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Skeletal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#1
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765920/space-creation-for-a-missing-central-incisor-using-functional-and-fixed-appliances
#2
Waeil Batwa, Ibtesam Alzain
Children with an overjet of more than 6 mm are three times more likely to receive trauma to their upper incisors than children with an average overjet. This could be complicated with avulsion of permanent incisor and with space loss for the tooth. Functional appliances are usually used to treat Class II skeletal pattern and increased overjet in growing patients. The following is a case in which the Twin Block functional appliance was used, while its classic design was modified to treat a Class II skeletal problem and to open a space for a missing maxillary central incisor...
2018: Journal of Orthodontic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#3
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754856/three-dimensional-dental-and-craniofacial-manifestations-in-patients-with-late-diagnosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-report-of-2-cases
#4
Rafaela de Oliveira Torres, Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Fábio Ribeiro Guedes, Lucia Helena Soares Cevidanes, Liana Bastos Freitas-Fernandes, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de Souza
The objective of this study was to report the clinical evaluation results and 3-dimensional (3-D) dental and craniofacial characteristics observed in 2 male patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. The patients were evaluated clinically (soft tissue evaluation, evaluation of occlusion, periodontal and dental examinations) and by using craniofacial computed tomography, with evaluation of 3-D images in ITK-Snap v. 2.2 (Penn Image Computing and Science Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA; http://www.itksnap.org/) and 3-D Slicer (http://www...
April 16, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750846/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-skeletal-scintigraphy-for-the-causes-of-front-foot-pain-determined-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Laura E Quiney, Joanne L Ireland, Sue J Dyson
There is good correlation between increased radiopharmaceutical uptake anywhere in the feet of sports or leisure horses and the presence of foot pain. However, low sensitivity of scintigraphy for identifying lesions contributing to foot pain as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical study was to assess the accuracy of scintigraphy for identifying the cause(s) of foot pain, using MRI as the reference standard. Sports and leisure horses that underwent both skeletal scintigraphy and MRI of the front feet between March 2008 and December 2014 and for which a definitive diagnosis of the cause(s) of front foot pain was reached were included (121 feet of 70 horses)...
May 11, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729722/dental-and-temporomandibular-joint-pathology-of-the-grey-wolf-canis-lupus
#6
S Döring, B Arzi, J N Winer, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Skulls from 392 grey wolves (Canis lupus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. Two hundred and seven skulls were included in this study, comprised of 124 young adults (59.9%) and 83 adults (40.1%); of these, 65 (31.4%) specimens were from male wolves and 104 (50.3%) were from females, with 38 (18.4%) of unknown sex. Out of 8,694 possible teeth, 8,339 (95.9%) were present for evaluation. Fifty-five teeth (15.5%) were absent congenitally, 30 (8.5%) were lost during life and 270 (76...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721242/abdominal-rectus-muscle-pyomyositis-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Tilemachos Fountoukis, Nikolaos Tsatsanidis, Maria Tilkeridou, Ioannis Konstantinou, Pantelis Fytas, Ioannis Skandalos
Pyomyositis is an uncommon primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscles, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Predisposing factors for pyomyositis include immunodeficiency, trauma, injection drug use, concurrent infection and malnutrition. The diagnosis, staging of the disease and differential diagnosis are established by ultrasound, CT and MRI. Treatment involves surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. We report a case of abdominal rectus muscle pyomyositis, which constitutes, as far as we know, the second reported in bibliography, while Prevotella disiens is firstly reported as causative agent...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708811/gender-differences-in-spinal-injuries-causes-and-location-of-injury
