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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905071/imaging-of-patellar-fractures
#1
REVIEW
Mohamed Jarraya, Luis E Diaz, William F Arndt, Frank W Roemer, Ali Guermazi
Patellar fractures account for approximately 1% of all skeletal fractures and may result from direct, indirect, or combined trauma. Because of the importance of patellar integrity for knee extension and the risk of associated injury to the extensor mechanism, accurate reporting and description of fracture type is paramount for appropriate management. This pictorial essay aims to review the normal anatomy of the patella, the mechanisms of injury and different types of patellar fractures, with a brief introduction to therapeutic management...
November 30, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#2
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865369/feasibility-of-using-head-and-neck-ct-imaging-to-assess-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#3
Justin E Swartz, Ajit J Pothen, Inge Wegner, Ernst J Smid, Karin M A Swart, Remco de Bree, Loek P H Leenen, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVES: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. METHODS: Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864949/multimethod-resolution-of-a-small-scale-case-of-commingling
#4
Janet E Finlayson, Eric J Bartelink, Alexandra Perrone, Kevin Dalton
This study highlights the use of multiple methods for resolving a case of commingled human remains. Skeletal remains were located in a marijuana field in rural northern California by law enforcement. Although initially buried in shallow graves, the remains of two decedents were disturbed by large carnivores and scattered over a wide area. The remains were submitted by law enforcement for forensic anthropological analysis and resolution of commingling. To segregate the remains of the two individuals, a number of methods were employed, including: (i) physical matching of fragmented remains; (ii) articulation to evaluate joint congruence; (iii) visual pair-matching of bilateral elements; (iv) osteometric pair-matching; (v) evaluation of taphonomic patterns; (vi) DNA analysis; and (vii) portable X-ray spectrometry (pXRF)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825160/pathophysiology-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#5
Benjamin T Corona, Joseph C Wenke, Catherine L Ward
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries are prevalent in civilian and military trauma patients and are known to impart chronic functional deficits. The frank loss of muscle tissue that defines VML injuries is beyond the robust reparative and regenerative capacities of mammalian skeletal muscle. Given the nature of VML injuries, there is a clear need to develop therapies that promote de novo regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers, which can integrate with the remaining musculature and restore muscle strength. However, the pathophysiology of VML injuries is not completely defined, and, therefore, there may be other opportunities to improve functional outcomes other than de novo regeneration...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802875/blunt-traumatic-diaphragmatic-injury-a-diagnostic-enigma-with-potential-surgical-pitfalls
#6
Ahmad Mahamid, Kobi Peleg, Adi Givon, Ricardo Alfici, Oded Olsha, Itamar Ashkenazi
BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic injury (BTDI) is an uncommon injury and one which is difficult to diagnose. The objective of this study was to identify features associated with this injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective study based on records of 354307 blunt trauma victims treated between 1998 and 2013 collected by the Israeli National Trauma Registry. RESULTS: BTDI was reported in 231 (0.065%) patients. Motor vehicle accidents were responsible for 84...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797787/re-evaluation-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-in-treatment-of-tibial-fractures-trust-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Jason W Busse, Mohit Bhandari, Thomas A Einhorn, Emil Schemitsch, James D Heckman, Paul Tornetta, Kwok-Sui Leung, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Sun Makosso-Kallyth, Gregory J Della Rocca, Clifford B Jones, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), compared with sham treatment, accelerates functional recovery and radiographic healing in patients with operatively managed tibial fractures. DESIGN:  A concealed, randomized, blinded, sham controlled clinical trial with a parallel group design of 501 patients, enrolled between October 2008 and September 2012, and followed for one year. SETTING:  43 North American academic trauma centers...
