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Skeletal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346237/pediatric-pelvic-fractures-and-differences-compared-with-the-adult-population
#1
Carolina de la Calva, Nadia Jover, Jaime Alonso, Marta Salom
INTRODUCTION: Although pelvic fractures in children are rare, because of anatomical differences between an adult's skeleton and a child's skeleton, these lesions in the pediatric population have specific characteristics that need to be borne in mind when dealing with them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on the pelvic fractures in skeletally immature patients treated in our hospital in the last 20 years. RESULTS: Eighty-one pelvic fractures in children were treated between 1993 and 2013...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322159/interpersonal-violence-among-the-chalcolithic-and-bronze-ages-inhabitants-living-on-the-central-plateau-of-iran-a-voice-from-tepe-hissar
#2
Zahra Afshar, Charlotte Roberts, Andrew Millard
The site of Tepe Hissar (Iran) experienced widespread cultural and economic changes during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (5th to the 2nd millennium B.C.). The discovery of evidence of burning, including charred human remains, the destruction of buildings (Periods II and III), and the presence of several mass-burials with comingling of human skeletal remains consisting of ten or more individuals (Period III), suggests interpersonal violence during these periods. The original excavator of Tepe Hissar, Erich Schmidt, suggested that phenomena such as war, massacres, epidemics, or similar catastrophes, may have been responsible for the excavated archaeological evidence...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306638/rectus-abdominis-detrusor-myoplasty-radm-for-acontractile-hypocontractile-bladder-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients-preliminary-report
#3
Pawan Agarwal, Shabbir Husain, Sudesh Wankhede, D Sharma
BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder dysfunction in the form of acontractile/hypocontractile bladder is very common after spinal cord injury and it may lead to recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), stones formation, and deteriorating renal function. Conventionally, these patients evacuate their bladders by life-long clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) or an indwelling catheter (IC). For these patients, another option is to use innervated skeletal muscle wrap around the bladder to augment detrusor function and voluntary evacuation of bladder...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305023/early-vs-late-fracture-fixation-in-severe-head-and-orthopedic-injuries
#4
Yuan Zhang, Kai Sun, Yuling Wang, Yafei Qin, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: Patients suffered from craniocerebral trauma with extermities fracture is one of the most common multiple injuries.Actually there is no comparative study demonstrating advantages of early or delayed treatment of skeletal injuries. PURPOSES: To conduct a meta-analysis with studies published in full text to demonstrate database to show the associations of perioperative, postoperative outcomes of early fracture fixation(EFF) and late fracture fixation(LFF) for patients with severe head and orthopedic injuries to provide the predictive diagnosis for clinic...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300303/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-axis-mediates-ceramide-1-phosphate-induced-proliferation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#5
Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Alberto Ouro, Marina Bruno, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Sphingolipids are not only crucial for membrane architecture but act as critical regulators of cell functions. The bioactive sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), generated by the action of ceramide kinase, has been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, cell migration and to regulate inflammatory responses via activation of different signaling pathways. We have previously shown that skeletal muscle is a tissue target for C1P since the phosphosphingolipid plays a positive role in myoblast proliferation implying a role in muscle regeneration...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258756/insulin-antagonises-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-induced-modulation-of-lineage-commitment-of-myocytes-and%C3%A2-heterotrophic-ossification
#6
Revathy Carnagarin, Mina Elahy, Arun M Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
Extensive bone defects arising as a result of trauma, infection and tumour resection and other bone pathologies necessitates the identification of effective strategies in the form of tissue engineering, gene therapy and osteoinductive agents to enhance the bone repair process. PEDF is a multifunctional glycoprotein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. PEDF treatment of mice and human skeletal myocytes at physiological concentration inhibited myogenic differentiation and activated Erk1/2 MAPK- dependent osteogenic transdifferentiation of myocytes...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247259/effect-of-sarcopenia-on-clinical-and-surgical-outcome-in-elderly-patients-with-proximal-femur-fractures
#7
Ching-Di Chang, Jim S Wu, Jennifer Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Marry G Hochman, Edward K Rodriguez, Paul T Appleton, Colm J Mcmahon
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia with short-term surgical outcome in elderly patients with proximal femur fractures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Following Institutional Review Board approval, a database of patients receiving a pelvis CT scan for acute trauma between January 2000-August 2016 was screened for an isolated proximal femur fracture. Patients were excluded if they were: < 50 years old, had conditions predisposing to sarcopenia (renal failure, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophies), had undergone no surgical treatment, had other major traumatic injuries, or had a pathologic femur fracture...
