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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906277/optical-manipulation-using-highly-focused-alternate-radially-and-azimuthally-polarized-beams-modulated-by-a-devil-s-lens
#1
Zhirong Liu, P H Jones
We propose and demonstrate a novel high numerical aperture (NA) focusing system composed of an annular beam with alternate radially and azimuthally polarized rings, focused by a devil's lens (DL), and further investigate its radiation forces acting upon a Rayleigh particle both analytically and numerically. Strongly focused cylindrical vector beams produce either dark-centered or peak-centered intensity distributions depending on the state of polarization, whereas the DL produces a series of foci along the propagation direction...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906229/aperture-coded-confocal-profilometry
#2
Jaka Pribošek, Janez Diaci, Stefan Sinzinger
This Letter introduces a novel principle to the confocal profilometry for simultaneous measurement of surface position and tilt. The principle relies on an angle-dependent coding of the illumination of the surface-under-test, achieved by dividing the pupil into several subapertures. The reflected light is decoded to perform an angle-resolved analysis by measuring the intensity contributions of each individual subaperture. By comparing their contributions, additional information of surface tilt can be inferred...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905336/retropupillary-fixation-of-iris-claw-lens-in-visual-rehabilitation-of-aphakic-eyes
#3
G Jayamadhury, Sudhakar Potti, K Vinaya Kumar, R Madhu Kumar, K C Divyansh Mishra, Srinivasa Rao Nambula
CONTEXT: Surgical outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens. AIMS: To evaluate the various indications, intra and post-operative complications, and visual outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens in aphakic eyes. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study design is a retrospective study at a tertiary eye care center. METHODS: Review of medical records of 61 aphakic eyes of 61 patients, who were rehabilitated with retropupillary fixation of an iris claw lens, with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903013/isoflurane-associated-mydriasis-mimicking-blown-pupils-in-a-patient-treated-in-a-neurointensive-care-unit
#4
Eva Magdalena Korf, Volker Martin Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth, Jan Nils Küchler
We report a misinterpretation of bilateral mydriasis as blown pupils related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) under volatile sedation with isoflurane (Anesthetic Conserving Device [AnaConDa], Hudson RCI, Uppland Vasby, Sweden) in a 59-year-old patient with a severe traumatic brain injury with frontal contusion. The patient showed bilateral mydriasis and a missing light reflex 8 hours after changing sedation from intravenous treatment with midazolam and esketamine to volatile administration of isoflurane...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#5
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902676/dural-sinus-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-a-pediatric-trauma-patient-a-rare-complication-after-closed-head-injury
#6
Jonathan Wilcher, Michelle Pannell
OBJECTIVE: Closed head injury rarely predisposes patients, particularly children, to the development of dural sinus thrombosis. In addition, most cases of sinus thrombosis are subacute in nature. The following is a case report of a precipitous course of dural sinus thrombosis after closed head injury in a pediatric trauma patient. DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old African American girl presented to the emergency department as a trauma activation. She was an unrestrained rear-seat passenger involved in a motor vehicle collision during which she was ejected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898446/topical-atropine-in-the-control-of-myopia
#7
Donald Tan, Su Ann Tay, Kai-Lyn Loh, Audrey Chia
Efforts to reduce myopia progression in childhood are driven by the increasing incidence of high myopia and its attendant health risks. Interventional approaches to reduce myopia progression in childhood have included the use of spectacles, contact lens, and pharmacological methods, of which the latter appear to be most promising. We review the use of topical atropine eye drops in the retardation of myopia progression in children and discuss the efficacy and safety profiles when used at different concentrations (1...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897442/pupillary-offset-in-keratoconus-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-and-topographical-features
#8
Gozde Hondur, Nurullah Cagil, Ozge Sarac, Meltem Ece Ozcan, Pinar Kosekahya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the change in the location of pupillary center with corneal tomography in keratoconic patients, and determine the correlation of pupillary offset with clinical and topographical features of keratoconus. METHODS: Ninety-one eyes of the 54 patients with keratoconus in different stages and 39 eyes of 39 refractive surgery candidates with normal corneas were included in our study. Ocular aberrations and the pupillary offset parameters (x-offset and y-offset) over a 5 mm (undilated) pupil were measured with a Sirius corneal tomographer...
November 29, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896713/resistance-to-cultural-intervention-formation-of-inhibitory-collective-and-children-s-self-defensive-regulation-in-a-chinese-school
#9
Aruna Wu, Xiao-Wen Li, Lihua Zhou, Qian Zhang
A sequel to the previous article "Roots of Excellence: The Releasing Effect of Individual Potentials through Educational Cultural Intervention in a Chinese School" (in press), the present study is on the unexpected reversal phenomena in the process of cultural intervention. The goal of the intervention is to construct the dynamics of Jiti (well-organized collective in Chinese) through creative activities to promote students' development. In the intervention, the releasing effect (Wu et al. 2016) emerged as well, but the teacher's concern about worsening discipline and academic performance evoked and reinforced his habitual notions and practices of education, turning the joint activities into a way of strengthening discipline...
November 28, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896533/characteristics-of-higher-order-aberrations-and-anterior-segment-tomography-in-patients-with-pathologic-myopia
#10
Kaori Kasahara, Naoyuki Maeda, Takashi Fujikado, Makoto Tomita, Muka Moriyama, Mutsumi Fuchihata, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the characteristics in the higher-order aberrations and anterior segment tomography in patients with pathologic myopia. METHODS: One hundred and twelve consecutive highly myopic patients (mean age 43.4 ± 9.3 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≥8 D and an axial length ≥26.5 mm) were studied. Thirty-seven emmetropic individuals (mean age 37.0 ± 14.5 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≤ ±1 D) were analyzed as controls...