October 25, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790997/resource-scarcity-drives-lethal-aggression-among-prehistoric-hunter-gatherers-in-central-california
#8
Mark W Allen, Robert Lawrence Bettinger, Brian F Codding, Terry L Jones, Al W Schwitalla
The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783404/healed-depressed-parasagittal-skull-fractures-a-feature-of-archaic-australian-aboriginal-remains
#9
Keryn Walshe, Brian Brophy, Brian Cornish, Roger W Byard
The skeletal remains of eight Australian Aboriginals with healed depressed skull fractures were examined. Male:female ratio 5:3; age range 20-60 yrs. Burial dates by (14) C dating in three cases were 500 years BP (n = 2) and 1300 BP. There were 13 healed depressed skull fractures manifested by shallow indentations of cortical bone and thinning of diploe, with no significant disturbance of the inner skull tables. Nine (69%) were located within 35 mm of the sagittal suture/midline. These lesions represent another acquired feature that might be helpful in suggesting that a skull is from a tribal Aboriginal individual and may be particularly useful if the remains are represented by only fragments of calvarium...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773702/transcriptional-and-chromatin-dynamics-of-muscle-regeneration-after-severe-trauma
#10
Carlos A Aguilar, Ramona Pop, Anna Shcherbina, Alain Watts, Ronald W Matheny, Davide Cacchiarelli, Woojin M Han, Eunjung Shin, Shadi A Nakhai, Young C Jang, Christopher T Carrigan, Casey A Gifford, Melissa A Kottke, Marcella Cesana, Jackson Lee, Maria L Urso, Alexander Meissner
Following injury, adult skeletal muscle undergoes a well-coordinated sequence of molecular and physiological events to promote repair and regeneration. However, a thorough understanding of the in vivo epigenomic and transcriptional mechanisms that control these reparative events is lacking. To address this, we monitored the in vivo dynamics of three histone modifications and coding and noncoding RNA expression throughout the regenerative process in a mouse model of traumatic muscle injury. We first illustrate how both coding and noncoding RNAs in tissues and sorted satellite cells are modified and regulated during various stages after trauma...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769074/the-detection-of-prominent-hardware-in-volar-locked-plating-of-distal-radius-fractures-intraoperative-fluoroscopy-versus-computed-tomography
#11
Devin Ganesh, Ben Service, Brian Zirgibel, Kenneth Koval
OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of the dorsal tangential view (DTV) in detecting intraoperative dorsal screw penetration in distal radius fractures treated with volar locked plating. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Skeletally mature patients where open reduction internal fixation with volar locked plating was the definitive treatment. A total of twenty-six patients were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755339/institutional-and-seasonal-variations-in-the-incidence-and-causative-organisms-for-post-traumatic-wound-infections-and-osteomyelitis-after-open-fractures
#12
H Claude Sagi, David Donohue, Seth Cooper, David P Barei, Justin Siebler, Michael T Archdeacon, Marcus Sciadini, Michelle Romeo, Patrick F Bergin, Thomas Higgins, Hassan Mir
OBJECTIVES: The current literature focuses on wound severity, time to debridement and antibiotic administration with respect to risk of infection after open fracture. The purpose of this analysis was to determine if either the incidence of post-traumatic infection or causative organism varies with treating institution or the season in which the open fracture occurred. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Seven level-one regional referral trauma centers located in each of the seven climatic regions of the continental United States (Northwest; High Plains; Midwest/Ohio Valley; New England/Mid-Atlantic; Southeast; South; and Southwest)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725085/myofiber-specific-tead1-overexpression-drives-satellite-cell-hyperplasia-and-counters-pathological-effects-of-dystrophin-deficiency
#13
Sheryl Southard, Ju-Ryoung Kim, SiewHui Low, Richard W Tsika, Christoph Lepper
When unperturbed, somatic stem cells are poised to affect immediate tissue restoration upon trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the mechanistic basis controlling initial and homeostatic 'scaling' of stem cell pool sizes relative to their target tissues for effective regeneration. Here, we show that TEAD1-expressing skeletal muscle of transgenic mice features a dramatic hyperplasia of muscle stem cells (i.e. satellite cells, SCs) but surprisingly without affecting muscle tissue size. Super-numeral SCs attain a 'normal' quiescent state, accelerate regeneration, and maintain regenerative capacity over several injury-induced regeneration bouts...