December 15, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227827/determining-when-a-fracture-occurred-does-the-method-matter-analysis-of-the-similarity-of-three-different-methods-for-estimating-time-since-fracture-of-juvenile-long-bones
#8
Anne Drury, Craig Cunningham
Radiographic fracture date estimation is a critical component of skeletal trauma analysis in the living. Several timetables have been proposed for how the appearance of radiographic features can be interpreted to provide a likely time frame for fracture occurrence. This study compares three such timetables for pediatric fractures, by Islam et al. (2000), Malone et al. (2011), and Prosser et al. (2012), in order to determine whether the fracture date ranges produced by using these methods are in agreement with one another...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220207/mr-imaging-of-muscle-trauma-anatomy-biomechanics-pathophysiology-and-imaging-appearance
#9
Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mauricio Estrada-Castrillón, Edward Smitaman, Mini N Pathria
Muscle is an important component of the muscle-tendon-bone unit, driving skeletal motion through contractions that alter the length of the muscle. The muscle and myotendinous junction (MTJ) are most commonly injured in the young adult, as a result of indirect mechanisms such as overuse or stretching, direct impact (penetrating or nonpenetrating), or dysfunction of the supporting connective tissues. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used for assessment of muscle injuries. This review illustrates the MR imaging appearance of a broad spectrum of acute, subacute, and chronic traumatic lesions of muscle, highlighting the pathophysiology, biomechanics, and anatomic considerations underlying these lesions...
December 8, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206761/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-is-determined-by-burn-severity-sex-and-sepsis-and-is-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-functional-capacity-in-burned-children
#10
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Eric Rivas, Karel D Capek, Anahi D Delgadillo, Nisha Bhattarai, Armando Elizondo, Charles D Voigt, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: Restoring normal mitochondrial function represents a new target for strategies aimed at mitigating the stress response to severe burn trauma and hastening recovery. Our objective was to investigate the determinants of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function and its association with glucose metabolism and functional capacity in burned children. METHODS: Data from burned children enrolled in the placebo arm of an ongoing prospective clinical trial were analyzed...
December 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203713/therapeutic-potential-of-heat-shock-protein-induction-for-muscular-dystrophy-and-other-muscle-wasting-conditions
#11
REVIEW
Savant S Thakur, Kristy Swiderski, James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characterized by muscle wasting, including sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201839/trauma-patterns-of-drowning-after-falling-from-bridges-over-han-river
#12
Jung Hwan Lee, Chung Kee Chough, Jae Il Lee
Objective: Recently, the number of patients who fell or jumped from bridges over Han River has rapidly increased. However, the injury patterns and outcomes of these patients have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the injury characteristics of these patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who were transferred to the Emergency Room due to jumping or falling from bridges over Han River between 2011 and 2015...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198401/wounded-to-the-bone-digital-microscopic-analysis-of-traumas-in-a-medieval-mass-grave-assemblage-sandbjerget-denmark-ad-1300-1350
#13
Alexandra Boucherie, Marie Louise S Jørkov, Martin Smith
Battle-related mass burials are considered the most unequivocal evidence of past violence. However, most published studies involve only macroscopic analysis of skeletal remains, commonly arriving only at broad conclusions regarding trauma interpretation. The current study considers a possible avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300-1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198400/osteochondritis-dissecans-of-skeletal-elements-of-the-foot-in-a-19th-century-rural-farming-community-from-the-netherlands
#14
Irene Vikatou, Menno L P Hoogland, Andrea L Waters-Rist
