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Roberto Marques Damiani, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Cassiana Macagnan Viau, Verônica Brito, Ana Moira Morás, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques, Jenifer Saffi
Doxorubicin (DOX) and Mitoxantrone (MTX) are very effective drugs for a range of tumors despite being highly cardiotoxic. DNA topoisomerase 2 beta (Top2ß) was revealed as key mediator of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, although ROS generation is also an important mechanism. Oxidative stress is also an important issue in MTX-induced cardiotoxicity that is manifested by mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies have demonstrated the relationship between PARP-1 overactivation and cell viability in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes...
June 15, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Giorgio Minotti, Haiyong Han, Valérie Cattan, Anton Egorov, Francesco Bertoni
Pixantrone is a first-in-class aza-anthracenedione approved as monotherapy for treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive diffuse B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a patient group which is notoriously difficult to treat. It has a unique chemical structure and pharmacologic properties distinguishing it from anthracyclines and anthracenediones. Areas covered: The chemical structure and mode of action of pixantrone versus doxorubicin and mitoxantrone; preclinical evidence for pixantrone's therapeutic effect and cardiac tolerability; efficacy and safety of pixantrone in clinical trials; ongoing and completed trials of pixantrone alone or as combination therapy; and the risk of cardiotoxicity of pixantrone versus doxorubicin and mitoxantrone...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Angela Beatrice Scardovi, Renata De Maria
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare cardiac disease that manifests itself in the final stage of pregnancy and in the first months after delivery in women with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. The incidence of PPCM varies widely across geographic areas and seems to be on the rise as a result of increased awareness and socioeconomic changes. PPCM recognizes a still partially undefined multifactorial etiology. Various pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed, that range from autoimmune mechanisms to myocarditis to the hormonal hypothesis for aberrant, antiangiogenic and cardiotoxic prolactin (PRL) production, apoptosis, prolonged exposure to tocolytic drugs, malnutrition and genetic predisposition...
April 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Avirup Guha, Merna Armanious, Michael G Fradley
There have been significant advances in the field of oncology leading to improved survival as a result of novel targeted and immunotherapies. Despite these improved outcomes, there is increased recognition of cardiotoxicities associated with these therapies that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. As such, the field of cardio-oncology has seen significant growth over the last several years. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of cardio-oncology and provide a detailed discussion of the cardiovascular complications associated with novel cancer therapeutics including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, CDK4/6 inhibitors and immunotherapies...
June 8, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Tomoko Negishi, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Kazuaki Negishi, Thomas H Marwick
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the hypothesis that global longitudinal strain (GLS) guidance of cardioprotective therapy would improve cardiac function of at-risk patients undergoing potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, compared with usual care. BACKGROUND: The conventional criteria for diagnosis of chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) are dependent on the recognition of heart failure symptoms and/or changes in left ventricular ejection fraction...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Richa Shrivastava, Shruti Trivedi, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Asif, Manish Kumar Chourasia, Amit Khanna, Smrati Bhadauria
Breast cancer is most frequently diagnosed cancer and fifth leading cause of death in women. About 20-30% of all breast cancers overexpress HER2/neu receptors. Lapatinib is a dual tyrosin kinase inhibitor of EGFR and HER2. It exhibits its anticancer effect via blocking intracellular domain of HER2 receptor in breast cancer. Lapatinib belongs to class II of BSC classification due to its poor solubility restricting its clinical application. Due to presence of HER2 receptor on cardiomyocytes, it is associated with generation of cardiotoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Elliot T Rosen, Julia L Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog, V Ashutosh Rao
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive females are two high-risk groups for developing adverse effects following DOX treatment. This may suggest that endogenous reproductive hormones can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we investigated if the endogenous fluctuations in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) can in part suppress DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in SST-2 tumor-bearing spontaneously hypersensitive rats (SHRs) and evaluate if exogenous administration of E2 and P4 can suppress DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in tumor-bearing ovariectomized SHRs (ovaSHRs)...
June 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Michalina Gramatyka, Agnieszka Skorupa, Maria Sokół
Several lines of evidence indicate that exposure of heart to ionizing radiation increases the risk of cardiotoxicity manifested by heart dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. It was initially believed that the heart is an organ relatively resistant to radiation. Currently, however, it is suspected that even low doses of radiation (< 2 Gy) may have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Cardiotoxicity of ionizing radiation is associated with metabolic changes observed in cardiac cells injured by radiation...
June 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Kh Saganelidze, N Kavtaradze
This review is devoted to the urgent problem of cardiology and oncology - the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs - anthracyclines, which are considered to be one of the most cardiotoxic and cause a variety of cardiotoxic effects. The review also examines the diagnosis, treatment or preventive treatment of this pathology. The urgency of the problem is associated with the possibility of early or late manifestations of cardiotoxicity, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of cross treatment, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of various concomitant diseases...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Pedro F Malacarne, Thiago N Menezes, Cleciane W Martins, Gustavo B Naumann, Helena L Gomes, Rita G W Pires, Suely G Figueiredo, Fabiana V Campos
Proteins that account for the hemolytic activity found in scorpaeniform fish venoms are responsible for the majority of the effects observed upon envenomation, for instance, neurotoxic, cardiotoxic and inflammatory effects. These multifunctional toxins, described as protein lethal factors and referred to as cytolysins, are known to be extremely labile molecules. In the present work, we endeavored to overcome this constraint by determining optimal storage conditions for Sp-CTx, the major bioactive component from the scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom...
