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Targeted cancer therapy molecular level

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147616/mrna-expression-levels-of-genes-involved-in-antitumor-immunity-identification-of-a-3-gene-signature-associated-with-prognosis-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#1
Constance Le Goux, Sophie Vacher, Géraldine Pignot, Mathilde Sibony, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Benoit Terris, Eliane Piaggio, Marc Zerbib, Diane Damotte, Ivan Bieche
Immunotherapy for bladder cancer has given promising results. Here we aimed to evaluate the possible involvement and prognostic value of 33 genes involved in the immune response during bladder carcinogenesis. Expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in normal and tumor human bladder samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the protein expression of 2 genes and relation of the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Tumors were obtained from 154 patients (83 with muscle-invasive bladder cancer [MIBC] and 71 non-MIBC [NMIBC]) who underwent transurethral bladder resection or radical cystectomy between 2002 and 2006...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146205/pax3-foxo1-zooming-in-on-an-undruggable-target
#2
REVIEW
Marco Wachtel, Beat W Schäfer
Driver oncogenes are prime targets for therapy in tumors many of which, including leukemias and sarcomas, express recurrent fusion transcription factors. One specific example for such a cancer type is alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which is associated in the majority of cases with the fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Since fusion transcription factors are challenging targets for development of small molecule inhibitors, indirect inhibitory strategies for this type of oncogenes represent a more promising approach. One can envision strategies at different molecular levels including upstream modifiers and activators, epigenetic and transcriptional co-regulators, and downstream effector targets...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145632/clinical-significance-of-cd13-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-markers-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Chihiro Yamanaka, Hiroshi Wada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Hisanori Hatano, Kunihito Gotoh, Takehiro Noda, Daisaku Yamada, Tadafumi Asaoka, Koichi Kawamoto, Hiroaki Nagano, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
Background & Aims: To improve prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the molecular mechanisms of tumor thrombus formation and metastasis must be clarified. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to reveal the clinical significance of the expression of the functional CSC marker, CD13, and investigate the correlation between CD13 expression and two EMT markers, E-cadherin and vimentin...
November 14, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142608/upregulation-of-microrna-18b-induces-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-to-accelerate-the-migration-and-invasion-abilities-of-ovarian-cancer
#4
Xiaofang Han, Yan Zhang, Dong Wang, Xinyun Fu, Meiqing Li, Aiming Wang
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most common cause of mortality from malignant gynecological cancers. Its lethality is mainly a result of tumors that are difficult to detect at the early stage and a lack of effective systemic therapy for advanced status cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are a category of single-stranded non-coding small RNAs that bind to their target mRNAs, and aberrant expression levels of miRNAs may serve key roles in regulating cell migration and invasion of various types of human cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-18b may function as an oncogene in numerous types of tumors, but its role and molecular mechanism in OC remained unclear...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141691/involvement-of-aberrantly-activated-hotair-ezh2-mir-193a-feedback-loop-in-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#5
Zhixin Ling, Xiaoyan Wang, Tao Tao, Lei Zhang, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Kai Lu, Guangyuan Zhang, Shuqiu Chen, Jianping Wu, Jinke Qian, Hui Liu, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
BACKGROUND: Though androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which is the main cause of PCa death. Therefore, the identification of novel molecular mechanism regulating cancer progression and achievement of new insight into target therapy would be necessary for improving the benefits of PCa patients. This study aims to study the function and regulatory mechanism of HOTAIR/EZH2/miR-193a feedback loop in PCa progression...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140069/dual-functions-of-cyclometalated-iridium-iii-complexes-anti-metastasis-and-lysosome-damaged-photodynamic-therapy
#6
Fang-Xin Wang, Mu-He Chen, Yan-Nan Lin, Hang Zhang, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zongwan Mao
Four phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing benzimidazole moiety have been designed and synthesized. These Ir(III) complexes can inhibit several cancerous processes including cell migration, invasion, colony formation and angiogenesis effectively. Interestingly, they show much higher singlet oxygen quantum yield in acidic solution than in neutral solution. Upon irradiation at 425 nm with low energy (1.2 J·cm(-2)), they can induce apoptosis through lysosomal damage, evaluation of ROS level and activation of caspase-3/7...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139039/genetic-screening-and-molecular-characterization-of-met-alterations-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
M Saigi, A McLeer-Florin, E Pros, E Nadal, E Brambilla, M Sanchez-Cespedes
PURPOSE: Aberrant activation of MET as a result of exon 14-skipping (METex14) mutations or gene amplification is an oncogenic mechanism in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and a potential therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to characterize MET alterations in a cohort of NSCLC patients treated with surgery. METHODS AND PATIENTS: 157 NSCLCs of various histopathologies, including pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas (PSC), were tested for MET alterations...
