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Academic Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340498/academic-difficulties-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-presence-profile-and-neural-correlates
#1
Leila Glass, Eileen M Moore, Natacha Akshoomoff, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. METHODS: Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61)...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340399/metacognition-in-the-classroom-the-association-between-students-exam-predictions-and-their-desired-grades
#2
Gabriel D Saenz, Lisa Geraci, Tyler M Miller, Robert Tirso
Students are overconfident when making grade predictions, and worse, the lowest-performing students are generally the most overconfident. Because metacognitive accuracy is associated with academic performance, multiple studies have attempted to improve metacognitive accuracy with mixed results. However, these studies may be of limited use because we do not understand the types of information university students use to make performance predictions. The current studies examined the possibility that university students' predictions are associated with their desires-the grade they want to receive...
March 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340224/the-association-of-context-specific-sitting-time-and-physical-activity-intensity-to-working-memory-capacity-and-academic-achievement-in-young-adults
#3
Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Charles H Hillman, Eva Cirera, Anna Puig-Ribera
To examine combined associations between self-reported context-specific sitting time (ST) and physical activity (PA) with working memory capacity (WMC) and academic achievement in a sample of Spanish adults. Undergraduate students ( n = 371; 21 years ± 3 years, 44% female) were recruited from University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia. Participants completed a 54-item survey that assessed socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, gender, academic year), min/week of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), min/day of domain-specific ST (Last 7 days sedentary behavior questionnaire) and academic performance (grade point average)...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339186/quantum-chemical-strain-analysis-for-mechanochemical-processes
#4
Tim Stauch, Andreas Dreuw
The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching...
March 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#5
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335082/reporting-of-mitotic-rate-in-cutaneous-melanoma-a-study-using-the-national-cancer-data-base
#6
Patrick D Lorimer, Emily C Benham, Kendall Walsh, Yimei Han, Meghan R Forster, Terry Sarantou, Richard L White, Joshua S Hill
BACKGROUND: The seventh edition of the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging manual (AJCC7, published 2009), updated thin cutaneous melanoma staging protocols with the incorporation of mitotic rate (MR). In these patients, higher MR is associated with decreased survival. This study utilizes the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate MR reporting since AJCC7. METHODS: The NCDB was queried for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma from 1998 to 2013...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334687/neurocognitive-status-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-tumors-in-good-neurological-condition-the-impact-of-tumor-type-volume-and-location
#7
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive function is of great importance in patients with brain tumors. Even patients in good neurological condition may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunction that affects their daily living. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from common supratentorial brain tumors with minor neurological deficits. METHODS: A prospective study evaluating neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with a newly-diagnosed brain tumor in good neurological condition was performed at a major German academic institution...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334593/pediatric-postoperative-pulse-oximetry-monitoring-during-transport-to-the-postanesthesia-care-unit-reduces-frequency-of-hypoxemia
#8
Thomas J Caruso, Tara E Mokhtari, Monica J Coughlan, Diane S Wu, Juan L Marquez, Melissa Duan, Heather Freeman, Andrew Giustini, Mary Tweedy, Paul J Sharek
BACKGROUND: The standard use of pulse oximetry during the transport of postoperative patients from the operating room (OR) to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is not routinely practiced. A study was conducted to determine if the frequency of hypoxemia on admission to the PACU decreased after implementation of routine use of transport pulse oximeters for postoperative patients being transferred to the PACU. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, which was conducted at an academic pediatric hospital, the primary outcome measure was the frequency of hypoxemic events on arrival to the PACU...
