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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#1
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330443/an-insight-into-intestinal-mucosal-microbiota-disruption-after-stroke
#2
Dragana Stanley, Robert J Moore, Connie H Y Wong
Recent work from our laboratory has provided evidence that indicates selective bacterial translocation from the host gut microbiota to peripheral tissues (i.e. lung) plays a key role in the development of post-stroke infections. Despite this, it is currently unknown whether mucosal bacteria that live on and interact closely with the host intestinal epithelium contribute in regulating bacterial translocation after stroke. Here, we found that the microbial communities within the mucosa of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different between sham-operated and post-stroke mice at 24 h following surgery...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#3
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#4
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#5
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This manuscript reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts and epithelial cells' migration and function...
January 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311247/diaphorina-citri-nymphs-are-resistant-to-morphological-changes-induced-by-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-midgut-epithelial-cells
#6
Marina Mann, Somayeh Fattah-Hosseini, El-Desouky Ammar, Richard Stange, EricaRose Warrick, Kasie Sturgeon, Robert Shatters, Michelle Heck
"Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" is the causative bacterium associated with citrus greening disease. "Ca. L. asiaticus" is transmitted by Diaphorina citri more efficiently when it is acquired by nymphs rather than adults. Why this occurs is not known. We compared midguts of D. citri reared on healthy or "Ca. L. asiaticus"-infected citrus trees using quantitative PCR, confocal microscopy, and mitochondrial superoxide staining for evidence of oxidative stress. Consistent with its classification as propagative, "Ca...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304144/a-clinically-parameterized-mathematical-model-of-shigella-immunity-to-inform-vaccine-design
#7
Courtney L Davis, Rezwanul Wahid, Franklin R Toapanta, Jakub K Simon, Marcelo B Sztein
We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-membrane proteins (OMP) were recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290442/effects-of-heat-stress-and-dietary-zinc-source-on-performance-and-mammary-epithelial-integrity-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#8
X Weng, A P A Monteiro, J Guo, C Li, R M Orellana, T N Marins, J K Bernard, D J Tomlinson, J M DeFrain, S E Wohlgemuth, S Tao
Dietary Zn and heat stress alter gut integrity in monogastric animals. However, effects of Zn on mammary epithelial integrity in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows have not been studied. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 72) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of environment and Zn source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity. Treatments included 2 environments [cooled (CL) or not cooled (NC)] and 2 Zn sources [75 mg/kg of supplemental Zn as Zn hydroxychloride (IOZ) or 35 mg/kg of Zn hydroxychloride + 40 mg/kg of Zn-Met complex (ZMC)]...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281815/the-nlr-protein-nlrp6-does-not-impact-gut-microbiota-composition
#10
Paul Lemire, Susan J Robertson, Heather Maughan, Ivan Tattoli, Catherine J Streutker, Jaye M Platnich, Daniel A Muruve, Dana J Philpott, Stephen E Girardin
NLRP6 is a Nod-like receptor expressed in the intestinal epithelium. Previous studies reported a protective role for NLRP6 against intestinal injury and colitis-associated carcinogenesis via the regulation and establishment of a healthy microbiota. However, these results were not obtained using littermate animals, leaving the possibility that the pro-colitogenic microbiota phenotype associated with knockout (KO) mice was stochastically acquired and genotype independent. Here, we analyzed the microbiota at three intestinal locations from Nlrp6-/- and wild-type (WT) littermates, either co-caged or individually caged after weaning...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277472/a-complex-of-the-blood-fluke-genus-psettarium-digenea-aporocotylidae-infecting-tetraodontiform-fishes-of-east-queensland-waters
#11
R Q-Y Yong, S C Cutmore, M K Jones, A R G Gauthier, T H Cribb
Seven species of Psettarium (Digenea: Aporocotylidae), including four new species, are reported from tetraodontiform fishes from off coastal east Queensland. Psettarium pandora n. sp. infects the yellow boxfish, Ostracion cubicus (Ostraciidae), the first known aporocotylid to infect this family of fishes. Three new species are reported from pufferfishes of the genus Arothron (Tetraodontidae): Psettarium yoshidai n. sp. infects the map puffer (Arothron mappa), Psettarium hustoni n. sp. infects the black-spotted puffer (A...
