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Academic Performance

Andrea Szentesi, Emese Tóth, Emese Bálint, Júlia Fanczal, Tamara Madácsy, Dorottya Laczkó, Imre Ignáth, Anita Balázs, Petra Pallagi, József Maléth, Zoltán Rakonczay, Balázs Kui, Dóra Illés, Katalin Márta, Ágnes Blaskó, Alexandra Demcsák, Andrea Párniczky, Gabriella Pár, Szilárd Gódi, Dóra Mosztbacher, Ákos Szücs, Adrienn Halász, Ferenc Izbéki, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical investment trends in 2015 show a huge decrease of investment in gastroenterology. Since academic research usually provides the basis for industrial research and development (R&D), our aim was to understand research trends in the field of gastroenterology over the last 50 years and identify the most endangered areas. METHODS: We searched for PubMed hits for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases for the 1965-2015 period. Overall, 1,554,325 articles were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Andrew C Parks, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between aerobic and muscular fitness with working memory and academic achievement in preadolescent children. METHODS: Seventy-nine 9-11 year old children completed an aerobic fitness assessment using a graded exercise test; a muscular fitness assessment consisting of upper body, lower body, and core exercises; a serial n-back task to assess working memory; and an academic achievement test of mathematics and reading...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jian Zhang, Haiting Chai, Bo Gao, Guifu Yang, Zhiqiang Ma
Heme is an essential biomolecule that widely exists in numerous extant organisms. Accurately identifying heme binding residues (HEMEs) is of great importance in disease progression and drug development. In this study, a novel predictor named HEMEsPred was proposed for predicting HEMEs. First, several sequence- and structure-based features, including amino acid composition, motifs, surface preferences and secondary structure, were collected to construct feature matrices. Second, a novel fast-adaptive ensemble learning scheme was designed to overcome the serious class-imbalance problem as well as to enhance the prediction performance...
October 4, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Shelby Resnick, Kenji Inaba, Efstathios Karamanos, Dimitra Skiada, James A Dollahite, Obi Okoye, Peep Talving, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: A daily Chest X-ray (CXR) is obtained in many surgical intensive care units (SICU). This study implemented a selective CXR protocol in a high volume, academic SICU and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All SICU patients admitted in 2/2010 were compared with patients admitted in 2/2012. Between the time periods, a protocol eliminating the routine daily CXRs was instituted. RESULTS: In 02/2010 and 02/2012, 107 and 90 patients were admitted to the SICU, respectively, for a total of 1384 patient days...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Jane Bleasel, Annette Burgess, Ruth Weeks, Inam Haq
BACKGROUND: The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. METHODS: In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Kurt K Hubbard, Diane Blyler
Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
David W Putwain, Wendy Symes, Hannah M Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Fear appeals are persuasive messages that draw attention to the negative consequences (e.g., academic failure) that follow a particular course of action (e.g., not engaging in lessons) and how negative consequences can be avoided with an alternate course of action. Previous studies have shown that when fear appeals are appraised as threatening, they are related to lower examination performance. AIM: In this study, we examined how challenge, as well as threat, appraisals are indirectly related to performance on a mathematics examination through behavioural engagement...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Ramya Pham, Daniel Forsberg, Donna Plecha
The aim of this study was to perform an operational improvement project targeted at the breast imaging reading workflow of mammography examinations at an academic medical center with its associated breast centers and satellite sites. Through careful analysis of the current workflow, two major issues were identified: stockpiling of paperwork and multiple worklists. Both issues were considered to cause significant delays to the start of interpreting screening mammograms. Four workflow changes were suggested (scanning of paperwork, worklist consolidation, use of chat functionality, and tracking of case distribution among trainees) and implemented in July 2015...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Maria G Tosto, Kathryn Asbury, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephen A Petrill, Yulia Kovas
Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept...
August 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Kelly Russell, Michael G Hutchison, Erin Selci, Jeff Leiter, Daniel Chateau, Michael J Ellis
BACKGROUND: Many concussion symptoms, such as headaches, vision problems, or difficulty remembering or concentrating may deleteriously affect school functioning. Our objective was to determine if academic performance was lower in the academic calendar year that students sustain a concussion compared to the previous year when they did not sustain a concussion. METHODS: Using Manitoba Health and Manitoba Education data, we conducted a population-based, controlled before-after study from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011 academic years...
2016: PloS One
Amir M Abtahi, Kade Shumway Lyman, Darrel S Brodke, Brandon D Lawrence, Chong Zhang, William Ryan Spiker
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between patient functional status and self-assessment of disability as measured by 3 commonly used clinical assessment instruments-the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the EuroQol (EQ)-5D and patient satisfaction scores in a spine surgery clinic population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Patient satisfaction surveys, which measure the "patient experience of care" are becoming an increasingly important measure of the quality of medical care...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Ida Leah Gitajn, Marilyn Heng, Michael J Weaver, Natalie Casemyr, Collin May, Mark S Vrahas, Mitchel B Harris
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study are to evaluate mortality after Vancouver B periprosthetic fractures and determine predictors of mortality; compare mortality among patients with loose femoral stems treated with revision arthroplasty versus fixation alone; compare mortality among patients with radiographically "indeterminate" fractures treated with revision or fixation; evaluate the rate of return to surgery for patients who underwent revision compared to fixation. DESIGN: Retrospective study SETTING:: Three academic level 1 trauma centersPatients/Participants: 203 patients treated for Vancouver B periprosthetic fractures INTERVENTION:: N/A MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS:: The primary outcome measure was mortality...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Ak'ingabe Guyon, Robert Perreault
Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Michael Kongnyuy, Daniel M Halpern, Kaitlin E Kosinski, Aaron E Katz
PURPOSE: We aim to evaluate the current beliefs and practice patterns of urologists in regard to use of cryosurgery for management of PCa. METHODS: An anonymous 13-point survey was designed and sent out to members of the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO), Endourological Society (ES) and American College of Cryosurgery (ACC). Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were used to determine variables associated with the use of cryosurgery. RESULTS: Of the 206 responses received [81 (39...
October 19, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Pedro R Olivares, Javier García-Rubio
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. METHODS: Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores...
2016: PeerJ
Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Gang He, J O Salmon
PURPOSE: This study examined the prospective associations of reallocating time spent in different types of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and sleep with body mass index (BMI) in children using isotemporal substitution analysis. METHODS: Chinese children in grades 1-3 were recruited to a cohort study in 2009 and were followed up over a 2-yr period. Reports were gathered from the parents on children's sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and sociodemographic variables...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David A Etzioni, Cynthia L Lessow, Heather D Lucas, Amit Merchea, James A Madura, Raman Mahabir, Nitin Mishra, Nabil Wasif, Amit K Mathur, Yu-Hui H Chang, Robert R Cima, Elizabeth B Habermann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize reasons for discordance between administrative data and registry data in the determination of postoperative infectious complications. BACKGROUND: Data regarding the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications are identified through either administrative or registry data. Rates of complications vary significantly between these two types of data; the reasons for this are not well-understood. METHODS: The occurrence of 30-day inpatient infectious complications (pneumonia, sepsis, surgical site infection, and urinary tract infection) was compared between the NSQIP and administrative mechanisms at 4 academic hospitals between 2012 and 2014...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
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