March 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334592/using-an-electronic-perioperative-documentation-tool-to-identify-returns-to-operating-room-ror-in-a-tertiary-care-academic-medical-center
#9
Robert R Cima, Sarah R Dhanorker, Christopher L Ostendorf, Mfonabasi Ntekpe, Raghu V Mudundi, Elizabeth B Habermann, Claude Deschamps
BACKGROUND: The metric "Unplanned returns to operating room (ROR)" is being tracked in surgical quality dashboards; 70% of unplanned RORs may be related to surgical complications. With increasing regionalization of trauma and complex surgical care at tertiary care academic centers, it is unclear if a simple ROR metric is a valid assessment of surgical quality at such centers. METHOD: A real-time electronic tool was used to identify all RORs-planned and unplanned-in a high-volume, high-complexity academic surgical practice at Mayo Clinic-Rochester within 45 days of the index operation...
March 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334328/vestibular-aqueduct-midpoint-width-and-hearing-loss-in-patients-with-an-enlarged-vestibular-aqueduct
#10
Mustafa S Ascha, Nauman Manzoor, Amit Gupta, Maroun Semaan, Cliff Megerian, Todd D Otteson
Importance: Elucidating the relationship between vestibular aqueduct size and hearing loss progression may inform the prognosis and counseling of patients who have an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). Objectives: To examine the association between vestibular aqueduct size and repeated measures of hearing loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this retrospective medical record review, 52 patients with a diagnosis of hearing loss and radiologic diagnosis of EVA according to the Valvassori criterion were included...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331383/applying-team-based-learning-of-diagnostics-for-undergraduate-students-assessing-teaching-effectiveness-by-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#11
Rui Zeng, Lian-Rui Xiang, Jing Zeng, Chuan Zuo
BACKGROUND: We aimed to introduce team-based learning (TBL) as one of the teaching methods for diagnostics and to compare its teaching effectiveness with that of the traditional teaching methods. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial on diagnostics teaching involving 111 third-year medical undergraduates, using TBL as the experimental intervention, compared with lecture-based learning as the control, for teaching the two topics of symptomatology. Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT)-baseline and Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT) were performed in members of each TBL subgroup...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330628/analysis-of-the-dura-involvement-in-cholesteatoma-surgery
#12
David Schwarz, Antoniu-Oreste Gostian, Sami Shabli, Philipp Wolber, Karl Bernd Hüttenbrink, Andreas Anagiotos
OBJECTIVE: The involvement of the dura is a rare yet potentially life-threatening complication during cholesteatoma surgery. Thus, the knowledge about treatment and consequences of this issue is of great importance to every ear surgeon. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the dura involvement with regard to the type of defect, reconstruction method used, and the post-operative complications of 1291 pediatric and adult cholesteatoma surgeries performed at an academic tertiary care center over a twelve-year period...
March 19, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329194/ten-year-results-of-the-freedom-solo-stentless-heart-valve-excellent-haemodynamics-but-progressive-valve-dysfunction-in-the-long-term
#13
Sandro Sponga, Mila Della Barbera, Daisy Pavoni, Andrea Lechiancole, Enzo Mazzaro, Marialuisa Valente, Gaetano Nucifora, Gaetano Thiene, Ugolino Livi
OBJECTIVES: Freedom Solo (FS) is a pericardial stentless heart valve showing excellent haemodynamic performance at mid-term. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term performance of such bioprostheses. METHODS: Between December 2004 and November 2009, 109 patients (31 men; mean age 76 ± 6 years) underwent aortic valve replacement with FS. Preoperatively, the mean NYHA class was 2.5 ± 0.7, the mean EuroSCORE II, 2.8 ± 2.5. Mean prosthesis size was 22...
February 23, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328737/considerations-for-medical-students-and-advisors-after-an-unsuccessful-match
#14
Tracy Bumsted, Benjamin N Schneider, Nicole M Deiorio
Increasing numbers of graduating U.S. medical students are not securing a graduate medical education (GME) position, even after participating in the National Resident Matching Program (also known as "the Match") and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program. The reasons for an unsuccessful Match include increasing numbers of applicants compared with nearly unchanging numbers of available GME positions, academic problems or professionalism lapses, and a poor fit between applicants and their first-choice specialty...