June 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh Qureshi, Margaret K Pratten
Heart is the first mesodermal organ to develop and is sensitive to life-threatening toxic effects of drugs during development. A number of methods have been devised to study developmental cardiotoxic effects of drugs including micromass system. The micromass system involves the culture of primary embryonic cells and reestablishment of tissue system in vitro. In chick embryonic cardiomyocyte micromass system the chick heart cells are cultured in a small volume at a very high cell density. These cells form synchronized contracting foci...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qiwen Liao, Guiyi Gong, Shirley Weng In Siu, Clarence Tsun Ting Wong, Huidong Yu, Yu Chung Tse, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoantharian which, together with other cnidarians, like jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, possesses specialized structures in its tissues, the cnidocytes, which deliver an array of toxins in order to capture prey and deter predators. The whole transcriptome of P. caribaeroum was deep sequenced, and a diversity of toxin-related peptide sequences were identified, and some retrieved for functional analysis. In this work, a peptide precursor containing a ShK domain, named PcShK3, was analyzed by means of computational processing, comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, model prediction, and dynamics simulation of peptide-receptor interaction...
June 12, 2018: Toxins
Hui-Min Hu, Xiao-Lin Zhang, Wei-Ling Zhang, Dong-Sheng Huang, Zhong-Dong Du
Background: Cardiotoxicity is one of the most serious chronic complications of anthracyclines therapy. Assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) fails to detect subtle cardiac dysfunction of left ventricular (LV). This study aimed to detect and evaluate new parameters of subclinical anthracyclines' cardiotoxicity in children with solid tumor. Methods: A detailed echocardiographic examination was performed in 36 children with hepatoblastoma or rhabdomyosarcoma after receiving anthracyclines' chemotherapy and 36 healthy controls from January 2015 to December 2016...
June 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Allan Pinto Leal, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Ana Paula Artusi Perin, Bruna Trindade Borges, Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Tiago Gomes Dos Santos, Lúcia Vinadé, Chiara Valsecchi, Cháriston André Dal Belo
Rhinella icterica is a poisonous toad whose toxic secretion has never been studied against entomotoxic potential. Sublethal doses of Rhinella icterica toxic secretion (RITS) were assayed in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches, in order to understand the physiological and behavioral parameters, over the insect central and peripheral nervous system. RITS (10 μg/g) injections, induced behavioral impairment as evidenced by a significant decrease (38 ± 14%) in the distance traveled (p < .05), followed by an increase (90 ± 6%) of immobile episodes (p < ...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Bonnie Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
N-acetylcysteine, a precursor molecule of glutathione, is an antioxidant. Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, has been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity including modulation of monoaminergic systems in mammals and zebrafish. Here, we show that N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine's adverse effects on development and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish embryos. The effects of ketamine and N-acetylcysteine alone or in combination were measured on the heart rate, body length, brain serotonergic neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maggie Morash, Hannah Mitchell, Anthony Yu, Thomas Campion, Himisha Beltran, Olivier Elemento, Jyotishman Pathak
The Cardiotoxicity of Chemotherapy Knowledgebase (CATCH-KB) contains information extracted from articles investigating an association between germline genetic polymorphisms and the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CIC) in cancer patients receiving antineoplastic treatments. CATCH-KB also contains integrated gene and drug information from open biomedical resources such as PharmGKB1 and SIDER2 . Furthermore, the genetic polymorphisms, drugs, and cancer types detailed in CATCH-KB are standardized according to appropriate biomedical ontologies, such as SNOMED-CT3 and RxNorm4 ...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Xin Hui S Chan, Yan Naung Win, Laura J Mawer, Jireh Y Tan, Josep Brugada, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is an effective and well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy that has been assessed extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Piperaquine, similar to several structurally related antimalarials currently used, can prolong cardiac ventricular repolarisation duration and the electrocardiographic QT interval, leading to concerns about its proarrhythmic potential. We aimed to assess the risk of potentially lethal iatrogenic ventricular arrhythmias in individuals receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
June 7, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Meric A Altinoz, Ilhan Elmaci, Salih Cengiz, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan, Aysel Ozpinar
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate that aspirin consumption reduces the risk of tumors, which is especially relevant for colonic adenoma and carcinoma. Similar observations were made for glial brain tumors and breast cancers, yet the results are inconsistent. Gentisic acid (GA) is a minor catabolite of aspirin; yet humans carrying CYP2C9-variants incapable to catabolize aspirin to GA do not benefit from aspirin in prevention against colonic adenoma. GA blocks binding of Fibroblastic Growth Factor to its receptor and its sulphonate metabolite dobesilic acid blocks growth of C6 glioblastoma in vivo...
June 7, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sana Chams, Skye El Sayegh, Mulham Hamdon, Sarwan Kumar, Zain Kulairi
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of coronary occlusion. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear but possible causes have been proposed mainly catecholamine cardiotoxicity, followed by metabolic disturbance, coronary microvascular impairment, and multivessel epicardial coronary artery vasospasm. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy accounts for 1-2% of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome with the majority of patients diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy being women > 55 years of age...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Nikolaos Georgiadis, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Alexandros Vardavas, Ramin Rezaee, Ioannis Germanakis, Aristides Tsatsakis, Dimitrios Stagos, Demetrios Kouretas
Cardiovascular diseases are among the most significant causes of mortality in humans. Pesticides toxicity and risk for human health are controlled at a European level through a well-developed regulatory network, but cardiotoxicity is not described as a separate hazard class. Specific classification criteria should be developed within the frame of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 in order to classify chemicals as cardiotoxic, if applicable to avoid long-term cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to review the cardiac pathology and function impairment due to exposure to pesticides (i...
June 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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