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Fábio Gozzi, Ignasi Sirés, Silvio César de Oliveira, Amílcar Machulek, Enric Brillas
This study describes the performance of electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes to degrade the herbicide tebuthiuron (TBH) in 0.050 M Na2 SO4 at pH = 3.0. Experiments were performed in an undivided cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode that produces H2 O2 . Physisorbed hydroxyl radicals (M(OH)) generated from water oxidation at the anode and/or free OH formed from Fenton's reaction acted as main oxidants. All processes became much more effective using a BDD anode because of the higher oxidation power of BDD(OH)...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Yongkun Xu, Huimin Qi, Guitao Li, Xueping Guo, Yong Wan, Ga Zhang
Polymer composites have a high potential for applications as tribo-materials exposed to sea water owing to their self-lubrication characteristic and high chemical stability. In the present work, tribological behaviors of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites rubbing with stainless steel in sea water were explored using a pin-on-disc tribometer integrated with a potentiostat for electrochemical control. It was demonstrated that further adding 5 vol% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles into PEEK reinforced with short carbon fibers (SCF) significantly enhanced the wear resistance...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Maryam Sardar, Chen Jun, Zaka Ullah, Aasma Tabassum, Mohsan Jelani, Ju Cheng, Yuxiang Sun, Xueming Lv, Lu Jian
We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) at various laser fluences with 100 laser shots in ambient air at room temperature using an Nd:YAG laser and investigate its surface morphology and optical properties. The optical microscopy gives evidence of the formation of a crater and reveals that the heat-affected zone and melted area are increased with increase in laser fluence from 1.1 to 15.4  J/cm2 . The micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the micro- and nano-structures such as microcracks, bubbles, nucleation sites, clusters, redeposited layered material, nanoparticles, and alike water droplet structures are formed on a laser-exposed Si surface...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau
The development of proteasome inhibitors contributed to the dramatic life expectancy improvement observed in myeloma patients over the past decades. Ixazomib is a boron-containing selective and reversible proteasome inhibitor that demonstrated antimyeloma activity with excellent safety profile. Ixazomib is the first orally available proteasome inhibitor approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of myeloma patients who received at least one prior therapy. The present review addresses the current knowledge regarding the clinical use of ixazomib in relapsed myeloma patients...
February 22, 2018: Future Oncology
Zebo Zheng, Jianing Chen, Yu Wang, Ximiao Wang, Xiaobo Chen, Pengyi Liu, Jianbin Xu, Weiguang Xie, Huanjun Chen, Shaozhi Deng, Ningsheng Xu
2D van der Waals (vdW) layered polar crystals sustaining phonon polaritons (PhPs) have opened up new avenues for fundamental research and optoelectronic applications in the mid-infrared to terahertz ranges. To date, 2D vdW crystals with PhPs are only experimentally demonstrated in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slabs. For optoelectronic and active photonic applications, semiconductors with tunable charges, finite conductivity, and moderate bandgaps are preferred. Here, PhPs are demonstrated with low loss and ultrahigh electromagnetic field confinements in semiconducting vdW α-MoO3 ...
February 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Leon Maser, Jan Herritsch, Robert Langer
The reactivity patterns of carbodiphosphoranes (CDPs) as ligands are much less explored than those of isoelectronic analogues. In the current manuscript, we investigate the reactivity of the carbodiphosphorane-based PCP nickel(ii) pincer complex [({dppm}2 C)NiCl]Cl (1) towards acids and bases, calculate proton affinities, analyse the bonding situation and tautomeric forms with the aim to evaluate whether CDPs can potentially act as cooperative ligands in catalysis (dppm = 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane)...
February 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jiaye Jin, Guanjun Wang, Mingfei Zhou
The boron carbonyl cluster cations in the form of B3(CO)n+ (n=4-6) are produced and studied by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in the carbonyl stretching frequency region in the gas phase. Their geometric structures are determined with the aid of density functional theory calculations. The B3(CO)4+ cation is characterized to have a D2d (OC)2B=B=B(CO)2 structure and 1A1 electronic ground state with a linear boron skeleton. The B3(CO)5+ cation is determined to have a chain boron framework with C2v symmetry...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Iain Mathieson, Songül Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olalde, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Eppie Jones, Denise Keating, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetsovski, Bernard Gély, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Songfeng E, Chaowei Li, Taotao Li, Renjie Geng, Qiulong Li, Weibang Lu, Yagang Yao
Ammonium tungstate ((NH4)10W12O41·xH2O) is a one kind of oxygen-containing ammonium salt. The following study proved that it could be successfully used as an alternative of metal oxide to produce boron oxide (B2O2) by oxidizing boron (B) in traditional boron oxide chemical vapor deposition (BOCVD) process. This special oxidant promoted the simplistic fabrication of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in a conventional horizontal tube furnace, which may have resulted from its strong oxidizability. The experimental results demonstrated that the mole ratio of B and (NH4)10W12O41·xH2O was a key parameter in determining the formation, quality, and quantity of BNNTs when stainless steel was employed as a catalyst...
February 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jonathan C Axtell, Liban M A Saleh, Elaine A Qian, Alex I Wixtrom, Alexander M Spokoyny
This Viewpoint describes major advances pertaining to perfunctionalized boron clusters in synthesis and their respective applications. The first portion of this work highlights key synthetic methods, allowing one to access a wide range of polyhedral boranes (B4 and B6 -B12 cluster cores) that contain exhaustively functionalized vertices. The second portion of this Viewpoint showcases the historical developments in using these molecules for applications ranging from materials science to medicine. Last, we suggest potential new directions for these clusters as they apply to both synthetic methods and applications...
