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A M Adebayo, G I Makinde, P K Omode
School Health Programme (SHP) currently lacks effective implementation in Nigeria. Lack of training/orientation of teachers in the programme may have contributed to this. Developing an appropriate training intervention may require prior situation analysis to know teachers' current level of training and involvement in the programme, as there is paucity of information on such study in Oyo State. Thus, this study was carried out to assess primary school teachers' training and involvement in the SHP in Oyo state, Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
Rabah M Al Abdi, Ahmad E Alhitary, Enas W Abdul Hay, Areen K Al-Bashir
The aim of this study was to design a system to diagnose chronic stress, based on blunted reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to cognitive load (CL). The system concurrently measures CL-induced variations in pupil diameter (PD), heart rate (HR), pulse wave amplitude (PWA), galvanic skin response (GSR), and breathing rate (BR). Measurements were recorded from 58 volunteers whose stress level was identified using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Number-multiplication questions were used as CLs...
June 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Stig Arve Sæther, Tomas Peterson, Vazjwar Matin
The relative age effect (RAE) has been found among youth elite athletes within a range of sports. However, the RAE has been studied to a lesser degree among youth non-elite athletes, and even less among school pupils attending sport specialisation programmes (SSPs). The aim of the present study was to investigate RAE, height, and weight, and compare Swedish lower secondary school and Norwegian upper secondary school pupils. Study 1 includes 156 lower secondary school athletes (95 boys and 61 girls) following an SSP in Sweden, while study 2 includes 111 upper secondary school athletes (81 boys and 30 girls) from two Norwegian schools...
December 8, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Song Guo, Victoria Manning, Yi Yang, Puay Kee Koh, Edwin Chan, Nurun Nisa de Souza, Pryseley Nkouibert Assam, Rehena Sultana, Ruki Wijesinghe, Julius Pangjaya, Gomathinayagam Kandasami, Christopher Cheok, Kae Meng Lee, Kim Eng Wong
BACKGROUND: Many individuals leave costly inpatient detoxification programs prematurely because of the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced. In the absence of opioid-assisted detoxification in Singapore, diazepam is used to manage withdrawal. However since diazepam is addictive, there is a need to explore the effectiveness of alternative medications. DESIGN AND PROCEDURES: The study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of lofexidine, a non-opiate, non-addictive, alpha 2-adrenergic agonist in assisting opioid detoxification in Singapore, using a randomized, double-blind, investigator-initiated placebo-controlled trial comparing lofexidine against diazepam...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Stuart Guthrie, Thomas Jensen, Richard C Hartley, Kanna Ramaesh, David Lockington
PURPOSE: Unpreserved phenylephrine is often used as an off-licence intracameral surgical adjunct during cataract surgery to assist with pupil dilation and/or stabilise the iris in floppy iris syndrome. It can be delivered as a neat 0.2 ml bolus of either 2.5 or 10% strength, or in a range of ad-hoc dilutions. We wished to assess the accuracy of intracameral phenylephrine preparation in clinical practice. METHODS: Phenylephrine 0.2 ml was analysed both neat (2...
June 15, 2018: Eye
Kendra L Bauer, James C Steeil, Elizabeth A Adkins, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan, Kenton L Kerns, Steven J Sarro, Kali A Holder
A 20-y-old male intact white-faced saki monkey (Pithecia pithecia) presented with an acute ocular disease of the righteye.Clinical signs included periocular swelling, conjunctivitis, and anisocoria with a miotic right pupil. Conjunctival swabs werepositive for Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) according to PCR amplification with sequencing. Initial clinical signs resolvedwith supportive treatment, and the animal was managed chronically by using acyclovir (5 mg/kg PO twice daily) during flare-ups. After more than 2 y, the progression of clinical disease led to enucleation of the right eye...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Jan P Ulloa-Padilla, Pedro J Dávila, Natalio J Izquierdo, Omar García-Rodríguez, Ivonne Z Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: To determine what ocular symptoms and signs are most common and if there are any associations with comorbid conditions in patients with Chikungunya fever. METHODS: A retrospective data review and analysis of the ocular symptomatology of 139 patients with Chikungunya fever who visited a local emergency room from August through September 2014. Frequencies were calculated, and Pearson's chisquare test employed. All the patients were confirmed as having Chikungunya with IgM (ELISA) before admittance into the study...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Chao Song, Haijun Guo, Weiyan Gong, Yan Zhang, Caicui Ding, Ganyu Feng, Ailing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To describe the status of sedentary activities of the Chinese pupils in the leisure time, and to provide basic information for developing intervention strategies. METHODS: Utilizing the data of 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance, using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method, a total of 39 242 pupils on sedentary activities including watching TV, using computer, playing computer games, reading and doing homework, was analyzed...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Stefan Dhein, Katrin Schmelmer, Julika Guenther, Aida Salameh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Drug abuse is an increasing problem among young adults in European countries. We wanted to assess the prevalence of methamphetamine and cannabis use in young people and to ask for their socioeconomic, parental and emotional background. METHODS: All pupils (n = 1,087) in the final class of 3 school types (-general school [in Germany: Hauptschule/Regelschule mit Hauptschulabschluss] class 9, regular school [in Germany: Regelschule] class 10, high school [in Germany: Gymnasium] class 10) and the first 2 classes of the vocational school (in Germany: Berufsschule) in the entire rural district of Altenburger Land, a Thuringian county in Germany with a total of 92,344 inhabitants were asked to fill out a 2-page questionnaire...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
Meiqi Ji, Yali Qin, Yingxin Zi, Rui Wang, Huan Meng, Zongchun Yang, Qi Zhao, Ming Jin
