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pediatric clinical ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900749/-efficacy-of-ultrasound-guided-peripheral-intravenous-access-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Chia-Chi Kuo, Chen-Yun Wu, I-Jung Feng, Wei-Jing Lee
BACKGROUND: Peripheral intravenous access is a common, invasive procedure that is performed in clinical practice. Difficult intravenous access may not only jeopardize patient safety but also increase staff stress, nursing hours, and material costs. PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access in difficult intravenous-access patients and in the two subgroups of adult patients and pediatric patients using systematic review and meta-analysis...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898627/publishing-trends-in-the-field-of-pediatric-emergency-medicine-from-2004-to-2013
#2
Nancy S Rixe, Jeffrey Rixe, Joshua Glick, Erik Lehman, Robert P Olympia
OBJECTIVE: To identify publishing trends within the field of pediatric emergency medicine between 2004 and 2013. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE search of pediatric emergency medicine articles, filtered by clinical trial, published between 2004 and 2013 in ten journals from the fields of pediatrics, emergency medicine, general medicine, and pediatric emergency medicine. Each article was classified by journal type, study design, results (positive or negative/equivocal), age/type of subjects, and major topic (based on the objective of the study)...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856357/clinical-effectiveness-in-the-diagnosis-and-acute-management-of-pediatric-nephrolithiasis
#3
REVIEW
Jason P Van Batavia, Gregory E Tasian
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814988/bedside-ultrasound-vs-x-ray-for-the-diagnosis-of-forearm-fractures-in-children
#4
Rachel Rowlands, James Rippey, Sing Tie, James Flynn
BACKGROUND: Painful forearm injuries after a fall occur frequently in children. X-ray study is currently the gold standard investigation. Ultrasound (US) is a potential alternative that avoids exposure to ionizing radiation and may be less painful than x-ray study; and familiarity and skill with US is increasing among emergency physicians. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine if a cohort of physicians with little or no previous experience with US could, after a short training program, safely exclude forearm fractures in children...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813457/ventricular-catheter-entry-site-and-not-catheter-tip-location-predicts-shunt-survival-a-secondary-analysis-of-3-large-pediatric-hydrocephalus-studies
#5
William E Whitehead, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Abhaya V Kulkarni, John C Wellons, Curtis J Rozzelle, Mandeep S Tamber, David D Limbrick, Samuel R Browd, Robert P Naftel, Chevis N Shannon, Tamara D Simon, Richard Holubkov, Anna Illner, D Douglas Cochrane, James M Drake, Thomas G Luerssen, W Jerry Oakes, John R W Kestle
OBJECTIVE Accurate placement of ventricular catheters may result in prolonged shunt survival, but the best target for the hole-bearing segment of the catheter has not been rigorously defined. The goal of the study was to define a target within the ventricle with the lowest risk of shunt failure. METHODS Five catheter placement variables (ventricular catheter tip location, ventricular catheter tip environment, relationship to choroid plexus, catheter tip holes within ventricle, and crosses midline) were defined, assessed for interobserver agreement, and evaluated for their effect on shunt survival in univariate and multivariate analyses...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783314/space-occupying-lesions-in-the-liver
#6
REVIEW
Manigandan Subramanyam Thyagarajan, Khalid Sharif
Space occupying liver lesions usually present with abdominal pain or abnormal physical findings, such as a palpable abdominal mass or distention. Liver lesions identified in children include benign and malignant neoplasms, inflammatory masses, cysts and metastatic lesions. Two-thirds of liver lesions in children are malignant. Hepatoblastoma accounts for two-thirds of malignant liver tumors in children. Benign lesions of the liver in children include vascular lesions, hamartomas, adenomas, and focal nodular hyperplasia...
October 25, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775301/-is-there-appendiceal-stump-appendicitis
#7
A García Baglietto, C Barceló Cañellas, C Marhuenda Irastorza
INTRODUCTION: Stump appendicitis is the remaining appendicular tissue inflammation after a variable length of time. It is a very infrequent pathology with a paucity in pediatric publications, and given the fact that a delay in its diagnosis could lead to an increased morbidity, this is the reason of its clinical relevance. CLINICAL CASE: A 10 years old girl who had laparoscopic excision of a flemonous-gangrenous appendicitis and who 45 days after surgery showed new clinical symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis...