March 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328640/we-are-going-to-name-names-and-call-you-out-improving-the-team-in-the-academic-operating-room-environment
#15
Richard Bodor, Brian J Nguyen, Kevin Broder
INTRODUCTION: Communication failures between multidisciplinary teams can impact efficiency, performance, and morale. Academic operating rooms (ORs) often have surgical, anesthesia, and nursing teams, each teaching multiple trainees. Incorrectly identifying name and "rank" (postgraduate year [PGY]) of resident trainees can disrupt performance evaluations and team morale and even potentially impair delivery of quality care when miscommunication errors proliferate. METHODS: Our OR-based survey asked 50 participants (18 surgeons, 14 anesthesiologists, and 18 nursing members), to recall basic identification data including provider names and PGY levels from their recent collaborating OR teams...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328580/factors-predicting-use-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-compared-with-primary-debulking-surgery-in-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer-a-national-cancer-database-study
#16
Gary S Leiserowitz, Jeff F Lin, Ana I Tergas, William A Cliby, Robert E Bristow
OBJECTIVES: We performed a patterns-of-care study to characterize the types of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) versus primary debulking surgery (PDS) using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). METHODS: We identified patients with stages IIIC and IV EOC in the NCDB diagnosed from 2003 to 2011. Patients who received chemotherapy (CT) prior to surgery were classified as receiving NACT; if surgery preceded CT, then it was classified as PDS...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328299/early-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-as-a-predictor-of-survival-after-cardiac-arrest
#17
Barry Burstein, Dev Jayaraman, Regina Husa
Although echocardiograms are frequently performed within 24 h of sudden cardiac death, the utility of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to predict survival is unknown. In this is single center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit or coronary care unit after in-hospital or out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death, LVEF <40% was not a significant predictor of survival at 30 days or hospital discharge. ABSTRACT Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation have been shown to improve outcomes of cardiac arrest...
March 22, 2017: Acute Cardiac Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327918/developmental-coordination-disorder-in-children-experimental-work-and-data-annotation
#18
Lukas Vareka, Petr Bruha, Roman Moucek, Pavel Mautner, Ladislav Cepicka, Irena Holeckova
Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is described as a motor skill disorder characterized by a marked impairment in the development of motor coordination abilities that significantly interferes with performance of daily activities and/or academic achievement. Since some electrophysiological studies suggest differences between children with/without motor development problems, we prepared an experimental protocol and performed electrophysiological experiments with the aim to make a step towards a possible diagnosis of this disorder using the event-related potentials (ERP) technique...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327914/neurosurgical-emergency-transfers-an-analysis-of-deterioration-and-mortality
#19
Ali Alaraj, Darian R Esfahani, Ahmed E Hussein, Ioana Darie, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Konstantin V Slavin, Xinjian Du, Fady T Charbel
BACKGROUND: Neurological deterioration and mortality are frequent in neurosurgical patients transferred to tertiary centers, but the precise predictors leading to them are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and quantify risk factors predicting deterioration and death in neurosurgery transfers. METHODS: A consecutive review of all transfers with cranial pathology to a tertiary academic neurosurgery service was performed over a 2-year period. Risk factors including demographics, medical comorbidities, hydrocephalus, anticoagulant use, transfer diagnosis, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and transfer time were reviewed...
March 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327383/sigueme-technology-based-intervention-for-low-functioning-autism-to-train-skills-to-work-with-visual-signifiers-and-concepts
#20
María Vélez-Coto, María José Rodríguez-Fórtiz, María Luisa Rodriguez-Almendros, Marcelino Cabrera-Cuevas, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, Tomás Ruiz-López, Ángeles Burgos-Pulido, Inmaculada Garrido-Jiménez, Juan Martos-Pérez
BACKGROUND: People with low-functioning ASD and other disabilities often find it difficult to understand the symbols traditionally used in educational materials during the learning process. Technology-based interventions are becoming increasingly common, helping children with cognitive disabilities to perform academic tasks and improve their abilities and knowledge. Such children often find it difficult to perform certain tasks contained in educational materials since they lack necessary skills such as abstract reasoning...
March 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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