Osteochondritis Dissecans (OD) is a pathological condition of the subchondral bone and surrounding cartilage of synovial joints, associated with strenuous activity and/or trauma. Reports of OD in archaeological skeletal remains are few and the majority demonstrate low OD prevalence (<1%). A predominantly 19th century skeletal sample from Middenbeemster, the Netherlands, was assessed for OD. The sample included adult individuals of both sexes. There were no definitive OD lesions in non-pedal elements, yet 12...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198391/spondylolysis-in-the-past-a-case-study-of-hunter-gatherers-from-southern-patagonia
#15
M D D'Angelo Del Campo, J A Suby, P García-Laborde, R A Guichón
Spondylolysis is a fracture of the pars interarticularis, the portion of the neural arch that lies between the superior articular facets and the inferior articular facets. Clinical evidence has suggested repetitive trauma to be the most probable cause, even though morphological weakness of the vertebra is probably also involved. Prevalence is between 3% and 8% in modern populations, while in archaeological samples it varies from 0% to 71.4%. Considering that very little data about this condition is available in past populations from the southern extreme of South America, the aim of this paper is to analyze the spondylolysis in a human skeletal sample from Southern Patagonia and, at the same time, to explore the prevalence of spondylolysis in archaeological contexts around the world to gain a better understanding of the results presented here...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193109/skeletal-trauma-resulting-from-fatal-low-%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-m-free-falls-an-analysis-of-fracture-patterns-and-morphologies
#16
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The skeletal trauma resulting from fatal low (≤3 m) free falls is poorly researched and understood by forensic practitioners. The aim of this study was to identify the types of skeletal trauma resulting from low falls through investigating fracture patterns and morphologies. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 145 individuals who died from a low free fall. Trauma was then contextualized to the variables that influence how a person falls using multiple logistic regression...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173457/blast-injury-prevalence-in-skeletal-remains-are-there-differences-between-bosnian-war-samples-and-documented-combat-related-deaths
#17
Marie Christine Dussault, Ian Hanson, Martin J Smith
Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159170/a-case-of-dystrophic-calcification-in-the-masseter-muscle
#18
Heon-Young Kim, Jung-Hyun Park, Jun-Bum Lee, Sun-Jong Kim
Background: Dystrophic calcification can occur in any soft tissue with the absence of a systemic mineral imbalance and is often associated with trauma, infection, or inflammation. It is easily found in the site of the heart and skeletal muscles and rarely appears in the head and neck area. Case report: We present a rare case of multiple calcified masses in the left masseter muscle of a 26-year-old female with a history of trauma in the area. In computed tomography, multiple radiopaque masses were observed inside the left masseter muscle and blood test results were normal...
December 2017: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152642/variability-of-characteristics-of-cranial-projectile-trauma-in-skeletal-material
#19
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
In cranial firearm trauma, where soft tissues have decomposed, determining the manner of death can pose difficultly for a forensic anthropologist. Detailed analysis of skeletal wounds may lead to reconstruction of the events surrounding death, however considerable research has been conducted on soft tissue details and less has focused on skeletal wounds alone. Macroscopic descriptive observations were carried out on thirteen skulls from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio which had documented cranial projectile trauma to analyse wound location, shape, size, beveling and projectile paths...
November 14, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152248/nutritional-management-of-search-and-rescue-dogs
#20
G Vassalotti, N Musco, P Lombardi, S Calabrò, R Tudisco, V Mastellone, R Grazioli, S Bianchi, M I Cutrignelli
Dogs used for search and rescue (SAR) may experience continuous micro-traumas that predispose them to skeletal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diet on osteo-articular apparatus in healthy SAR dogs. A total of sixteen SAR dogs were divided into two groups (low supplementation (LS) and high supplementation (HS)) and were fed for 3 months with two experimental diets, characterised by the same protein and energy density, but different in n-3 PUFA (6·2 v. 8·4 % of metabolisable energy), chondroitin sulfate (219·8 v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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