November 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137596/analysis-of-breast-cancer-subtypes-by-ap-isa-biclustering
#8
Liying Yang, Yunyan Shen, Xiguo Yuan, Junying Zhang, Jianhua Wei
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling has led to the definition of breast cancer molecular subtypes: Basal-like, HER2-enriched, LuminalA, LuminalB and Normal-like. Different subtypes exhibit diverse responses to treatment. In the past years, several traditional clustering algorithms have been applied to analyze gene expression profiling. However, accurate identification of breast cancer subtypes, especially within highly variable LuminalA subtype, remains a challenge. Furthermore, the relationship between DNA methylation and expression level in different breast cancer subtypes is not clear...
November 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137038/quantification-of-stat3-and-vegf-expression-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-breast-cancer
#9
Yujuan Chen, Ya Liu, Yu Wang, Wen Li, Xiaolu Wang, Xuejuan Liu, Yao Chen, Chibin Ouyang, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastasis is associated with increased risk of regional recurrence, distant metastasis, and poor survival in breast malignant neoplasm. Expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is significantly associated with tumor formation, migration, and invasion in various cancers. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression could promote angiogenesis and increase the risk of tumorigenesis. To determine correlations among STAT3 expression, VEGF, and clinicopathological data on lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients after surgery...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122685/molecular-and-enzoinformatics-perspectives-of-targeting-polo-like-kinase-1-in-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Shazi Shakil, Mohammad H Baig, Shams Tabrez, Syed M Danish Rizvi, Syed K Zaidi, Ghulam M Ashraf, Shakeel A Ansari, Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani, Adel M Abuzenadah, Adeel G Chaudhary
Cancer is a disease that has been the focus of scientific research and discovery and continues to remain so. Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are basically serine/threonine kinase enzymes that control cell cycle from yeast to humans. PLK-1 stands for 'Polo-like kinase-1'. It is the most investigated protein among PLKs. It is crucial for intracellular processes, hence a 'hot' anticancer drug-target. Accelerating innovations in Enzoinformatics and associated molecular visualization tools have made it possible to literally perform a 'molecular level walk' traversing through and observing the minutest contours of the active site of relevant enzymes...
November 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121859/alterations-in-pgc1%C3%AE-expression-levels-are-involved-in-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#11
Jéssica Alonso-Molero, Carmen González-Donquiles, Tania Fernández-Villa, Fernanda de Souza-Teixeira, Laura Vilorio-Marqués, Antonio J Molina, Vicente Martín
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major global public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been suspected to be involved in this type of tumorigenesis, as supported by an accumulating body of research evidence. However, little is known about how mitochondrial alterations contribute to tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process required to maintain functional mitochondria and as an adaptive mechanism in response to changing energy requirements...
