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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#2
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500032/senescence-gives-insights-into-the-morphogenetic-evolution-of-anamniotes
#3
Éric Villiard, Jean-François Denis, Faranak Sadat Hashemi, Sebastian Igelmann, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Stéphane Roy
Senescence represents a mechanism to avoid undesired cell proliferation that plays a role in tumor suppression, wound healing and embryonic development. In order to gain insight on the evolution of senescence, we looked at its presence in developing axolotls (urodele amphibians) and in zebrafish (teleost fish), which are both anamniotes. Our data indicate that cellular senescence is present in various developing structures in axolotls (pronephros, olfactory epithelium of nerve fascicles, lateral organs, gums) and in zebrafish (epithelium of the yolk sac and in the lower part of the gut)...
May 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498157/compositional-changes-in-the-gut-mucus-microbiota-precede-the-onset-of-colitis-induced-inflammation
#4
Maria Glymenaki, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew Brass, Geoffrey Warhurst, Andrew J McBain, Kathryn J Else, Sheena M Cruickshank
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an inappropriate immune response to the gut microbiota. Notably, patients with IBD reportedly have alterations in fecal microbiota. However, the colonic microbiota occupies both the gut lumen and the mucus covering the epithelium. Thus, information about mucus-resident microbiota fails to be conveyed in the routine microbiota analyses of stool samples. Further, studies analyzing microbiota in IBD have mainly focused on stool samples taken after onset of inflammation...
May 11, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494934/the-expression-of-nkg2d-on-porcine-iel-and-its-possible-relation-to-the-adaptive-intestinal-immune-system
#5
Sara Altmeyer, Jürgen Zentek, Wilfried Vahjen, Lydia Scharek-Tedin
The gastrointestinal tract contains a multitude of components which include intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IELs have been reported to express a variety of surface receptors that enable cross talk among various cell populations. The purpose of the reported investigation was to determine which IEL populations express the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D which is an activating receptor that plays a role in cytolytic responses. In a feeding experiment with piglets, IELs were isolated from jejunal tissue at three different stages post weaning...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#6
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487683/trans-cinnamaldehyde-carvacrol-and-eugenol-reduce-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-factors-and-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-vitro
#7
Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Basanta R Wagle, Indu Upadhyaya, Sandip Shrestha, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis in humans characterized by fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In the human gut, Campylobacter adheres and invades the intestinal epithelium followed by cytolethal distending toxin mediated cell death, and enteritis. Reducing the attachment and invasion of Campylobacter to intestinal epithelium and expression of its virulence factors such as motility and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) production could potentially reduce infection in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484684/the-nag-sensor-nagc-regulates-lee-gene-expression-and-contributes-to-gut-colonization-by-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#8
Guillaume Le Bihan, Jean-Félix Sicard, Philippe Garneau, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Alain P Gobert, Annie Garrivier, Christine Martin, Anthony G Hay, Francis Beaudry, Josée Harel, Grégory Jubelin
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are human pathogens responsible for bloody diarrhea and renal failures. EHEC employ a type 3 secretion system to attach directly to the human colonic epithelium. This structure is encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) whose expression is regulated in response to specific nutrients. In this study, we show that the mucin-derived sugars N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) inhibit EHEC adhesion to epithelial cells through down-regulation of LEE expression...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484457/type-i-and-type-iii-interferons-display-different-dependency-on-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-to-mount-an-antiviral-state-in-the-human-gut
#9
Kalliopi Pervolaraki, Megan L Stanifer, Stephanie Münchau, Lynnsey A Renn, Dorothee Albrecht, Stefan Kurzhals, Elena Senís, Dirk Grimm, Jutta Schröder-Braunstein, Ronald L Rabin, Steeve Boulant
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are constantly exposed to commensal flora and pathogen challenges. How IECs regulate their innate immune response to maintain gut homeostasis remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines produced during infections. While type I IFN receptors are ubiquitously expressed, type III IFN receptors are expressed only on epithelial cells. This epithelium specificity strongly suggests exclusive functions at epithelial surfaces, but the relative roles of type I and III IFNs in the establishment of an antiviral innate immune response in human IECs are not clearly defined...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474815/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-a-reduction-in-t-cell-activation-an-increase-in-th17-frequencies-and-a-recovery-of-intestinal-epithelium-integrity-and-mitochondrial-morphology-in-art-treated-hiv-1-positive-patients
#10
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giacomo Rossi, Carolina Scagnolari, Mauro Andreotti, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Vito Trinchieri, Paola Mastromarino, Carla Selvaggi, Silvia Scarpona, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6)...
April 20, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453765/ccl20-is-negatively-regulated-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-reduced-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-with-a-successful-response-to-mongersen-a-smad7-antisense-oligonucleotide
#11
Irene Marafini, Ivan Monteleone, Vincenzo Dinallo, Davide Di Fusco, Veronica De Simone, Federica Laudisi, Massimo Claudio Fantini, Antonio Di Sabatino, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone
Background and Aims: The chemokine CCL20 is over-produced in epithelium of Crohn's disease [CD] patients and contributes to recruiting immune cells to inflamed gut. Tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] is a powerful inducer of CCL20 in intestinal epithelial cells. In CD, high levels of Smad7 block the activity of transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1], a negative regulator of TNF signalling. We investigated whether intestinal epithelial cell-derived CCL20 is negatively regulated by TGF-β1 and whether Smad7 knock-down reduces CCL20 in CD...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452574/water-transport-through-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-under-different-osmotic-conditions-is-dependent-on-li-cadherin-trans-interaction
#12
Agnes Weth, Carsten Dippl, Yasmin Striedner, Irene Tiemann-Boege, Yana Vereshchaga, Nikola Golenhofen, Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Werner Baumgartner
In the intestine water has to be reabsorbed from the chymus across the intestinal epithelium. The osmolarity within the lumen is subjected to high variations meaning that water transport often has to take place against osmotic gradients. It has been hypothesized that LI-cadherin is important in this process by keeping the intercellular cleft narrow facilitating the buildup of an osmotic gradient allowing water reabsorption. LI-cadherin is exceptional among the cadherin superfamily with respect to its localization along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells being excluded from adherens junction...
