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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666999/post-mortem-chemical-excitability-of-the-iris-should-not-be-used-for-forensic-death-time-diagnosis
#1
Katja Koehler, Susanne Sehner, Martin Riemer, Axel Gehl, Tobias Raupach, Sven Anders
Post-mortem chemical excitability of the iris is one of the non-temperature-based methods in forensic diagnosis of the time since death. Although several authors reported on their findings, using different measurement methods, currently used time limits are based on a single dissertation which has recently been doubted to be applicable for forensic purpose. We investigated changes in pupil-iris ratio after application of acetylcholine (n = 79) or tropicamide (n = 58) and in controls at upper and lower time limits that are suggested in the current literature, using a digital photography-based measurement method with excellent reliability...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665431/recognition-memory-and-featural-similarity-between-concepts-the-pupil-s-point-of-view
#2
Maria Montefinese, David Vinson, Ettore Ambrosini
Differences in pupil dilation are observed for studied compared to new items in recognition memory. According to cognitive load theory, this effect reflects the greater cognitive demands of retrieving contextual information from study phase. Pupil dilation can also occur when new items conceptually related to old ones are erroneously recognized as old, but the aspects of similarity that modulate false memory and related pupil responses remain unclear. We investigated this issue by manipulating the degree of featural similarity between new (unstudied) and old (studied) concepts in an old/new recognition task...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664754/self-reported-upper-limb-functioning-of-pupils-with-cerebral-palsy-by-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#3
Zoltán Lénárt, Eszter Szabó-Szemenyei, Adrienn A Tóth, Lajos Kullmann
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children and Youth Version has shown an increasing role in the assessment of children with cerebral palsy (CP), but just a few researchers use it for individuals' self-assessment. In this study, we present the self-assessment of functioning of students with CP and changes by the end of a school year. Thirty-seven pupils with spastic CP involving upper limbs, 24 pupils with typical development, and 20 pupils with speech and language disorders were studied by International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health core sets for CP...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661162/the-cold-pressor-test-in-interictal-migraine-patients-different-parasympathetic-pupillary-response-indicates-dysbalance-of-the-cranial-autonomic-nervous-system
#4
Ozan E Eren, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Christoph Schankin, Florian Schöberl, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Data on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activations in migraine patients are quite controversial, with previous studies reporting over- and underactivation of the sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explicitly aimed to assess the cranial ANS in migraine patients compared to healthy controls by applying the cold pressor test to a cohort of migraine patients in the interictal phase and measuring the pupillary response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a strong sympathetic stimulus was applied to 20 patients with episodic migraine in the interictal phase and 20 matched controls without migraine, whereby each participant dipped the left hand into ice-cold (4 °C) water for a maximum of 5 min (cold pressor test)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659574/the-impact-of-school-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-improvements-on-infectious-disease-using-serum-antibody-detection
#5
Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Delynn M Moss, Howard H Chang, Seydou Doumbia, Patrick J Lammie, Matthew C Freeman
BACKGROUND: Evidence from recent studies assessing the impact of school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions on child health has been mixed. Self-reports of disease are subject to bias, and few WASH impact evaluations employ objective health measures to assess reductions in disease and exposure to pathogens. We utilized antibody responses from dried blood spots (DBS) to measure the impact of a school WASH intervention on infectious disease among pupils in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We randomly selected 21 beneficiary primary schools and their 21 matched comparison schools participating in a matched-control trial of a comprehensive school-based WASH intervention in Mali...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658751/age-differences-in-emotion-regulation-effort-pupil-response-distinguishes-reappraisal-and-distraction-for-older-but-not-younger-adults
#6
Bruna Martins, Jan Florjanczyk, Nicholas J Jackson, Margaret Gatz, Mara Mather
In previous research, older adults show greater emotional benefits from distracting themselves than from reappraising an event when strategically regulating emotion. Older adults also demonstrate an attentional preference to avoid, while younger adults show a bias toward approaching negative stimuli. This suggests a possible age-related differentiation of cognitive effort across approach and avoidance of negative stimuli during emotion regulation. In this study, we tracked cognitive effort via pupil dilation during the use of distraction (avoidance) and reappraisal (approach) strategies across age...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656106/supporting-cognitive-control-through-competition-and-cooperation-in-childhood
#7
Paula Fischer, Letizia Camba, Seok Hui Ooi, Nicolas Chevalier
