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Focused Echocardiography

Masaki Izumo, Yoshihiro J Akashi
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is newly-described secondary cardiomyopathy characterized by transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, which is increasingly recognized in the field of cardiology. TTC occurs in approximately 2% of the patients with acute coronary syndrome. Its onset is rare; however, its specific features play a crucial role in diagnosing the chest pain in clinical practice. TTC has generally favorable outcome with rapid recovery of LV function; however, an increasing evidence suggests that it should be regarded as a more serious acute cardiac disorder with a variety of complications...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Kazuaki Negishi
We are now entering the very exciting era of treatment and management of diabetes mellitus (DM) with the emergence of new therapeutic agents, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i). From a cardiology and echocardiography perspective, the existence of diabetic cardiomyopathy has been proven through over four decades of discussion. DM is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Independent associations are found after adjusting for hypertension (HTN) and coronary artery disease (CAD)...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
M H Zou, L Ma, Y S Xia, S C Yang, W D Chen, F Cao, X X Chen
Objective: To review the early and mid-term results of end-to-side anastomosis technique for interrupted aortic arch in neonates and infants. Methods: Clinic data of 46 patients were diagnosed as interrupted aortic arch in Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-six cases were neonates. The median age underwent surgery was 23 days (range: 2 days to 8 years). Anatomical subtypes included 36 cases of type A and 10 cases of type B...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Michael Dandel, Roland Hetzer
Compared with the left ventricle (LV), the right ventricle (RV) is less suited for evaluation by echocardiography (ECHO). Nevertheless, RV ECHO-assessment has currently emerged as an important diagnostic tool with meaningful prognostic value and essential contribution to therapeutic decisions. Although significant progress has been made, including generation of higher-quality normative data, validation of several two-dimensional measurements and improvements in three-dimensional ECHO-techniques, many challenges in RV ECHO-assessment still persist...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Darius Adomavicius, Mark Bock, Christian-Friedrich Vahl, Ekkehard Siegel
Background. Aerococcus urinae is a rare causative pathogen of infective endocarditis that results in a high risk of embolic events. The mortality rate for A urinae endocarditis is high. Old age and underlying urologic conditions are the best-known risk factors for infection. Case Description. We report the clinical course of the disease in a 49-year-old man who presented symptoms of a urinary tract infection. A few days later, transthoracic echocardiography showed a conspicuous mitral valve with myxomatous alterations...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Gianluca Di Bella, Fausto Pizzino, Rocco Donato, Dalia Di Nunzio, Cesare de Gregorio
Cardiomyopathies (Cs) are a heterogeneous group of myocardial diseases with structural and/or functional abnormalities.The aetiology is due to genetic-family substrate in most cases, however, the correct and detailed analysis of morphofunctional abnormalities (severity and distribution of hypertrophy, ventricular dilatation, ventricular dysfunction) and tissue characteristics (myocardial fibrosis, myocardial infiltration) are a crucial element for a definite diagnosis.Among the different diagnostic imaging modalities applied in clinical practice (echocardiography, nuclear medicine), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a non-invasive diagnostic tool having high ability to quantify systolic function and tissue abnormalities that represent the substrates of many Cs...
March 2, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Abraham Sonny, Brett J Wakefield, Shiva Sale, Stephanie Mick, Bruce L Wilkoff, Anand R Mehta
With increasing use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, the need for lead extractions has increased to an annual volume of more than 10,000 extractions worldwide. This article provides a focused clinical commentary on the perioperative management, identification, and treatment of life-threatening complications associated with lead extractions. In addition, a summary of indications, techniques, and lead extraction complications is provided. Although uncommon, lead extractions are associated with a consistent rate of major procedure-related complications and mortality...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Mario D Martinez, David Q Trac, Milton E Brown, Kevin O Maher, Michael E Davis
AIM: Current diagnostic tests for myocarditis are invasive and have low diagnostic value. Our aim was to identify potential targeting peptides to detect early myocarditis following intravenous delivery. MATERIALS & METHODS: We used an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis and a phage display library to identify potential targeting peptides. After several steps, we selected two peptides, MyH-PhD-05 and MyH-PhD-120, for in vivo screening using fluorescent imaging...
February 23, 2018: Nanomedicine
Lucia Venneri, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Rajdeep S Khattar
Cardio-oncology is a rapidly growing field aimed at improving the quality of care of cancer patients by preventing and monitoring cardiovascular complications resulting from cancer treatment. Cardiac imaging, and in particular, transthoracic echocardiography, plays an essential
role in the baseline assessment and serial follow-up of cardio-oncology patients. Areas covered: This review article discusses the role of cardiac imaging with a focus on advanced echocardiography for the detection and management of cancer therapy related cardiovascular complications, in particular, left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure...
