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pediatric clinical ultrasonography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336101/metabolic-syndrome-hepatic-steatosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children
#1
Irene Rutigliano, Roberta Vinci, Gianpaolo De Filippo, Monica Mancini, Luca Stoppino, Maria d'Apolito, Ida Giardino, Luca Macarini, Massimo Pettoello Mantovani, Angelo Campanozzi
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a well-recognized entity; however, there is no consensus on its exact value in predicting long-term cardiovascular (CV) risk. Hepatic steatosis (HS) is another emerging condition associated with pediatric obesity, and data have been reported suggesting a possible role of HS in CV risk linked to MetS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of HS and MetS cluster in predicting CV risk linked to pediatric obesity. METHODS: We studied 803 overweight and obese children (395 girls and 408 boys, mean age 9...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318780/surface-electromyogram-and-muscle-ultrasonography-for-detection-of-muscle-fasciculations-in-pediatric-peripheral-neuropathy
#2
Masayoshi Oguri, Yoshiaki Saito, Tetsuya Okazaki, Wataru Matsumura, Koyo Ohno, Masami Togawa, Chisako Fukuda, Yuko Saito, Ichizo Nishino, Yoshihiro Maegaki
A 12-year-old girl presented with talipes equinus of both legs, attenuation of upper and lower limb tendon reflexes, thermal hyperalgesia, and reduction of vibratory sensation. On clinical examination, muscle twitches of fingers of both hands, as well as the abductor halluces and the dorsal interossei muscles of the right foot were observed. Nerve conduction velocity was significantly declined in the upper and lower extremities. Needle electromyography (EMG) was not performed; however, ultrasonography revealed repetitive, semi-regular muscle twitches lasting 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284770/point-of-care-ultrasonography-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-subluxation-of-the-radial-head-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-series
#3
Faruk Güngör, Taylan Kılıç
BACKGROUND: A subluxation of the radial head (SRH) is a clinical condition that commonly occurs in children under 6 years of age. History and physical examination findings typically include a child who presents with an elbow held in extension and with forearm pronation, after having suffered significant longitudinal traction on the arm, or after a fall on an outstretched hand. The diagnosis is often clinically obvious. The injury responds dramatically to closed reduction, and usually no imaging is required...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271087/comparison-of-pediatric-and-general-orthopedic-surgeons-approaches-in-management-of-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-and-flexible-flatfoot-the-road-to-clinical-consensus
#4
Ramin Haj Zargarbashi, Hirbod Nasiri Bonaki, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Taghi Baghdadi, Mohammad Hossein Nabian, Mehdi Ramezan Shirazi
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and flatfoot are common pediatric orthopedic disorders, being referred to and managed by both general and pediatric orthopedic surgeons, through various modalities. Our study aimed to evaluate their consensus and perspective disagreements in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of the mentioned deformities. Forty participants in two groups of general orthopedic surgeons (GOS) (n=20) and pediatric orthopedic surgeons (POS) (n=20), were asked to answer an 8-item questionnaire on DDH and flexible flatfoot...
January 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267081/the-diagnostic-value-of-hepatic-arterial-velocity-in-venoocclusive-disease-after-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Nusabe Kaya, Fatih Erbey, Didem Atay, Arzu Akçay, Ceyhun Bozkurt, Gulyuz Ozturk
The aim of this study was to determine usefulness of measurements of maximal systolic velocity of the hepatic artery with Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of venoocclusive disease (VOD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We prospectively obtained 5 sonograms per patient: pretransplantation, day +1, +7, +14, and +28 on 36 nonconsecutive children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We examined the hepatic artery, the portal, hepatic and splenic veins, the thickness of the gallbladder wall, the presence of ascites, and the liver and spleen size...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230608/specialized-imaging-and-procedures-in-pediatric-pancreatology-a-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-clinical-report
#6
Tom K Lin, David M Troendle, Daniel B Wallihan, Bradley Barth, Victor L Fox, Douglas S Fishman, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of children are being diagnosed with pancreatitis and other pancreatic abnormalities. Dissemination of the information regarding existing imaging techniques and endoscopic modalities to diagnose and manage pancreatic disorders in children is sorely needed. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical literature on the use of the following imaging and procedural modalities in pediatric pancreatology: transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228009/emergency-ultrasonography-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-children
#7
Jae-Yeon Hwang
Ultrasonography (US) is widely used to evaluate most body parts in pediatric patients because it is simple, noninvasive, easy to use, and applicable in a wide variety of clinical situations. US is the modality of choice for the initial evaluation of acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients because of their small body habitus and the presence of less fat tissue in the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity. The most important factor in performing pediatric emergency US is the graded compression technique and selection of the proper transducer...