January 24, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451924/microfluidic-gut-on-a-chip-with-three-dimensional-villi-structure
#13
Kyu-Young Shim, Dongwook Lee, Jeonghun Han, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Sungsu Park, Jong Hwan Sung
Current in vitro gut models lack physiological relevance, and various approaches have been taken to improve current cell culture models. For example, mimicking the three-dimensional (3D) tissue structure or fluidic environment has been shown to improve the physiological function of gut cells. Here, we incorporated a collagen scaffold that mimics the human intestinal villi into a microfluidic device, thus providing cells with both 3D tissue structure and fluidic shear. We hypothesized that the combined effect of 3D structure and fluidic shear may provide cells with adequate stimulus to induce further differentiation and improve physiological relevance...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448580/sildenafil-normalizes-bowel-transit-in-preclinical-models-of-constipation
#14
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Margaux Usry, Allison Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Satish Rao, Darren D Browning
Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C) agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448057/mixed-primary-cultures-of-murine-small-intestine-intended-for-the-study-of-gut-hormone-secretion-and-live-cell-imaging-of-enteroendocrine-cells
#15
Arianna Psichas, Gwen Tolhurst, Cheryl A Brighton, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
The gut is the largest endocrine organ of the body, with hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells located along the length of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Despite their physiological importance, enteroendocrine cells represent only a small fraction of the epithelial cell population and in the past, their characterization has presented a considerable challenge resulting in a reliance on cell line models. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of mixed murine small intestinal cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447937/il17-factors-are-early-regulators-in-the-gut-epithelium-during-inflammatory-response-to-vibrio-in-the-sea-urchin-larva
#16
Katherine M Buckley, Eric Chun Hei Ho, Taku Hibino, Catherine S Schrankel, Nicholas W Schuh, Guizhi Wang, Jonathan Patrick Rast
IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes ten IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and two IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447053/deciphering-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-an-alternative-model-for-pathogenesis-cytokine-controlled-transepithelial-multi-feedback-loop
#17
REVIEW
Ricky McCullough, Jeremiah McCullough
A working theoretical model for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) does not exist, hampered by the lack of any clear cut invention that address all symptom and signs of the disease. Reports of cessation of symptom and signs of both major types of IBS have been published using a non-systemic, topically active agent-high potency polymerized cross-linked sucralfate (HPPCLS). The unique clinical effect of this non-systemic agent restricted to the luminal surface of the gut provides opportunity to elaborate on an alternative working model for the pathogenesis of IBS and FGIDs...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444343/lysolecithin-as-feed-additive-enhances-collagen-expression-and-villus-length-in-the-jejunum-of-broiler-chickens
#18
D L Brautigan, R Li, E Kubicka, S D Turner, J S Garcia, M L Weintraut, E A Wong
Adding lysolecithin to feed has reportedly improved the performance of broiler chickens. Lysolecithin is generated by phospholipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lecithin. The enzymatic reaction converts various phospholipids into the corresponding lysophospholipids, with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) one of the primary products. Here we compared supplementation with a commercial lysolecithin (Lysoforte®) with comparable levels of highly purified LPC for effects on broilers. Despite no differences in weight gain during the starter period, we discovered a significant increase in average villus length with lysolecithin and an increase in villus width with purified LPC...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441885/lactobacillus-plantarum-l9-but-not-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-reduces-tumour-necrosis-factor-induced-bacterial-translocation-in-caco-2-cells
#19
B Wang, J Chen, S Wang, X Zhao, G Lu, X Tang
Translocation of bacteria across the intestinal barrier is important in the pathogenesis of systemic sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Inflammatory cytokines increase paracellular permeability that allows increased luminal bacteria to translocate across mucosal epithelium and further deteriorate the gut barrier. In order to reduce this risk, the prophylactic use of probiotics has been recently addressed. In this paper, we investigate the protective role toward tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced non-pathogenic Escherichia coli translocation across Caco-2 monolayers of Lactobacillus strains...
April 26, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438947/treatment-with-entinostat-heals-experimental-cholera-by-affecting-physical-and-chemical-barrier-functions-of-intestinal-epithelia
#20
Protim Sarker, Atanu Banik, Roger Stromberg, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Rubhana Raqib, Birgitta Agerberth
We have previously shown that oral treatment of an experimental model of shigellosis with sodium butyrate or phenylbutyrate improves clinical outcome and induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. In a subsequent study, we have found that Entinostat, an aroylated phenylenediamine compound has similar therapeutic potential against shigellosis. Here, we aim to evaluate Entinostat as a potential candidate for host-directed therapy against cholera in an experimental model...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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