October 11, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713008/ct-based-morphological-analysis-of-spinal-fractures-in-patients-with-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis
#14
Eijiro Okada, Takashi Tsuji, Kentaro Shimizu, Masanori Kato, Kentaro Fukuda, Shinjiro Kaneko, Jun Ogawa, Kota Watanabe, Ken Ishii, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto
PURPOSE: To clarify correlations between spinal fracture and delayed paralysis in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) using computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting (CT-MPR). DISH increases susceptibility to unstable spinal fractures, leading to neurological deterioration. The pathomechanism of the neurological injury is unclear. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included 42 DISH patients (32 male; 10 female) treated for 45 spinal fractures during a 5-year period...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709870/avoiding-errors-in-the-management-of-pediatric-polytrauma-patients
#15
Kenneth Chin, Joshua M Abzug, Donald S Bae, Bernard D Horn, Martin Herman, Craig P Eberson
Management of pediatric polytrauma patients is one of the most difficult challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Multisystem injuries frequently include complex orthopaedic surgical problems that require intervention. The physiology and anatomy of children and adolescent trauma patients differ from the physiology and anatomy of an adult trauma patient, which alters the types of injuries sustained and the ideal methods for management. Errors of pediatric polytrauma care are included in two broad categories: missed injuries and inadequate fracture treatment...
February 15, 2016: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703296/rhabdomyolysis-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients
#16
Biljana Kuzmanovska, Emilija Cvetkovska, Igor Kuzmanovski, Nikola Jankulovski, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Andrijan Kartalov, Tatjana Spirovska
INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. THE AIM: of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1(st) till December 31(st) 2015 was performed...
July 27, 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699153/bone-mineral-density-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-ivb
#17
Francyne Kubaski, Heidi H Kecskemethy, H Theodore Harcke, Shunji Tomatsu
To date, the only published reports of bone mineral density (BMD) in MPS IV involve patients with MPS IVA; no reports exist describing BMD for MPS IVB. In this prospective study of BMD in three patients with MPS IVB, BMD was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and lateral distal femur (LDF). Functional abilities, ambulatory status, medical history, and height z-score were evaluated. Three patients with MPS IVB (two females), aged 17.7, 31.4 and 31.7 years, were evaluated...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696748/pdgf-is-a-potent-initiator-of-bone-formation-in-a-tissue-engineered-model-of-pathological-ossification
#18
O G Davies, L M Grover, M P Lewis, Y Liu
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a debilitating condition defined by the rapid formation of bone in soft tissues. What makes HO fascinating is firstly the rate at which bone is deposited, and secondly the fact that this bone is structurally and compositionally similar to that of a healthy adult. If the mechanisms governing HO are understood, they have the potential to be exploited for the development of potent osteoinductive therapies. With this aim, we utilised a tissue engineered skeletal muscle model to better understand the role of inflammation on this debilitating phenomenon...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693868/ilizarov-bone-transport-after-massive-tibial-trauma-case-report
#19
Nader S Alkenani, Mariam A Alosfoor, Abdulaziz K Al-Araifi, Hala A Alnuaim
INTRODUCTION: This is a case report of extreme lengthening of the tibia of about 14.5cm using bone transport technique following road traffic accident trauma to the lower limbs. The management of the subsequent massive skeletal defects was challenging to orthopedic surgeons. Based on reported cases, the highest tibial lengthening was 22cm using bifocal transport, while the highest unifocal tibial lengthening reached 14.5cm. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old male driver was brought to the emergency department after a road traffic accident...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691970/myositis-ossificans-traumatica-in-a-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus
#20
Jennifer C Hausmann, Jorden Manasse, Sarah Churgin, Howard Steinberg, Victoria L Clyde, Roberta Wallace
A 15-yr-old sexually intact female vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) was diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica of the abdominal wall. The bat presented with a large ulcerated firm mass along the abdomen. Radiographs and cytology were performed, followed by surgical exploration. The mass was determined to be nonresectable and the bat was euthanized. Histopathology showed severe necrotizing, degenerative, and pyogranulomatous myositis with osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia, fibrosis, and ulceration, which were consistent with myositis ossificans traumatica...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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