BACKGROUND: Ophthalmoplegia is a disease that affects many people every year and is caused by reasons, such as cavernous sinus lesion, intracranial aneurysm, diabetes, and trauma. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat ophthalmological diseases especially ophthalmoplegia in China. Many clinical trials indicate that acupuncture may promote the recovery of extraocular muscles in ophthalmoplegia patients. We aim to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for ophthalmoplegia...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anh Son Le, Hirofumi Aoki
In this data article, this dataset included raw data of head and eye movement that collected by Polhemus (Polhemus Inc) and SmartEye (Smart Eye AB) equipment. Subjects who have driver license participated in this experiment. The experiment was conducted with a driving simulator that was controlled by CarSim (Mechanical simulation Co., Anna Arbor, MI) with the vehicle motion. This data set not only contained the eye and head movement but also had eye gaze, pupil diameter, saccades, and so on. It can be used for the parameter identification of the vestibulor-ocular reflex (VOR) model, simulation eye movement, as well as running other analysis related to eye movement...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Matthew S Muller, Ann E Elsner
A custom near infrared VCSEL source has been implemented in a confocal non-mydriatic retinal camera, the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). The use of near infrared light improves patient comfort, avoids pupil constriction, penetrates the deeper retina, and does not mask visual stimuli. The DLO performs confocal imaging by synchronizing a sequence of lines displayed with a digital micromirror device to the rolling shutter exposure of a 2D CMOS camera. Real-time software adjustments enable multiply scattered light imaging, which rapidly and cost-effectively emphasizes drusen and other scattering disruptions in the deeper retina...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
C O Sayaka Kato, Kimiya Shimizu, Kazutaka Kamiya, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Akihito Igarashi
This study aimed to assess changes in pupil size, uncorrected visual acuity, refraction, and the direct and consensual light reflexes after instillation of brimonidine 0.1% in healthy subjects. The investigation comprised 46 eyes of 23 healthy subjects with no eye diseases in whom brimonidine 0.1% was instilled in the right eye. Pupil size was measured quantitatively under photopic and scotopic conditions, uncorrected visual acuity, refraction, and direct and consensual light reflexes before and at 1, 6, and 24 h after instillation...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gustavo Koíti Kondo, Carla Caroline Schramm, Max Rainer Rosado Novaes, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Jules Joseph Dejerine (1849-1917) became renowned for his many contributions to neurology, including his anatomical and anatomo-functional studies, particularly those in the field of language and the peripheral nervous system. A disciple of Vulpian and a rival of Charcot, Dejerine progressed rapidly in the academic world, reaching the peak of his career in 1911, when he was appointed to the chair of Nervous System Diseases at the Salpêtrière Hospital after defeating Pierre Marie (1853-1940), one of the most distinguished pupils of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)...
May 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Yang Wang, Adriana A Zekveld, Dorothea Wendt, Thomas Lunner, Graham Naylor, Sophia E Kramer
OBJECTIVES: Pupil light reflex (PLR) has been widely used as a method for evaluating parasympathetic activity. The first aim of the present study is to develop a PLR measurement using a computer screen set-up and compare its results with the PLR generated by a more conventional setup using light-emitting diode (LED). The parasympathetic nervous system, which is known to control the 'rest and digest' response of the human body, is considered to be associated with daily life fatigue. However, only few studies have attempted to test the relationship between self-reported daily fatigue and physiological measurement of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PloS One
A J Macnab, R Mukisa
There are calls for innovation in health promotion and for current issues to be presented in new and exciting ways; in addition to creating engaging messages, novel ways to deliver health messaging are needed, especially where youth are the key target audience. When pupils in WHO Health Promoting Schools were asked what health messages would resonate with them, they also identified celebrities as the 'messengers' they would be particularly likely to listen to. Expanding on these discussions, the pupils quoted celebrity-recorded music videos containing health and lifestyle messaging as an example of where they had learned from celebrities...
June 11, 2018: Health Promotion International
Elizabeth Rodrigues Alfenas, Jéssica Genoveva Boline Passarelli Capaz Pinto da Silva, Maria Elizabeth Sousa Silveira, Maria Fernanda Lopes Fonseca, José Alcides Almeida de Arruda, Amália Moreno
This article describes a simple method for painting an artificial iris for the manufacturing of an ocular prosthesis with dark and light tones, both with excellent esthetic results. The challenge of choosing colors around the pupil and medium zone during painting is aided by the application of Newton's color wheel theory. This technique provides a safer choice of color during the painting procedure by using a mixture of ceramic pigments.
June 13, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Piotr Engelgardt, Maciej Krzyżanowski, Przemysław Piotrowski
The psychophysical impairment of drivers caused by psychoactive substances is still a common and important factor in road accidents. While in the case of ethyl alcohol the initial detection of drivers who have consumed alcohol is not a problem due to the widespread use of breathalyzers, other psychoactive substances are a problem. These substances are a group of numerous, variously acting and regularly growing compounds. In this publication, the authors have reviewed the methods used worldwide for the initial detection of psychoactive substances, i...
2018: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Peter Wallner, Michael Kundi, Arne Arnberger, Renate Eder, Brigitte Allex, Lisbeth Weitensfelder, Hans-Peter Hutter
Cognitive functioning and academic performance of pupils depend on regular breaks from classroom work. However, it is unclear which settings during such breaks provide the best environment to restore cognitive performance and promote wellbeing of adolescent pupils. Therefore, we investigated the effects of staying in different urban green spaces during breaks. Sixty-four pupils (16⁻18 years old) participated in a cross-over experiment. They were placed into one of three settings (small park, larger park, forest) for one hour during a lunch break...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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