January 25, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191301/plunging-ranula-in-children-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Veronica Carlini, Valeria Calcaterra, Noemi Pasqua, Marinella Guazzotti, Mario Fusillo, Gloria Pelizzo
Few cases of plunging ranulas (PRs) occur during childhood and the lesions are frequently misdiagnosed. Here, a PR in a child is reported along with a literature review. A seven-year-old female complaining of swelling in the midline neck, left-submandibular region, was evaluated. No oral cavity or major salivary glands abnormalities were detected. On palpation, a soft, painless, and fluid-containing mass was observed. The suspicion PR was performed by ultrasound. The diagnosis was confirmed with a histopathological examination...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140493/cerebral-high-intensity-transient-signals-during-pediatric-cardiac-catheterization-a-pilot-study-using-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonography
#9
Kerri L LaRovere, Kush Kapur, Doff B McElhinney, Alexander Razumovsky, Barry D Kussman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral emboli are one potential cause of acute brain injury in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this pilot study using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography, we sought to evaluate the incidence, burden, and circumstances of cerebral high-intensity transient signals (HITS), presumably representing emboli, during pediatric cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Emboli monitoring of the right middle cerebral artery was performed in five children...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123249/imaging-in-acute-appendicitis-what-when-and-why
#10
REVIEW
Jyotindu Debnath, R A George, R Ravikumar
Acute appendicitis (AA) is the commonest cause of pain abdomen requiring surgical intervention. Diagnosis as well as management of acute appendicitis is mired in controversies and contradictions even today. Clinicians often face the dilemma of balancing negative appendectomy rate and perforation rate if the diagnosis is based on clinical scoring alone. Laboratory results are often non-specific. Imaging has an important role not only in diagnosing appendicitis and its complication but also suggesting alternate diagnosis in appropriate cases...
January 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114163/doppler-ultrasonography-of-the-central-retinal-vessels-in-children-with-brain-death
#11
Becky J Riggs, Joanna S Cohen, Bhavana Shivakumar, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Jason T Patregnani, Marijean M Miller, Michael C Spaeder, Nathan P Dean
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study is to explore if bedside Doppler ultrasonography of the central retinal vessels has the potential to become an ancillary study to support the timely diagnosis of brain death in children. DESIGN: Seventeen-month prospective observational cohort. SETTING: Forty-four bed pediatric medical and surgical ICU in an academic teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All children 0-18 years old who were clinically evaluated for brain death at Children's National Health Systems were enrolled and followed until discharge or death...
March 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101773/what-is-the-appropriate-strategy-for-diagnosing-nafld-using-ultrasonography-in-obese-children
#12
Jee Hyun Lee, Su Jin Jeong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify obese children who are candidates for a potential diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We enrolled 242 obese children (122 boys and 120 girls) aged 7-16 years who were examined with abdominal ultrasonography in our pediatric obesity clinic. We compared patients in the normal group with those in the NAFLD group (mild disease, moderate to severe disease) and identified the optimal anthropometric parameters among height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio to predict NAFLD using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058483/three-dimensional-ultrasound-of-the-neonatal-brain-technical-approach-and-spectrum-of-disease
#13
Jessica Kurian, Susan Sotardi, Mark C Liszewski, William A Gomes, Thomas Hoffman, Benjamin H Taragin
Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain...