#8
Eliezer Sidon, Michael Stein, Ganesh Ramalingam, Shai Shemesh, Daniel Benharroch, Nissim Ohana
BACKGROUND: Spinal injury is common in trauma suffered by both men and women. A lesser degree of involvement of females with spinal trauma, or at least, the different nature of such injuries, has been suggested. It has been proposed that behavioral and structural characteristics may explain the differential type and severity of spinal injuries in women. We carried out this study to find women-specific divergences in spinal traumatic lesions, including suspected mechanisms for their generation...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707551/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-thoracolumbar-spinal-trauma
#9
REVIEW
Corey T Walker, David S Xu, Jakub Godzik, Jay D Turner, Juan S Uribe, William D Smith
The indications for operative intervention after thoracolumbar spine trauma have been well described. Advances in minimally invasive techniques, including percutaneous pedicle screw fixation and mini-open anterolateral retractor-based approaches can improve surgical outcomes when appropriately applied by reducing blood loss, operative duration and post-operative pain. Moreover, they allow for theoretical advantages by preservation of muscular and skeletal blood supply and innervation that is typically lost during the muscular dissection of open approaches...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707498/management-of-laryngotracheal-trauma
#10
REVIEW
Philicia Moonsamy, Uma M Sachdeva, Christopher R Morse
Laryngotracheal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening injury. It is usually seen in multiple-trauma patients and can go unrecognized and undertreated due to its scarcity. The presenting symptoms often do not correlate with the severity of the injury and injuries may range from an endolaryngeal hematoma to a complete tracheal transection. Accurate diagnosis of the extent of the injury can be achieved with a combination of high resolution computed tomography, flexible fiber optic laryngoscopy and flexible bronchoscopy...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707444/applications-of-computer-technology-in-complex-craniofacial-reconstruction
#11
Kristopher M Day, Kyle S Gabrick, Larry A Sargent
Background: To demonstrate our use of advanced 3-dimensional (3D) computer technology in the analysis, virtual surgical planning (VSP), 3D modeling (3DM), and treatment of complex congenital and acquired craniofacial deformities. Methods: We present a series of craniofacial defects treated at a tertiary craniofacial referral center utilizing state-of-the-art 3D computer technology. All patients treated at our center using computer-assisted VSP, prefabricated custom-designed 3DMs, and/or 3D printed custom implants (3DPCI) in the reconstruction of craniofacial defects were included in this analysis...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704727/how-do-skeletons-with-hiv-present-a-study-on-the-identified-cal-milano-cemetery-skeletal-collection
#12
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Antonio Cabrini, Danilo De Angelis, Cristina Cattaneo
With the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, the study of HIV/AIDS on bones has become of pivotal interest for research in bone pathologies, forensic applications (especially in the matter of identification when confronted to antemortem data) and medical purposes. In this paper, we document and discuss the macroscopic lesions found on the skeletons of nine individuals with known HIV, including four with known AIDS, coming from the identified CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701101/thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-is-an-independent-factor-associated-with-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis
#13
M Uehara, J Takahashi, S Ikegami, S Kuraishi, D Fukui, H Imamura, K Okada, H Kato
Aims Although we often encounter patients with an aortic aneurysm who also have diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), there are no reports to date of an association between these two conditions and the pathogenesis of DISH remains unknown. This study therefore evaluated the prevalence of DISH in patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm (AA). Patients and Methods The medical records of 298 patients who underwent CT scans for a diagnosis of an AA or following high-energy trauma were retrospectively examined...