October 10, 2015: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770490/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-abscess-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#8
Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
November 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759641/ultrasound-screening-for-neoplasms-in-children-up-to-6-years-old
#9
Grzegorz Jedrzejewski, Magdalena M Wozniak, Agata Pawelec, Albert Matera, Magdalena Kunach, Tomasz Madej, Andrzej P Wieczorek, Katarzyna Nowakowska
The aim of the ultrasound (US) screening program was to detect neoplastic lesions in children, together with other pathologies of the developmental age in the area of the neck, abdomen, female pelvis, and scrotum in boys.US screening scans, including cervical, abdominal, pelvical, and scrotal US, were performed in the population of asymptomatic children aged from 9 months to 6 years. The children were scanned in Mobile Pediatric US Unit, consisting of 2 independent consulting rooms.The scans of 14,324 children were analyzed, 7247 boys and 7077 girls...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755330/the-use-of-routine-blood-cultures-in-pediatric-appendicitis
#10
Graham Cameron Thompson, Ellen Morrison, Marshall Ross, Helena Liu, Otto G Vanderkooi, Robin Eccles
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of true-positive blood culture results in children presenting to the ED with suspected appendicitis. To describe the current practice of obtaining blood cultures in children with suspected appendicitis. METHODS: We performed a 2-year retrospective health record review of all children aged 2 through 17 years investigated for suspected appendicitis at a tertiary Pediatric Emergency Department. Subjects were identified by searching (a) institutional records for ICD-10-CA coding, (b) diagnostic imaging records of ultrasounds for appendicitis, and (c) surgical database records for nonincidental appendectomies...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749391/ultrasound-guided-liver-biopsy-with-gelatin-sponge-pledget-tract-embolization-in-infants-weighing-less-than-10-kg
#11
Matthew P Lungren, Will S Lindquester, Frank Glen Seidel, Nishita Kothary, Eric J Monroe, Giri Shivaram, Anne E Gill, Matthew C Hawkins
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe and assess the technical success and safety of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization technique in infants <10 kg across 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 67 pediatric patients weighing <10 kg (36 boys; 31 girls; average age 202 days; average weight 6 kg, range 1.5-9.9 kg) referred for liver biopsy performed with ultrasound guidance and gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization during a 2-year period...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748074/preliminary-definitions-for-the-sonographic-features-of-synovitis-in-children
#12
Johannes Roth, Viviana Ravagnani, Marina Backhaus, Peter Balint, Alessandra Bruns, George A Bruyn, Paz Collado, Lorenia De la Cruz, Severine Guillaume-Czitrom, Troels Herlin, Cristina Hernandez, Annamaria Iagnocco, Sandrine Jousse-Joulin, Stefano Lanni, Vibke Lilleby, Clara Malattia, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Consuelo Modesto, Ana Narrodi, Juan-Carlos Nieto, Sarah Ohrndorf, Linda Rossi, Anne-Marit Selvaag, Nanno Swen, Tracy Ting, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Patricia Vega-Fernandez, Jelena Vojinovic, Daniel Windschall, Maria-Antonietta D'Agostino, Esperanza Naredo
Objectives Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has the potential to be an important tool in the assessment of disease activity in childhood arthritides. To assess pathology, clear definitions for synovitis need to be developed first. The aim of this study was to develop and validate these definitions through an international consensus process. Methods The decision on which US techniques to use, the components to be included in the definitions as well as the final wording were developed by 31 ultrasound experts in a consensus process...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742550/transient-elastography-as-a-noninvasive-assessment-tool-for-hepatopathies-of-different-etiology-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740892/contemporary-insertion-of-central-venous-access-catheters-in-pediatric-patients-a-retrospective-record-review-study-of-538-catheters-in-a-single-center
#14
Max B van Gent, Wendeline J van der Made, Perla J Marang-van de Mheen, Koen E van der Bogt
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the rate of infections and complications after surgeon-performed, largely ultrasound-guided, central venous catheter (CVC) placement in a pediatric population and to identify patients at high risk of complications. METHODS: All children aged between 4 months and 19 years with a percutaneous CVC inserted between January 1, 2000, and July 31, 2013, were included. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively for the occurrence of infection and other complications until CVC removal or the last outpatient clinic visit and compared between patient groups and with the recent literature...
October 14, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740725/assessment-of-extravascular-lung-water-by-ultrasound-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#15
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709281/stratifying-fibrinolytic-dosing-in-pediatric-parapneumonic-effusion-based-on-ultrasound-grade-correlation
#16
Charles A James, Leah E Braswell, Amir H Pezeshkmehr, Paula K Roberson, James A Parks, Mary B Moore
BACKGROUND: Complicated pleural effusion prolongs the hospital course of pneumonia. Chest tube placement with instillation of fibrinolytic medication allows efficient drain output and decreases hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experience with lower fibrinolytic dose for parapneumonic effusions and to assess potential dose stratification based on a simple ultrasound grading system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record to identify children and young adults who received fibrinolytic therapy for parapneumonic effusion and had chest tube placement by an interventional radiology service at a single children's hospital...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699732/a-new-era-in-diagnostic-ultrasound-superb-microvascular-imaging-preliminary-results-in-pediatric-hepato-gastrointestinal-disorders
#17
Yasuharu Ohno, Tamotsu Fujimoto, Yukari Shibata
Introduction Superb microvascular imaging is a new ultrasound image processing technique that uses advanced clutter suppression to extract flow signals from vessels and which helps us visualize very small vascular structures that were not previously visible without the use of a contrast agent. We herein analyzed the usefulness of superb microvascular imaging in the diagnosis of hepato-gastrointestinal disorders in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Fifty-six pediatric patients who underwent a total of 81 superb microvascular imaging examinations with an Aplio 300 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) were enrolled in this study...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695033/an-empirical-biomarker-based-calculator-for-cystic-index-in-a-model-of-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-the-nieto-narayan-formula
#18
Jake A Nieto, Michael A Yamin, Itzhak D Goldberg, Prakash Narayan
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of the kidneys fuelled by the formation and expansion of fluid-filled cysts. The disease is congenital and children that do not succumb to it during the neonatal period will, by age 10 years, more often than not, require nephrectomy+renal replacement therapy for management of both pain and renal insufficiency. Since increasing cystic index (CI; percent of kidney occupied by cysts) drives both renal expansion and organ dysfunction, management of these patients, including decisions such as elective nephrectomy and prioritization on the transplant waitlist, could clearly benefit from serial determination of CI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692650/predictors-of-nondiagnostic-ultrasound-for-appendicitis
#19
Christine Keller, Nancy E Wang, Daniel L Imler, Shreyas S Vasanawala, Matias Bruzoni, James V Quinn
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation and cost make ultrasound (US), when available, the first imaging study for the diagnosis of suspected pediatric appendicitis. US is less sensitive and specific than computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which are often performed after nondiagnostic US. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine predictors of nondiagnostic US in order to guide efficient ordering of imaging studies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of consecutive patients 4 to 30 years of age with suspected appendicitis took place at an emergency department with access to 24/7 US, MRI, and CT capabilities...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#20
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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