November 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117943/fbxo31-suppresses-gastric-cancer-emt-by-targeting-snail1-for-proteasomal-degradation
#12
Shuiyan Zou, Cunying Ma, Fenghua Yang, Xia Xu, Jihui Jia, Zhifang Liu
The F-box protein FBXO31, a component of the Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, plays an important regulatory role in neuronal development, stress response and tumorigenesis. Our recent report indicates that FBXO31 functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and the loss of FBXO31 protein is associated with a higher malignant phenotype and poorer prognosis. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. In this study, FBXO31 inhibits gastric cancer progression by suppressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116484/suppression-of-glioblastoma-growth-and-angiogenesis-through-molecular-targeting-of-methionine-aminopeptidase-2
#13
Ming Lin, Xuyu Zhang, Bingjie Jia, Su Guan
Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) have been pharmacologically linked to cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, which make it an attractive target for cancer therapy. We investigated MetAP2's biological role in glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive tumor characterized by massive neovascularization. We examined the effect of anti-MetAP2 RNA interference on proliferation and angiogenesis in GBM cell line. The biological effects of MetAP2 knockdown were assessed by comparing the proliferation, tumorigenecity, and angiogenesis of parental cells and MetAP2 knockdown cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115529/influence-of-mir-7a-and-mir-24-3p-on-the-sox18-transcript-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Mateusz Olbromski, Adam Rzechonek, Jedrzej Grzegrzolka, Natalia Glatzel-Plucinska, Angelika Chachaj, Bozena Werynska, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow, Piotr Dziegiel
The molecular pathogenesis of the development of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is extremely complex. Understanding the molecular basis of the development of this malignant tumor may enable the use of targeted therapy, which may result in a better treatment outome for these patients. Adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most common NSCLC subtype, equally common among smokers and non-smokers, and its pathogenesis remains unknown. The SOX18 protein is an important protein that plays a role in the development of blood and lymphatic vessels during the process of embryogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115513/lncrna-pvt1-regulate-expression-of-hif1%C3%AE-via-functioning-as-cerna-for-mir%C3%A2-199a%C3%A2-5p-in-non%C3%A2-small-cell-lung-cancer-under-hypoxia
#15
Chunhong Wang, Chunfang Han, Yibo Zhang, Fengqin Liu
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world, and leads to the largest number of deaths in all kinds of lung cancer. Hypoxia has been confirmed to be a characteristic feature of NSCLC and has been shown to decrease the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Previous studies revealed that many miRNAs have been proven to be involved in the molecular regulation of hypoxia and to affect the protein expression level of HIF‑1α...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115509/microrna%C3%A2-211-suppresses-the-growth-and-metastasis-of-cervical-cancer-by-directly-targeting-zeb1
#16
Guangyuan Chen, Ping Huang, Jiabin Xie, Rihong Li
Of gynecological cancers, cervical cancer has the second highest incidence globally and is a major cause of cancer‑associated mortality in women. An increasing number of studies have reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression through regulation of various critical protein‑coding genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and biological roles of miRNA‑211 (miR‑211) in cervical cancer and its underlying molecular mechanism...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113240/downregulation-of-microrna-301a-inhibited-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-directly-targeting-dlc1
#17
Zhuyu Wu, Yaojun Li, Guojun Zhang
Increasing evidence has indicated that the abnormal expression of microRNAs contributes to tumorigenesis and tumor development. Understanding the roles of microRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) might provide valuable information for therapeutic strategies in the therapy for patients with NSCLC. In the present study, significant upregulation of microRNA (miR)-301a was observed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines compared with normal adjacent tissues and a normal human bronchial epithelial cell line. The inhibition of miR-301a suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108248/prognostic-relevance-of-androgen-receptor-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinomas
#18
Sebastian Foersch, Mario Schindeldecker, Martina Keith, Katrin E Tagscherer, Aurélie Fernandez, Philipp J Stenzel, Sascha Pahernik, Markus Hohenfellner, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Stephan Macher-Goeppinger
Background: Despite rapid discoveries in molecular biology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and advances in systemic targeted therapies, development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to hold prognostic and predicitve value in several malignancies. Here, we studied a possible association between AR expression and prognosis in patients with RCCs. Results: Low AR expression levels were associated with occurrence of distant metastasis and higher tumor stage in papillary and clear-cell RCCs...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106464/application-of-single-cell-sequencing-in-human-cancer
#19
Mattias Rantalainen
Precision medicine is emerging as a cornerstone of future cancer care with the objective of providing targeted therapies based on the molecular phenotype of each individual patient. Traditional bulk-level molecular phenotyping of tumours leads to significant information loss, as the molecular profile represents an average phenotype over large numbers of cells, while cancer is a disease with inherent intra-tumour heterogeneity at the cellular level caused by several factors, including clonal evolution, tissue hierarchies, rare cells and dynamic cell states...
November 2, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100362/the-prognostic-significance-of-combined-androgen-receptor-e-cadherin-ki67-and-ck5-6-expression-in-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Barbara Adamo, Giuseppina Rosaria Rita Ricciardi, Antonio Ieni, Tindara Franchina, Carmine Fazzari, Maria Vita Sanò, Giuseppe Angelico, Caruso Michele, Giovanni Tuccari, Vincenzo Adamo
Background: Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with poor prognosis owing to aggressive tumor biology and lack of targeted therapies. No clear prognostic biomarkers have been identified to date for this subgroup. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study we evaluated the prognostic role of 4 different molecular determinants, including androgen receptor (AR), E-cadherin (CDH1), Ki67 index, and basal cytokeratins (CKs) 5/6, in a cohort of 99 patients with TNBC...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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