February 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Mustafa Baysal, Kaan Bilge, Melike Mercan Yıldızhan, Yelda Yorulmaz, Çınar Öncel, Melih Papila, Yuda Yürüm
KFeO2 is demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for the formation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). This alkali-based catalyst enables the formation of crystalline, multi-walled BNNTs with high aspect ratio at temperatures as low as 750 °C, significantly lower than those typically required for the product formation by TCVD.
February 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Kai-Cheng Zhang, Yong-Feng Li, Yong Liu, Yan Zhu
Recently topological materials have attracted much attention due to their quantization transports as well as edge states.
 It will be excellent to realize the robust quantum anomalous Hall transports in graphene-based devices. Using density-functional theory and tight-binding method, we investigated the structural, magnetic and topological properties for the boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption. A large band-gap of 32.5 meV is opened by the Rashba spin-orbital coupling, and the band-gap is robust against the shape deformation of $\pm 4\%$ along the zigzag direction...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Bien Cuong Tran Khac, Frank William DelRio, Koo-Hyun Chung
Surface damage characteristics of single- and multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) and graphene films were systematically investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based progressive-force and constant-force scratch tests and Raman spectroscopy. The film-to-substrate interfacial strengths of these atomically-thin films were assessed based on their critical forces (i.e., normal force where the atomically-thin film was delaminated from the underlying substrate) as determined from progressive-force scratch tests...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Euna Ko, Van-Khue Tran, Yanfang Geng, Min Ki Kim, Ga Hyun Jin, Seong Eun Son, Won Hur, Gi Hun Seong
Self-monitoring of glycated albumin (GA), a useful glycemic marker, is an established method for preventing diabetes complications. Here, the paper-based lateral flow assay devices were developed for the sensitive detection of GA and the total human serum albumin (tHSA) in self-monitoring diabetes patients. Boronic acid-derived agarose beads were packed into a hole on a lateral flow channel. These well-coordinated agarose beads were used to capture GA through specific cis-diol interactions and to enhance the colorimetric signals by concentrating the target molecules...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Jane Ru Choi, Kar Wey Yong, Jean Yu Choi, Azadeh Nilghaz, Yang Lin, Jie Xu, Xiaonan Lu
Black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, has attracted recent scientific attention since its first successful exfoliation in 2014 owing to its unique structure and properties. In particular, its exceptional attributes, such as the excellent optical and mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electron-transfer capacity, contribute to its increasing demand as an alternative to graphene-based materials in biomedical applications. Although the outlook of this material seems promising, its practical applications are still highly challenging...
2018: Theranostics
Krishan Kumar, Arijit Ghosh
The clinical applications of PET imaging pharmaceuticals have increased tremendously over the last several years since the approval of 18F-FDG (18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Numerous 18F-labeled target-specific potential imaging pharmaceuticals, based on small and large molecules, have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical settings. 18F-labeling of organic moieties involves the introduction of the radioisotope by C-18F bond formation via a nucleophilic or an electrophilic substitution reaction...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jian-Yong Liu, Peng-Zhen Zhou, Jia-Lin Ma, Xiao Jia
In this study, two novel boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitizers ( BDP3 and BDP6 ) substituted with three or six trifluoromethyl groups have been synthesized and characterized with various spectroscopic methods, and their photo-physical, photo-chemical, and photo-biological properties have also been explored. The two photosensitizers are highly soluble and remain nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide as shown by the intense and sharp Q-band absorption. Under red light irradiation (λ = 660 nm, 1.5 J/cm²), both photosensitizers show high and comparable cytotoxicity towards HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma and HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells with IC50 values of 0...
February 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pin Ann Lin, Bharath Natarajan, Michael Zwolak, Renu Sharma
During the catalytic synthesis of graphene, nanotubes, fibers, and other nanostructures, many intriguing phenomena occur, such as phase separation, precipitation, and analogs of capillary action. Here, we demonstrate, using in situ, real-time transmission electron microscope imaging and modeling, that the catalytic nanoparticles display functional, metastable states, reminiscent of some protein ensembles in vivo. As a carbon nanostructure grows, the nanoparticle elongates due to an energetically favorable metal-carbon interaction that overrides the surface energy increase of the metal...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Abdulkareem Afandi, Ashley Howkins, Ian W Boyd, Richard B Jackman
The inclusion of boron within nanodiamonds to create semiconducting properties would create a new class of applications in the field of nanodiamond electronics. Theoretical studies have differed in their conclusions as to whether nm-scale NDs would support a stable substitutional boron state, or whether such a state would be unstable, with boron instead aggregating or attaching to edge structures. In the present study detonation-derived NDs with purposefully added boron during the detonation process have been studied with a wide range of experimental techniques...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y H Zhang, Y Y Xu, C Y Ye, C Sheng, J Sun, G Wang, X C Miao, C J Song, Q J Zhai
Significant grain refinement in cast metals can be achieved through the application of electric currents during the solidification process. The present paper investigates the distribution of electric currents on the grain size of solidified Al-7wt.%Si alloy under the application of electric current with constant parameters flowing through two parallel electrodes into the melt within a cylindrical mould. The distribution of electric current was controlled by applying an electrical insulation material coating, boron nitride (NB), to the sidewall of the electrodes...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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