May 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696140/harnessing-nanotopography-to-enhance-osseointegration-of-clinical-orthopedic-titanium-implants-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis
#14
Vitali Goriainov, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Terje Sjostrom, Douglas G Dunlop, Bo Su, Richard O C Oreffo
Despite technological advancements, further innovations in the field of orthopedics and bone regeneration are essential to meet the rising demands of an increasing aging population and associated issues of disease, injury and trauma. Nanotopography provides new opportunities for novel implant surface modifications and promises to deliver further improvements in implant performance. However, the technical complexities of nanotopography fabrication and surface analysis have precluded identification of the optimal surface features to trigger osteogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694673/an-assessment-of-the-skeletal-fracture-patterns-resulting-from-fatal-high-%C3%AB-3-m-free-falls
#15
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The injury patterns resulting from fatal high (˃3 m) free falls have previously been documented in clinical and medico-legal contexts; however, details relating specifically to the skeletal blunt force trauma (BFT) have been limited. This study aimed to augment what is known of the skeletal fracture patterns resulting from fatal high free falls. Skeletal trauma was analyzed from full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 95 individuals who died following a high free fall. Fracture patterns were documented using the five general anatomical regions, axial and appendicular regions, and postcranial unilateral and bilateral regions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688229/the-medical-assessment-of-fractures-in-suspected-child-maltreatment-infants-and-young-children-with-skeletal-injury
#16
Laurel Chauvin-Kimoff, Claire Allard-Dansereau, Margaret Colbourne
Fractures are common injuries in childhood. While most fractures are caused by accidental trauma, inflicted trauma (maltreatment) is a serious and potentially unrecognized cause of fractures, particularly in infants and young children. This practice point identifies the clinical features that prompt concern for inflicted skeletal injury and outlines a management approach based on current literature and published guidelines, including the clinician's duty to report suspicion of child abuse to child welfare authorities...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687940/performance-evaluation-and-validation-of-the-animal-trauma-triage-score-and-modified-glasgow-coma-scale-with-suggested-category-adjustment-in-dogs-a-vetcot-registry-study
#17
Kristian Ash, Galina M Hayes, Robert Goggs, Julia P Sumner
OBJECTIVE: To examine the animal trauma triage (ATT) and modified Glasgow Coma Scale (mGCS) scores as predictors of mortality outcome (death or euthanasia) in injured dogs. DESIGN: Observational cohort study conducted from September 2013 to March 2015 with follow-up until death or hospital discharge. SETTING: Nine veterinary hospitals including private referral and veterinary teaching hospitals. ANIMALS: Consecutive sample of 3,599 dogs with complete data entries recruited into the Veterinary Committee on Trauma patient registry...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682378/simultaneous-bilateral-quadriceps-tendon-rupture-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-after-minimal-trauma-eight-year-follow-up
#18
Sevan Sıvacıoğlu, Ahmet Salduz, Ufuk Öztürk, Serkan Bayram, Fevzi Birişik
Introduction: The purpose of this report was to describe a very rare case of simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture seen in a patient who was diagnosed as having diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Case Presentation: A man aged 64 years presented to the emergency department with bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture. Surgical repair was performed with suture anchors and a stainless steel cable. His legs were immobilized in casts for six weeks. After removal of the casts, physiotherapy was started...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674451/fully-reduced-hmgb1-accelerates-the-regeneration-of-multiple-tissues-by-transitioning-stem-cells-to-g-alert
#19
Geoffrey Lee, Ana Isabel Espirito Santo, Stefan Zwingenberger, Lawrence Cai, Thomas Vogl, Marc Feldmann, Nicole J Horwood, James K Chan, Jagdeep Nanchahal
A major discovery of recent decades has been the existence of stem cells and their potential to repair many, if not most, tissues. With the aging population, many attempts have been made to use exogenous stem cells to promote tissue repair, so far with limited success. An alternative approach, which may be more effective and far less costly, is to promote tissue regeneration by targeting endogenous stem cells. However, ways of enhancing endogenous stem cell function remain poorly defined. Injury leads to the release of danger signals which are known to modulate the immune response, but their role in stem cell-mediated repair in vivo remains to be clarified...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673398/assessment-of-orthotic-needs-in-iranian-veterans-with-ankle-and-foot-disorders
#20
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Mostafa Allami, Mohammad Reza Soroush
BACKGROUND: War-related traumas can lead to orthopedic and neurological disorders in victims. However, the scope of such disorders may expand months or even years after the trauma. Orthotic treatment as a rehabilitation process aims to enable people with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functional levels. This study aimed to investigate the rate of using orthoses among Iranian veterans with neuromuscular and skeletal disorders of the ankle and foot...
April 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
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