Cognitive control is often engaged in social contexts where actions are socially relevant. Yet, little is known about the immediate influence of the social context on childhood cognitive control. To examine whether competition or cooperation can enhance cognitive control, preschool and school-age children completed the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) in competitive, cooperative, and neutral contexts. Children made fewer errors, responded faster, and engaged more cognitive effort, as shown by greater pupil dilation, in the competitive and cooperative social contexts relative to the neutral context...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656001/-fl%C3%A3-neur-neurologique-in-paris-a-guide-to-pinpointing-the-houses-of-famous-neurologists-in-the-late-xix-century
#8
REVIEW
Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive, Francisco Manoel Branco Germiniani, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Olivier Walusinski, Andrew J Lees
INTRODUCTION: During the last quarter of the XIX century, Paris, France, particularly the Salpêtrière Hospital was the most important centre of reference of Clinical Neurology in the world. The group based on the Salpêtrière Hospital, led by Professor Charcot, who was arguably the most celebrated neurologist in Europe. OBJECTIVE: In this historical review, we present and locate the addresses of the houses of these famous Parisian neurologists from the late XIX century...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652535/teachers-perspectives-on-the-impact-of-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-during-the-school-years
#9
Nicola Marie Stock, Matthew Ridley, Ella Guest
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) poses many challenges for those affected throughout the school years, with recent studies pointing to a trend in poor educational outcomes. Previous research has highlighted the important role that teachers play in supporting young people with chronic health conditions yet studies in the field of CL/P suggest that teachers may lack knowledge of the condition, and underestimate pupils' academic ability. Qualitative investigation of the impact of CL/P from the teacher's perspective may provide additional insight as well as potential suggestions for improving the school experience for affected pupils...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651320/movement-activity-determination-with-health-related-variables-of-university-students-in-kosice
#10
Peter Bakalár, Martin Zvonar, Jaromir Sedlacek, Rut Lenkova, Peter Sagat, Lubos Vojtasko, Erika Liptakova, Miroslava Barcalova
Introduction: There is currently a strong scientific evidence about the negative health consequences of physical inactivity. One of the potential tools for promoting physical activity at the institutional level of the Ecological model is to create conditions and settings that would enable pupils, students and employees engage in some form of physical activity. However, physical activities as a subject are being eliminated from the study programs at Slovak universities. The purpose of the study was to find current evidence about the level of structured physical activity and health-related variables in university students in Košice...
June 2018: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648966/kindergarteners-narrative-competence-across-tasks-and-time
#11
Giuliana Pinto, Christian Tarchi, Beatrice Accorti Gamannossi
The authors investigated children's narrative competence by analyzing the development of the reciprocal relationship between storytelling and story retelling performances over a school year through a cross-lagged panel design. The participants in this study were 170 Italian kindergarten pupils (M age = 4.98 ± 0.31 years). Children were asked to produce oral narratives in two different tasks: a storytelling and a story retelling task. Narrative competence was assessed in terms of structure and coherence. The cross-lagged panel analyses showed that both storytelling and story retelling tasks are stable constructs, but they differ in the emphasis on coherence...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643157/minimum-pupil-in-pupillary-response-to-light-and-myopia-affect-disk-halo-size-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Feng Zhao, Tian Han, Xun Chen, Zhi Chen, Ke Zheng, Xiaoying Wang, Xingtao Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between pupillary response to light, myopia and disk halo size. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single refractive surgery centre. PARTICIPANTS: In this study, 197 right eyes of 197 patients between 20 and 35 years of age were evaluated for disk halo size and pupillary response to light with a vision monitor. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Halo radius, age, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL), initial diameter, amplitude of contraction, latency of contraction, duration of contraction, velocity of contraction, latency of dilation, duration of dilation, velocity of dilation, maximum pupil, minimum pupil, average pupil and dark pupil...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629239/sub-airy-confocal-adaptive-optics-scanning-ophthalmoscopy
#13
Nripun Sredar, Oladipo E Fagbemi, Alfredo Dubra
Purpose: To demonstrate the viability of improving transverse image resolution in reflectance scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy using sub-Airy disk confocal detection. Methods: The foveal cone mosaic was imaged in five human subjects free of known eye disease using two custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) in reflectance with 7.75 and 4.30 mm pupil diameters. Confocal pinholes of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 Airy disk diameters (ADDs) were used in a retinal conjugate plane before the light detector...