February 22, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
George Reid, Jonathan Bedford, Ben Attwood
Point-of-care ultrasound is increasingly recognised as a valuable adjunct to patient care. Trainees in intensive care medicine are expected to accredit in focused intensive care echocardiography, but the availability of trained mentors and logistical/geographical factors make this difficult within the time constraints required. As a result, many trainees who are enthusiastic about point-of-care ultrasound find it difficult to achieve accreditation. We present a secure, web-based, multi-user system which mitigates many of these difficulties and allows for clinical mentorship to take place without geographical barriers, and at a time convenient for the participants...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Chiara Locatelli, Danitza Pradelli, Giulia Campo, Ilaria Spalla, Alice Savarese, Paola G Brambilla, Claudio Bussadori
Objectives Large studies focusing on restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in the cat are scarce. The aims of this retrospective study were to describe epidemiological characteristics and to analyse prognostic factors affecting survival in cats with RCM. Methods The clinical archives of the Gran Sasso Veterinary Clinic (Milan, Italy) and of the cardiology unit of the Department of Veterinary Medicine (University of Milan, Italy) from 1997-2015 were reviewed for all cats diagnosed with RCM based on an echocardiographic examination (left atrial/bi-atrial enlargement, normal left ventricle wall thickness, normal or mildly decreased systolic function and restrictive left ventricle filling pattern with pulsed Doppler echocardiography)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Gregory Milligan, John C Moscona
Coronary sinus thrombosis is a rare and often overlooked diagnosis that can have fatal consequences. We report a case of acute coronary sinus thrombosis in a patient with systolic heart failure who had undergone recent right-heart catheterization. The patient presented with recurrent presyncope, syncope, and shortness of breath. An echogenic focus consistent with a coronary sinus thrombus was visualized on transthoracic echocardiography that had not been seen previously on recent imaging. The patient was managed on oral anticoagulation...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Uma Kaimal Saikia, Dipti Sarma, Yogesh Yadav
Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder associated with dysmorphic features and comorbidities, with recent trends focusing on early diagnosis for adequate management. Aim: The aim is to study the age and mode of presentation of TS, associated comorbidities and look for any correlation with the genotype. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of girls with TS attending the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary care center...
October 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Chi Zhou, Jin Huang, Qing Li, Chenao Zhan, Xizhen Xu, Xu Zhang, Ding Ai, Yi Zhu, Zheng Wen, Dao Wen Wang
Chronic excessive drinking leads to myocardial contractile dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy, where ethanol toxicity plays an essential role. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acids to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which exert beneficial roles in the cardiovascular system, but their role in alcoholic cardiomyopathy is elusive. This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of CYP2J2 gene delivery on ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction with focus on autophagy and apoptosis...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mohammad Qasem, Keith George, John Somauroo, Lynsey Forsythe, Benjamin Brown, David Oxborough
Our objective was to assess the influence of different levels of exposure to dynamic training on right ventricular (RV) structure, function and mechanics in elite male athletes. We recruited 492 male elite athletes aged between 18 and 30 years old. Athletes were grouped according to their sporting discipline using the Mitchell Classification as Low Dynamic (LD), Moderate Dynamic (MD) or High Dynamic (HD). All participants underwent 2D, Doppler, tissue Doppler and strain (ε) echocardiography with a focused and comprehensive assessment of the right heart...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Yogen Singh, Anup C Katheria, Farha Vora
Shock in newborn infants has unique etiopathologic origins that require careful assessment to direct specific interventions. Early diagnosis is key to successful management. Unlike adults and pediatric patients, shock in newborn infants is often recognized in the uncompensated phase by the presence of hypotension, which may be too late. The routine methods of evaluation used in the adult and pediatric population are often invasive and less feasible. We aim to discuss the pathophysiology in shock in newborn infants, including the transitional changes at birth and unique features that contribute to the challenges in early identification...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yinyin Qu, Qing Zheng, Cheng Ni, Zhongqi Cui, Xiangyang Guo
Introduction: Lung metastasis of leiomyosarcoma that protrudes into the left atrium is an extremely rare condition. Severe complications may occur that prominently increase the mortality during the perioperative period. Currently, the anesthetic management reports are limited and there is no generally acknowledged algorithm available. Case presentation: A 67-year-old man presented with cough and dyspnea for 10 days. Workup revealed bilateral pulmonary effusion. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large mass in the left atrium...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Subodh R Devabhaktuni, Eyas Chakfeh, Ali O Malik, Joshua A Pengson, Jibran Rana, Chowdhury H Ahsan
Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the common adult congenital heart diseases, with a prevalence of 6.5%. It is usually diagnosed in the first decade of life. Echocardiography is the test of choice to diagnose SAS. Surgical correction is the best treatment modality, and the prognosis is usually excellent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SAS with a focus on different pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnostic approach, and prognosis of the disease by reviewing the current literature...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Massimiliano Foschi, Michele Di Mauro, Fabrizio Tancredi, Carlo Capparuccia, Renata Petroni, Luigi Leonzio, Silvio Romano, Sabina Gallina, Maria Penco, Mario Cibelli, Antonio Calafiore
The aim of this review article is to summarize current knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying right ventricular failure (RVF), focusing, in particular, on right ventricular assessment and prognosis. The right ventricle (RV) can tolerate volume overload well, but is not able to sustain pressure overload. Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as a response to increased afterload, can be adaptive or maladaptive. The easiest and most common way to assess the RV is by two-dimensional (2D) trans-thoracic echocardiography measuring surrogate indexes, such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), and tissue Doppler velocity of the lateral aspect of the tricuspid valvular plane...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Masao Daimon, Makoto Akaishi, Toshihiko Asanuma, Shuji Hashimoto, Chisato Izumi, Shiro Iwanaga, Hiroya Kawai, Hiroyuki Toide, Akihiro Hayashida, Hirotsugu Yamada, Mitsushige Murata, Yutaka Hirano, Kengo Suzuki, Satoshi Nakatani
Echocardiography plays a pivotal role as an imaging modality in the modern cardiology practice. Information derived from echocardiography is definitely helpful for a patient care. The Japanese Society of Echocardiography has promoted echocardiography for a routine clinical and research use. One of the missions of the Society is to provide information that is useful for high-quality examinations. To ensure it, we believe equipment in good conditions and a comfortable environment are important for both a patient and an examiner...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Echocardiography
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