December 19, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276749/hif-1%C3%AE-deletion-in-the-endothelium-but-not-in-the-epithelium-protects-from-radiation-induced-enteritis
#12
Aurore Toullec, Valérie Buard, Emilie Rannou, Georges Tarlet, Olivier Guipaud, Sylvie Robine, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Agnès François, Fabien Milliat
Background & Aims: Radiation therapy in the pelvic area is associated with side effects that impact the quality of life of cancer survivors. Interestingly, the gastrointestinal tract is able to adapt to significant changes in oxygen availability, suggesting that mechanisms related to hypoxia sensing help preserve tissue integrity in this organ. However, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent responses to radiation-induced gut toxicity are unknown. Radiation-induced intestinal toxicity is a complex process involving multiple cellular compartments...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258921/the-choroid-plexus-epithelium-as-a-novel-player-in-the-stomach-brain-axis-during-helicobacter-infection
#13
N Gorlé, C Blaecher, E Bauwens, C Vandendriessche, S Balusu, J Vandewalle, C Van Cauwenberghe, E Van Wonterghem, G Van Imschoot, C Liu, R Ducatelle, C Libert, F Haesebrouck, A Smet, R E Vandenbroucke
Several studies suggest a link between shifts in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter suis (H. suis) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of gastric H. suis infection on the brain in mice. One month of infection with H. suis resulted in increased brain inflammation, reflected in activation of microglia and cognitive decline. Additionally, we detected choroid plexus inflammation and disruption of the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier upon H...
December 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236742/route-of-infection-alters-virulence-of-neonatal-septicemia-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates
#14
Bryan K Cole, Edgar Scott, Marko Ilikj, David Bard, Darrin R Akins, David W Dyer, Susana Chavez-Bueno
Escherichia coli is the leading cause of Gram-negative neonatal septicemia in the United States. Invasion and passage across the neonatal gut after ingestion of maternal E. coli strains produce bacteremia. In this study, we compared the virulence properties of the neonatal E. coli bacteremia clinical isolate SCB34 with the archetypal neonatal E. coli meningitis strain RS218. Whole-genome sequencing data was used to compare the protein coding sequences among these clinical isolates and 33 other representative E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229019/clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-pathogenicity-and-an-update-on-the-limitations-of-and-challenges-in-its-diagnosis
#15
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216329/characterization-of-fusobacterium-varium-fv113-g1-isolated-from-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-complete-genome-sequence-and-transcriptome-analysis
#17
Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Yumiko Ogasawara, Toshifumi Ohkusa, Makoto Kuroda
Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb) isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208693/dysregulation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-contributes-to-ethanol-induced-barrier-disruption-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#18
Daniel M Chopyk, Pradeep Kumar, Reben Raeman, Yunshan Liu, Tekla Smith, Frank A Anania
Alcohol consumption promotes loss of intestinal barrier function. However, mechanisms by which ethanol affects the tight junction (TJ), the cellular structure responsible for maintaining the gut epithelial barrier, are not well understood. Three classes of transmembrane proteins comprise TJs: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). It has recently been postulated that JAM-A (F11R), the most abundant JAM expressed in intestinal epithelium, regulates "leak" pathway flux, a paracellular route for the nonselective permeation of large solutes...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204053/induction-of-precocious-intestinal-maturation-in-t-cell-deficient-athymic-neonatal-rats
#19
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Catherine Gidlund, Björn Weström, Olena Prykhodko
AIM: To investigate whether gut maturation could be induced precociously in an athymic T-cell deficient neonatal rat model. METHODS: Fourteen day-old athymic (nude) rats (NIH-Foxn1rnu) were gavaged with either phytohaemagglutinin - a lectin from red kidney beans (PHA); trypsin - a protease (Prot); or water - vehicle (control) as a single dose on one day or once a day for 3-day. The nude rats were either nurtured by their mothers or cross-fostered by conventional foster dams of the Sprague-Dawley strain from days 3-5 after birth...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204051/intestinal-epithelium-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-the-gut-microbiota-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-celiac-disease
#20
REVIEW
Bożena Cukrowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Joanna Beata Bierła, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Anna Rybak, Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Before activating the immune system, gluten peptides are transferred by the epithelial barrier to the mucosal lamina propria, where they are deamidated by intestinal tissue transglutaminase 2. As a result, they strongly bind to human leucocyte antigens (HLAs), especially HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. This induces an inflammatory response, which results in small bowel enteropathy...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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