April 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627300/influence-of-contrast-polarity-on-the-accommodative-response
#14
Paula Bernal-Molina, José J Esteve-Taboada, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in the accommodative response of the eye while reading a text under different contrast polarity conditions: black letters on white background (BoW condition) and white letters on black background (WoB condition). METHODS: Eighteen subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 41 years participated in this experimental study. The accommodative response (AR) of the eye while reading a text with BoW or WoB contrast polarity was obtained objectively with an adaptive optics system that corrected all aberrations but subject's own...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625469/a-novel-visual-psychometric-test-for-light-induced-discomfort-using-red-and-blue-light-stimuli-under-binocular-and-monocular-viewing-conditions
#15
Marija Zivcevska, Shaobo Lei, Alan Blakeman, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: To develop an objective psychophysical method to quantify light-induced visual discomfort, and to measure the effects of viewing condition and stimulus wavelength. Methods: Eleven visually normal subjects participated in the study. Their pupils were dilated (2.5% phenylephrine) before the experiment. A Ganzfeld system presented either red (1.5, 19.1, 38.2, 57.3, 76.3, 152.7, 305.3 cd/m2) or blue (1.4, 7.1, 14.3, 28.6, 42.9, 57.1, 71.4 cd/m2) randomized light intensities (1 s each) in four blocks...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625451/a-robust-optomotor-assay-for-assessing-the-efficacy-of-optogenetic-tools-for-vision-restoration
#16
Qi Lu, Tushar H Ganjawala, Samer Hattar, Gary W Abrams, Zhuo-Hua Pan
Purpose: To develop an animal behavioral assay for the quantitative assessment of the functional efficacy of optogenetic therapies. Methods: A triple-knockout (TKO) mouse line, Gnat1-/-Cnga3-/-Opn4-/-, and a double-knockout mouse line, Gnat1-/-Cnga3-/-, were employed. The expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and its three more light-sensitive mutants, ChR2-L132C, ChR2-L132C/T159C, and ChR2-132C/T159S, in inner retinal neurons was achieved using rAAV2 vectors via intravitreal delivery...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623732/clinical-outcome-and-higher-order-aberrations-after-bilateral-implantation-of-an-extended-depth-of-focus-intraocular-lens
#17
Daniel Pilger, David Homburg, Tobias Brockmann, Necip Torun, Eckart Bertelmann, Christoph von Sonnleithner
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcome after a bilateral implantation of an extended depth of focus intraocular lens in comparison to a monofocal intraocular lens. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Charité-Medical University Berlin, Germany. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled in this prospective, single-center study. The cataract patients underwent phacoemulsification with bilateral implantation of a TECNIS® Symfony (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA, 15 patients) or a TECNIS Monofocal ZCB00 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA, 15 patients)...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623524/could-buerger-s-disease-cause-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-a-rare-case-report
#18
Anil Korkmaz, Omer Karti, Dilek Top Karti, Bora Yüksel, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Tuncay Kusbeci
We present an interesting case with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) accompanied by Buerger's disease. A 43-year-old man was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic with a complaint of visual deterioration in the left eye that started 5 days ago. He suffered from Buerger's disease, and he had acute pain in the right lower limb below the knee. His best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the right eye and 2/10 in the left eye by Snellen chart. There was a relative afferent pupil defect in the left eye...
April 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619661/midline-shift-is-unrelated-to-subjective-pupillary-reactivity-assessment-on-admission-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Basil Nourallah, David K Menon, Frederick A Zeiler
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the relationship between pupillary reactivity, midline shift and basal cistern effacement on brain computed tomography (CT) in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). All are important diagnostic and prognostic measures, but their relationship is unclear. METHODS: A total of 204 patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, documented pupillary reactivity, and archived neuroimaging were included. Extent of midline shift and basal cistern effacement were extracted from admission brain CT...
April 4, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619002/eye-movements-and-cognitive-strategy-in-a-fluid-intelligence-test-item-type-analysis
#20
Paulo G Laurence, Tatiana P Mecca, Alexandre Serpa, Romain Martin, Elizeu C Macedo
Eye movements help to infer the cognitive strategy that a person uses in fluid intelligence tests. However, intelligence tests demand different relations/rules tokens to be solved, such as rule direction, which is the continuation, variation or overlay of geometric figures in the matrix of the intelligence test. The aim of this study was to understand whether eye movements could predict the outcome of an intelligence test and in the rule item groups. Furthermore, we sought to identify which measure is best for predicting intelligence test scores and to understand if the rule item groups use the same strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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