November 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895998/quantifying-intraocular-scatter-with-near-diffraction-limited-double-pass-point-spread-function
#11
Junlei Zhao, Fei Xiao, Jian Kang, Haoxin Zhao, Yun Dai, Yudong Zhang
Measurement of the double-pass (DP) point-spread function (PSF) can provide an objective and non-invasive method for estimating intraocular scatter in the human eye. The objective scatter index (OSI), which is calculated from the DP PSF images, is commonly used to quantify intraocular scatter. In this article, we simulated the effect of higher-order ocular aberrations on OSI, and the results showed that higher-order ocular aberrations had a significant influence on OSI. Then we developed an adaptive optics DP PSF measurement system (AO-DPPMS) which was capable of correcting ocular aberrations up to eighth-order radial Zernike modes over a 6...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893002/incidence-and-etiologies-of-acquired-third-nerve-palsy-using-a-population-based-method
#12
Chengbo Fang, Jacqueline A Leavitt, David O Hodge, Jonathan M Holmes, Brian G Mohney, John J Chen
Importance: Among cranial nerve palsies, a third nerve palsy is important because a subset is caused by life-threatening aneurysms. However, there is significant disagreement regarding its incidence and the reported etiologies. Objective: To determine the incidence and etiologies of acquired third nerve palsy using a population-based method. Design, Setting, and Participants: All newly diagnosed cases of acquired third nerve palsy from January 1, 1978, through December 31, 2014, in Olmsted County, Minnesota, were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a record-linkage system of medical records for all patient-physician encounters among Olmsted County residents...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#13
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879499/impact-of-spherical-aberration-terms-on-multifocal-contact-lens-performance
#14
Cathleen Fedtke, Jennifer Sha, Varghese Thomas, Klaus Ehrmann, Ravi C Bakaraju
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of the primary (PSA) and secondary (SSA) spherical aberration terms on visual performance (VP) in presbyopes, as measured using multifocal (MFCL) soft contact lenses on eye. METHODS: Seventeen presbyopes (age: 55.1 ± 6.9 years) wore seven commercial lenses (four center-near (MFCL N), one center-distance (MFCL D), one bifocal, and one single vision control). Unaided and with each lens on eye, the PSA and SSA terms were obtained with an aberrometer, the BHVI-EyeMapper (low illumination, natural and 4 mm pupil diameter)...
November 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878788/sun-protective-behaviour-and-sunburn-prevalence-in-primary-and-secondary-schoolchildren-in-western-switzerland
#15
Simone Ackermann, Anne Vuadens, Fabio Levi, Jean-Luc Bulliard
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875147/gazedx-interactive-visual-analytics-framework-for-comparative-gaze-analysis-with-volumetric-medical-images
#16
Hyunjoo Song, Jeongjin Lee, Tae Jung Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Bohyoung Kim, Jinwook Seo
We present an interactive visual analytics framework, GazeDx (abbr. of GazeDiagnosis), for the comparative analysis of gaze data from multiple readers examining volumetric images while integrating important contextual information with the gaze data. Gaze pattern comparison is essential to understanding how radiologists examine medical images, and to identifying factors influencing the examination. Most prior work depended upon comparisons with manually juxtaposed static images of gaze tracking results. Comparative gaze analysis with volumetric images is more challenging due to the additional cognitive load on 3D perception...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875082/effects-of-trazodone-on-behavioral-signs-of-stress-in-hospitalized-dogs
#17
Shana E Gilbert-Gregory, Jason W Stull, Mary Rose Rice, Meghan E Herron
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of trazodone treatment on behavioral signs of stress in hospitalized dogs. DESIGN Prospective observational study. ANIMALS 120 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Hospitalized dogs administered trazodone (n = 60) were observed for stress-related signs or behaviors ≤ 45 minutes after the drug was administered (time 1) and approximately 90 minutes later (time 2). Dogs that did not receive trazodone (n = 60) were selected to serve as controls for environmental stimuli that could affect behavior and were observed at the same times...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871029/effects-of-cerebrolysin-on-functional-recovery-in-patients-with-severe-disability-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-historical-cohort-study
#18
Hosseinali Khalili, Amin Niakan, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of cerebrolysin on functional recovery in patients with severe disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study being performed during a 2-year period in a level I trauma center in Southern Iran including all the adult patients (>16years) with severe disability (GOS of 2 and 3) 1-month after trauma. We excluded those with posttraumatic seizures and those with meningitis or current infections...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870300/the-lasting-health-impact-of-leaving-school-in-a-bad-economy-britons-in-the-1970s-recession
#19
Clementine Garrouste, Mathilde Godard
This paper investigates whether leaving school in a bad economy deteriorates health in the long run. It focuses on low-educated individuals in England and Wales who entered the labour market immediately after the 1973 oil crisis. Our identification strategy relies on the comparison of individuals who left school at the compulsory age, were born in the same year and had a similar quantity of education - but whose school-leaving behaviour in different years (hence, different economic conditions) was exogenously implied by compulsory schooling laws...
November 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867714/automatic-identification-of-the-temporal-retinal-nerve-fiber-raphe-from-macular-cube-data
#20
Phillip Bedggood, Fumi Tanabe, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin
We evaluated several approaches for automatic location of the temporal nerve fiber raphe from standard macular cubes acquired on a Heidelberg Spectralis OCT. Macular cubes with B-scan separation of 96-122 µm were acquired from 15 healthy participants, and "high density" cubes with scan separation of 11 µm were acquired from the same eyes. These latter scans were assigned to experienced graders for subjective location of the raphe, providing the ground truth by which to compare methods operating on the lower density data...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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