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S Hagerman, Z Woolard, K Anderson, B W Tatler, F R Moore
There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kumiko Kato, Mineo Kondo, Ryunosuke Nagashima, Asako Sugawara, Masahiko Sugimoto, Hisashi Matsubara, Daphne L McCulloch, Kengo Ikesugi
Purpose: A small, full-field flicker electroretinogram (ERG) recording system was recently developed to record flicker ERGs without mydriasis (RETeval). The device delivers a stimulus with constant retinal illuminance by adjusting the retinal luminance to compensate for changes in the pupillary area. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors affect the fundamental components of the flicker ERGs recorded by RETeval in young healthy subjects. Methods: Flicker ERGs were recorded with the RETeval system from 150 eyes of 150 young healthy subjects (age, 20-29 years)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mitchell Lawlor, Ana Quartilho, Catey Bunce, Neil Nathwani, Emily Dowse, Debbie Kamal, Gus Gazzard
Purpose: We determined whether there is relative sparing of pupil function in glaucoma patients with normal pressures compared to those with high pressures. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done of 68 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG): 38 had normal IOPs on all-day phasing before treatment (never >21 mm Hg), with confirmed progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (NTG) and 30 had glaucomatous optic neuropathy associated with elevated intraocular pressures (>25 mm Hg; HP-POAG)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yung Ju Yoo, Jeong-Min Hwang, Hee Kyung Yang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in pupillary light reflex (PLR) between the acute and chronic phases of optic neuritis (ON) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). METHODS: The study included 30 patients with ON and 22 patients with NAION whose PLR were measured by a dynamic pupillometer (PLR-200; NeurOptics Inc., Irvine, USA). Age-matched controls included 58 healthy individuals with normal vision and optic nerve function. Pupil diameters, latency, constriction ratio, constriction velocity and dilation velocity were noted...
2017: PloS One
L Luzi
The last paper of the two issues dedicated to Prof Carmine Melino has been written by Dr Lanfranco Luzi, a medical doctor, a pupil and a friend of Carmine Melino, also an appreciated writer. I believe that this inspired piece can close in the best way our initiative of commemorating Carmine Melino, the academician and the man, with both scientific articles and direct testimonies.
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Alberto de Castro, Lucie Sawides, Xiaofeng Qi, Stephen A Burns
Retinal imaging with an adaptive optics (AO) system usually requires that the eye be centered and stable relative to the exit pupil of the system. Aberrations are then typically corrected inside a fixed circular pupil. This approach can be restrictive when imaging some subjects, since the pupil may not be round and maintaining a stable head position can be difficult. In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm that relaxes these constraints. An image quality metric is computed for each spot of the Shack-Hartmann image to detect the pupil and its boundary, and the control algorithm is applied only to regions within the subject's pupil...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Dong Zhang, Shuyan Xu, Nannan Liu, Xiaoyu Wang
We propose a simplified phase diversity method based on the first-order Taylor expansion of the optical transfer function (OTF) as the light intensity on the pupil plane is not uniform but presents Gaussian distribution. By extending the Zernike polynomial term to the complex field, we regard the distribution of the light intensity as the imaginary part of the phase, which can be solved together with the phase aberration (the real part of the phase). The approximation of the OTF using the first-order Taylor expansion can simplify the relationship between the phase and OTF to linear relation, so that the aberration can be quickly solved...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Chaohsien Chen
New unique and concise translation matrices are derived for evaluating the aberration variations of conceptual and real lenses when the paraxial marginal and chief ray paths are arbitrarily changed. They are helpful in investigating the general behaviors of lenses and optimizing the balanced aberrations of lens components in prime and zoom lenses. These new matrices, with a dimension of 9×9 for monochromatic aberrations and a dimension of 4×4 for chromatic aberrations, are derived based on our earlier algorithms of which four cases with distinct translation factors and matrices are required according to the relationships of the original and new positions of the object and pupil; otherwise, division-by-zero errors or insufficient numerical accuracy will be encountered...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
José A Díaz, Virendra N Mahajan
In this paper, we explore the merit of calculating the geometrical optical transfer function (GOTF) in optical design by comparing the time to calculate it with the time to calculate the diffraction optical transfer function (DOTF). We determine the DOTF by numerical integration of the pupil function autocorrelation (that reduces to an integration of a complex exponential of the aberration difference function), 2D digital autocorrelation of the pupil function, and the Fourier transform (FT) of the point-spread function (PSF); and we determine the GOTF by the FT of the geometrical PSF (that reduces to an integration over the pupil plane of a complex exponential that is a scalar product of the spatial frequency and transverse ray aberration vectors) and the FT of the spot diagram...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Lien T Vu, Chao-Chang A Chen, Patrick Joi-Tsang Shum
This paper aims to develop and analyze the design method of multifocal contact lenses to obtain curvature continuity in the optical surfaces with the high addition (Add) powers by adjusting non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves. The paper has developed mathematical formulae to generate the optical power distributions in which the powers continuously change from either near or distant center to the opposite focal length in the periphery of the optical region with different change rates and Add power values...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yajun Niu, Jun Chang, Fengxiang Lv, Benlan Shen, Weilin Chen
Foveated imaging systems have the ability to capture local high-resolution or high-magnification images with wide field of view (FOV); thus, they have great potential for applications in the field of monitoring and remote sensing of unmanned aerial vehicles. Hence, foveated optical systems are in strong demand. However, the existing foveated imaging systems either are equipped with expensive modulators or require fixing the local high resolution imaging field, which is not suitable for mass production or object tracking in industrial applications...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Antonín Mikš, Jiří Novák
A method is described for the first-order analysis of a two-conjugate zoom lens composed of three movable elements. Such an optical system satisfies the requirement that the object, image, and pupil planes are fixed within the change of its magnification. General formulas are derived for the calculation of parameters of a three-component two-conjugate zoom lens system, which enable us to calculate the optical power of individual optical elements and their distances for a different range of magnification and imposed conditions...