January 5, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003725/neonatal-cholestasis-as-initial-presentation-of-portosystemic-shunt-a-case-report
#14
Güzide Doğan, Fatih Düzgün, Serdar Tarhan, Yeliz Çağan Appak, Erhun Kasırga
Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are rare in children. Portosystemic venous malformations are characterized by extreme clinical variability. We report a full-term 33-day-old male infant presenting with neonatal jaundice. On physical examination, he had generalized icterus and the liver was palpable 3.5 cm below the right costal margin. He had no other symptoms. Laboratory tests showed AST 632 U/L, ALT 198 U/L, total bilirubin 12.1 mg/dL, conjugated bilirubin 10.2 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 753 U/L, GGT 47 U/L and glucose 67 U/L...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982761/liver-stiffness-in-pediatric-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-shear-wave-elastography
#15
Matteo Garcovich, Silvio Veraldi, Enrico Di Stasio, Maria Assunta Zocco, Lidia Monti, Paolo Tomà, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini, Valerio Nobili
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in identifying different degrees of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive children and adolescents with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods Consecutive pediatric patients scheduled to undergo liver biopsy were studied with an ultrasonography-based SWE system. Elastography was performed in 68 of 69 patients with biopsy-proved NASH (37 boys and 31 girls; mean age, 12.6 years ± 2.48; age range, 8-17 years). The correlations among laboratory findings, liver stiffness, and fibrosis score were analyzed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the presence of any fibrosis (score ≥F1) or significant fibrosis (score ≥F2)...
December 13, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919452/imaging-gently-higher-rates-of-computed-tomography-imaging-for-pediatric-appendicitis-in-non-children-s-hospitals
#16
K Tinsley Anderson, Luke R Putnam, Kelly M Caldwell, Michael B Diffley, Aubrey A Hildebrandt, Sarah E Covey, Mary T Austin, Akemi L Kawaguchi, Kevin P Lally, KuoJen Tsao
BACKGROUND: Growing concerns regarding radiation exposure in children have led to recommendations to minimize computed tomography imaging for appendicitis. We hypothesized that within a metropolitan hospital system (1 children's hospital and 8 non-children's hospitals), use of preoperative computed tomography is much greater in non-children's hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients <18 years of age undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis from April 2012 to April 2015...
December 2, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906845/an-algorithmic-approach-using-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-nasal-bone-fracture
#17
Ikkei Tamada, Takaaki Mori, Nobuaki Inoue, Hirokazu Shido, Marie Aoki, Yukie Nakamura, Ruri Kamogawa
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) was recently reported as a reliable modality for diagnosing nasal bone fractures. However, whether US is reliable as a screening tool in the pediatric emergency department (ED) remains unknown. This prospective cohort study had a 2-fold aim: to assess the utility of US in the diagnosis of pediatric nasal bone fracture, and to evaluate the validity of our protocol for managing pediatric nasal bone fractures (Fuchu-Kids algorithm). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among the patients who presented at the ED with facial trauma, those with a suspected nasal bone fracture were enrolled in the study...
January 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891787/evaluation-of-the-western-australian-register-of-developmental-anomalies-thirty-five-years-of-surveillance
#18
Wendy N Nembhard, Carol Bower
BACKGROUND: The birth defects component of the Western Australian Register for Developmental Anomalies (WARDA-BD) was evaluated to assess its efficiency, effectiveness, and data quality. METHODS: WARDA-BD was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems and Data Quality Standards from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network. The evaluation included interviews with Register staff, local community organizations, parents, clinicians, and researchers; process observation; and secondary data analyses...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876028/clinical-assessment-of-children-with-renal-abscesses-presenting-to-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#19
Chun-Yu Chen, Huang-Tsung Kuo, Yu-Jun Chang, Kang-Hsi Wu, Wen-Chieh Yang, Han-Ping Wu
BACKGROUND: Renal abscesses are relatively uncommon in children but may result in prolonged hospital stays and life-threatening events. We undertook this study to analyze the clinical spectrum of renal abscesses in children admitted to the pediatric emergency department (ED) and to find helpful clinical characteristics that can potentially aid emergency physicians for detecting renal abscesses in children earlier. METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 17 patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of renal abscess admitted to the ED...
November 22, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797677/diagnostic-performance-of-us-for-differentiating-perforated-from-nonperforated-pediatric-appendicitis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Jennifer L Carpenter, Robert C Orth, Wei Zhang, Monica E Lopez, Kate L Mangona, R Paul Guillerman
Purpose To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography (US) for differentiating perforated from nonperforated pediatric appendicitis and to investigate the association between specific US findings and perforation. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and the need for informed consent was waived. All abdominal US studies performed for suspected pediatric appendicitis at one institution from July 1, 2013, to July 9, 2014, were examined prospectively...
March 2017: Radiology
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