J Kushner, Bas Rokers
Purpose: Amblyopia is associated with a broad array of perceptual and neural abnormalities in the visual system, particularly in untreated or unsuccessfully treated populations. Traditionally, it has been believed that the neural abnormalities are confined to the visual cortex and subcortex (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus). Here, we investigate the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities earlier in the visual stream, in the optic nerves and tracts, of participants with two predominant forms of amblyopia...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chitu Iulia, Tudosescu Ruxandra, Leasu-Branet Costin, Voinea Liliana-Mary
Citicoline is the generic name of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline), an endogenous compound that is able to increase the levels of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system by interacting with the synthesis of cellular membranes phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine. Exogenous Citicoline, administered by ingestion or injection, is hydrolyzed and dephosphorylated in order to form cytidine and choline, which resynthesize CDP-choline inside brain cells. It has proven neuroprotective effects in Alzheimer disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease, as well as in glaucoma and amblyopia...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Elena Avram
Introduction: For many years, amblyopia was regarded as a disorder of the visual system in which an organic cause could not be identified. Optical Coherence Tomography opens new horizons in understanding the etiopathology of amblyopia and seems to highlight morphologic anomalies in the retina of the amblyopic eye. Purpose: The objective of this paper is to analyze the macular thickness, optic nerve changes, and choroidal thickness found in patients diagnosed with amblyopia based on trials reported in the literature...
April 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Kyung Eun Han, Seung-Hee Baek, Seung-Hyun Kim, Key Hwan Lim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. METHODS: A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD)...
2018: PloS One
Philip P Storey, Hassan A Aziz, Ghazala A Datoo O'Keefe, Mark Borchert, Linda A Lam, Carmen A Puliafito, Lisa C Olmos de Koo
AIM: To evaluate whether people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a history of amblyopia have equal severity of AMD in both eyes. METHODS: Billing records were used to locate all people with a history of amblyopia and AMD evaluated between 1 January 2003 and 1 June 2015 at a single ophthalmology institute. Two ophthalmic graders blinded to amblyopia status determined the severity of AMD in each eye using fundus photos and a validated grading scale...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Alfred Bangerter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Strabismus
Gabriele Sansevero, Laura Baroncelli, Manuela Scali, Alessandro Sale
Amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment in one eye, with a prevalence of 1-5% in the world population. While amblyopia can be efficiently treated in children, it becomes irreversible in adults, due to the decline in neural plasticity past the end of the visual cortex critical period. Accordingly, no pharmacological approaches are available to rescue visual functions in adult amblyopic subjects. We report that non-invasive intranasal infusion of BDNF increased levels of this neurotrophic factor in V1 and induced a recovery of visual acuity, ocular dominance and visual depth perception in adult amblyopic rats, both in reverse-occluded animals and in those with unrestricted binocular sight...
February 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Michael Kinori, Iliana Molina, Eric O Hernandez, Shira L Robbins, David B Granet, Anne L Coleman, Stuart I Brown
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of the PlusoptiX S12 mobile photoscreener and the Retinomax K+3 Autorefractor as screening devices in preschool children. METHODS: Children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age from 11 San Diego County preschools underwent vision screening in their schools where ambient light could not always be controlled using both the Retinomax and the PlusoptiX. Cycloplegic refraction on the consented children was subsequently performed on the UCSD EyeMobile for children on-site at the school locations...
February 9, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ali M Alsaqr, Ghayda'a Ibrahim, Ali Abu Sharha, Raied Fagehi
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the vision status of preschool children aged 3-6 years in Al Riyadh and to identify children at risk of amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using 15-line Lea symbols, refractive error was assessed using the Mohindra near retinoscopy technique, and peak contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured with the aid of the numerical CS test. We recruited 335 children, with their parents' written consent, from 14 kindergartens...
October 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Amanda M Mui, Victoria Yang, Moe H Aung, Jieming Fu, Adewumi N Adekunle, Brian C Prall, Curran S Sidhu, Han Na Park, Jeffrey H Boatright, P Michael Iuvone, Machelle T Pardue
Visual experience during the critical period modulates visual development such that deprivation causes visual impairments while stimulation induces enhancements. This study aimed to determine whether visual stimulation in the form of daily optomotor response (OMR) testing during the mouse critical period (1) improves aspects of visual function, (2) involves retinal mechanisms and (3) is mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine (DA) signaling pathways. We tested spatial frequency thresholds in C57BL/6J mice daily from postnatal days 16 to 23 (P16 to P23) using OMR testing...
2018: PloS One
N C Quezada-Del Cid, Martin A Zimmermann-Paiz, A M Ordoñez-Rivas, V Y Burgos-Elías, M J Marroquin-Sarti
CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented on 2 female patients with Straatsma syndrome, with satisfactory treatment of amblyopia. DISCUSSION: The level of anisometropia and myelination of retinal nerve fibres were different in these two patients. However, both achieved 0.20 (logMAR) visual acuity with correction in both eyes following amblyopia treatment with ocular patching. Visual prognosis of amblyopia associated with myelination of retinal nerve fibres and anisometropia is poorer than anisometropic amblyopia without myelination...
February 1, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Lisa Asper, Kathleen Watt, Sieu Khuu
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that amblyopia can often be treated by optical treatment alone, many practitioners still do not use an optical-correction-only phase in amblyopia treatment and some investigators omit this important step in their research. This paper aims to systematically review the evidence for the optical treatment of strabismic, refractive and combined-mechanism amblyopia and to quantify the evidence via a meta-analysis. METHODS: A search of online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Library, and bibliographies of review papers, along with subsequent personal communication, resulted in 29 papers that met our inclusion criteria, with 20 providing sufficient data for the calculation of effect sizes...
February 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Methods: Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Dong Hee Yoon, Bo Young Chun
PURPOSE: To compare the thickness of superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal macula and foveal thickness and volume in patients with anisometropic amblyopia prior to and after successful occlusion therapy using optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 30 patients with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia from December 2006 to August 2007. All patients had anisometropia of 2.0 diopters or more. OCT scans were obtained for all patients at diagnosis...
January 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Joshua Foreman, Jing Xie, Stuart Keel, Ghee Soon Ang, Pei Ying Lee, Rupert Bourne, Jonathan G Crowston, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
Importance: This study determines the prevalence of unilateral vision impairment (VI) and unilateral blindness to assist in policy formulation for eye health care services. Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of unilateral VI and unilateral blindness in Australia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted from March 2015 to April 2016 at 30 randomly selected sites across all strata of geographic remoteness in Australia...
January 25, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Lisbeth Sandfeld, Hanne Weihrauch, Gitte Tubaek, Panteleimon Mortzos
PURPOSE: To report normative data on visual acuity (VA) for near and distance, refraction, ocular alignment, ocular motility and stereo acuity in a cohort of children aged 4.5-7 years. METHODS: A total of 950 children with normal development from the municipality of Roskilde, Denmark, were invited to participate in an ophthalmic cross-sectional population-based survey, of which 445 children in the age of 54-87 months participated with a complete ocular examination including cycloplegia...
January 25, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Tina Y Gao, Nicola Anstice, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Shuan Dai, Cindy X Guo, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lisa Kearns, Lionel Kowal, Carly S Y Lam, Peter C K Pang, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Angela Wadham, Natalie Walker, Benjamin Thompson
PURPOSE: Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. METHODS: We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752)...
January 22, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
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