June 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Zakraus K Mahdavi, Ram Narayan, Shraddha Mainali, Benjamin M Greenberg, Venkatesh Aiyagari, David L McDonagh
BACKGROUND: The use of weight loss drugs and dietary supplements is common, but safety profiles for these drugs are largely unknown. Reports of toxicity have been published, and the use of these agents should be considered in clinical differential diagnoses. METHODS: We report the case of a patient with toxic leukoencephalopathy and hyponatremia associated with oral consumption of a thermogenic dietary supplement and essential oils. RESULTS: A 30-year-old woman presented after 2 days of headache, blurred vision, photophobia, vomiting, and hand spasms...
October 18, 2017: Neurocritical Care
Juliette C Désiron, Erica de Vries, Anna N Bartel, Nalini Varahamurti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The effects of text cohesion and added pictures on acquired knowledge have been heavily studied each in isolation. Furthermore, studies on the effects of specific characteristics of pictures, whether facilitating or hindering, are scarce. Schnotz's ITCP Model (2014) allows to formulate hypotheses regarding the combined effect of text cohesion and presence and level of detail of a picture. This study investigates these hypotheses in the case of children reading scientific texts...
October 16, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Lin Chen, Joseph C Yeung, Dennis R Anderson
A 70-year-old-woman developed anisocoria after applying homeopathic eye drops (Similasan Pink Eye Relief) to her left eye. Her pupil was dilated for two weeks and did not respond to light or near stimuli for one week. Both 0.1 % and 1% pilocarpine failed to constrict her left pupil, and magnetic resonance imaging of her brain did not reveal any abnormality. The eye drops she had used contain belladonna extracts, which have a natural atropine component. This case demonstrates the importance, when evaluating a patient presenting with anisocoria, of knowing the chemical ingredients of the homeopathic eye drops, which often are not listed...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Medicine & Research
Soomin Lee, Naoko Muto, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: In the human retina, the contribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to the regulation of the pupillary response remains poorly understood. The objective of the current study was to determine the response dynamics of the pupillary light reflex to short, successive pulses of light. In order to better assess the roles of ipRGCs and cones, we used pulses of blue and green light. METHODS: Each participant was exposed to 1-ms blue (466 nm) and/or green (527 nm) light pulses simultaneously or separately, with inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 0, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 ms...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Yiwei He, Xi Hou, Fan Wu, Xinxue Ma, Rongguang Liang
Computer-generated hologram (CGH) has been widely used as a wavefront compensator in symmetric aspheric metrology. As a diffractive element, it generates different diffraction orders, but only the 1st-order diffraction is used to test aspheric surface. The light from spurious diffraction orders (SDO) will produce many high-frequency fringes in interferogram and reduce measurement accuracy. In this paper, we regard the CGH null system as an imaging system and develop an aberration model in Seidel formalism to analyze the SDO...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Sunil Vyas, Po-Hao Wang, Yuan Luo
We experimentally demonstrate spatial mode multiplexing of optical beams using multiplexed volume holographic gratings (MVGHs) formed in phenanthrenquinone-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer. Multiple spatial modes of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams are recorded at the same pupil area of a volume hologram resulting in MVHGs, for simultaneous reconstruction of spatial modes. In addition, a helical phase beam, a non-diffracting beam with conical phase profile, and a parabolic non-diffracting beam with cubic phase profile have also been simultaneously recorded and reconstructed from MVHGs...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Sergey Gasilov, Tomy Dos Santos Rolo, Alberto Mittone, Sergey Polyakov, Sergey Terentyev, Tomas Farago, Vladimir Blank, Alberto Bravin, Tilo Baumbach
Quality of a refractive compound X-ray lens can be limited by imperfections in surfaces of unit lenses and stacking precision. In general case both the lens transmission and optical aberrations define properties of a beam in the lens exit plane; together they can be expressed in terms of the generalized pupil function. In this work we measure this function for a diamond single crystal compound refractive lens. Consequently, we apply the pupil function to evaluate the performance of the examined compound refractive X-ray lens...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Jian Chen, Chenhao Wan, Ling Jiang Kong, Qiwen Zhan
The spin angular momentum of photons offers a robust, scalable and high-bandwidth toolbox for many promising applications based upon spin-controlled manipulations of light. In this work, we develop a method to achieve controllable photonic spin orientation within a diffraction limited optical focal spot produced by a high numerical aperture objective lens. The required pupil field is found analytically through reversing the radiation patterns from two electric dipoles located at the focal point of the lens with orthogonal oscillation directions and quadrature phase...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
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