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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212438/correction-increased-abundance-of-m-cells-in-the-gut-epithelium-dramatically-enhances-oral-prion-disease-susceptibility
#1
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006075.].
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193209/secretion-of-biologically-active-pancreatitis-associated-protein-i-pap-by-genetically-modified-dairy-lactococcus-lactis-nz9000-in-the-prevention-of-intestinal-mucositis
#2
Rodrigo D Carvalho, Natalia Breyner, Zelia Menezes-Garcia, Nubia M Rodrigues, Luisa Lemos, Tatiane U Maioli, Danielle da Gloria Souza, Denise Carmona, Ana M C de Faria, Philippe Langella, Jean-Marc Chatel, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Henrique C P Figueiredo, Vasco Azevedo, Marcela S de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most relevant gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions in humans, generated by the use of chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluoracil (5-FU). 5-FU-induced mucositis affects 80% of patients undergoing oncological treatment causing mucosal gut dysfunctions and great discomfort. As current therapy drugs presents limitations in alleviating mucositis symptoms, alternative strategies are being pursued. Recent studies have shown that the antimicrobial pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) has a protective role in intestinal inflammatory processes...
February 13, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188999/the-small-gtpase-arf6-regulates-sea-urchin-morphogenesis
#3
Nadezda A Stepicheva, Megan Dumas, Priscilla Kobi, Julie G Donaldson, Jia L Song
The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct...
February 2, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179906/canonical-and-non-canonical-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-at-the-crossroad-between-immune-tolerance-and-intestinal-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Gloria Lopez-Castejon, Corrado Blandizzi, Matteo Fornai
Several lines of evidence point out the relevance of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as a pivotal player in regulating the integrity of intestinal homeostasis and shaping innate immune responses during bowel inflammation. Intensive research efforts are being made to achieve an integrated view about the protective/detrimental role of canonical and non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the maintenance of intestinal microenvironment integrity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179117/evaluation-of-intestinal-damage-caused-by-v-%C3%A2-cholerae-o139-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#5
Chandrika Murugaiah, Nik Zuraina Nik Mohd Noor, Shyamoli Mustafa, Ravichandran Manickam, Lalitha Pattabhiraman
Cholera, a severe form of gastroenteritis, is one of the most widespread diseases in developing countries. The mechanism of intestinal infection caused by V. cholerae O139 remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of its infection in the intestine including Peyer's patches, we investigated the V. cholerae O139 infection at intestinal site of the rabbit gut-loop model. The electron microscopic analysis revealed denuded mucosal surface with loss of microvilli and integrity of the surface epithelium...
February 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174773/dietary-fibre-based-scfa-mixtures-promote-both-protection-and-repair-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-a-caco-2-cell-model
#6
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154012/gastrointestinal-immune-and-microbiome-changes-during-parenteral-nutrition
#7
Joseph F Pierre
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy that provides intravenous nutrition support to patients who cannot, or should not, feed via the gastrointestinal tract. Unfortunately, PN also carries certain risks related to infection and metabolic complications compared with enteral nutrition. In this review, an overview of PN and gastrointestinal (GI) immune and microbiome changes is provided. PN impacts the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) functions - especially adaptive immune cells - changes to intestinal epithelium and chemical secretions, and significantly alters the intestinal microbiome...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146607/development-and-validation-of-a-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-method-with-solid-phase-extraction-spe-for-the-quantification-of-hydrochlorothiazide-in-ex-vivo-permeation-studies
#8
R Onnainty, E M Schenfeld, M R Longhi, M A Quevedo, G E Granero
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic used to treat hypertension. In order to study its intestinal permeation behavior applying an ex vivo methodology, a rapid, sensitive, and selective reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method coupled with UV detection (RP-HPLC UV) was developed for the analysis of HCT in TC199 culture medium used as mucosal and serosal solutions in the everted rat intestinal sac model. Also, analytical procedures for the quantification of HCT by RP-HPLC with UV detection required a sample preparation step by solid phase extraction (SPE)...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146569/human-gut-on-a-chip-supports-polarized-infection-of-coxsackie-b1-virus-in-vitro
#9
Remi Villenave, Samantha Q Wales, Tiama Hamkins-Indik, Efstathia Papafragkou, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Anthony Bahinski, Christopher A Elkins, Michael Kulka, Donald E Ingber
Analysis of enterovirus infection is difficult in animals because they express different virus receptors than humans, and static cell culture systems do not reproduce the physical complexity of the human intestinal epithelium. Here, using coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) as a prototype enterovirus strain, we demonstrate that human enterovirus infection, replication and infectious virus production can be analyzed in vitro in a human Gut-on-a-Chip microfluidic device that supports culture of highly differentiated human villus intestinal epithelium under conditions of fluid flow and peristalsis-like motions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146004/epithelial-specific-toll-like-receptor-tlr-5-activation-mediates-barrier-dysfunction-in-experimental-ileitis
#10
Loris R Lopetuso, Ruo Jia, Xiao-Ming Wang, Li-Guo Jia, Valentina Petito, Wendy A Goodman, Jon B Meddings, Fabio Cominelli, Brian K Reuter, Theresa T Pizarro
BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence supports a central role of TLR5 and its natural ligand, flagellin, in Crohn's disease (CD), with the precise mechanism(s) still unresolved. METHODS: We investigated the role of flagellin/TLR5 in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice, a spontaneous model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. RESULTS: Ileal Tlr5 and serum antiflagellin IgG antibodies were increased in SAMP before the onset of inflammation and during established disease; these trends were abrogated in the absence of colonizing commensal bacteria...
January 31, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129947/target-intestinal-microbiota-to-alleviate-disease-progression-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Yong-Guo Zhang, Shaoping Wu, Jianxun Yi, Yinglin Xia, Dapeng Jin, Jingsong Zhou, Jun Sun
PURPOSE: Emerging evidence has demonstrated that gut microbiome plays essential roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases in distal organs. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Treatment with the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in ALS, riluzole, extends a patient׳s life span by only a few months. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel interventions that for alleviate disease progression and improve quality of life in patients with ALS...
January 24, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125357/mucosal-ecological-network-of-epithelium-and-immune-cells-for-gut-homeostasis-and-tissue-healing
#12
Yosuke Kurashima, Hiroshi Kiyono
The intestinal epithelial barrier includes columnar epithelial, Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, and tuft cells as well as other cell populations, all of which contribute properties essential for gastrointestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa is covered by mucin, which contains antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA and prevents luminal bacteria, fungi, and viruses from stimulating intestinal immune responses. Conversely, the transport of luminal microorganisms-mediated by M, dendritic, and goblet cells-into intestinal tissues facilitates the harmonization of active and quiescent mucosal immune responses...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115552/xenin-augments-duodenal-anion-secretion-via-activation-of-afferent-neural-pathways
#13
Izumi Kaji, Yasutada Akiba, Ikuo Kato, Koji Maruta, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
Xenin-25, a neurotensin (NT)-related anorexigenic gut hormone generated mostly in the duodenal mucosa, is believed to increase the rate of duodenal ion secretion, since xenin-induced diarrhea is not present after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Since the local effects of xenin on duodenal ion secretion have remained uninvestigated, we thus examined the neural pathways underlying xenin-induced duodenal anion secretion. Intravenous infusion of xenin-8, a bioactive C-terminal fragment of xenin-25, dose-dependently increased the rate of duodenal HCO3- secretion in perfused duodenal loops of anesthetized rats...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#14
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099756/levofloxacin-effect-on-erlotinib-absorption-evaluation-of-the-interaction-in-undernutrition-situations-through-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-in-rats
#15
Alejandro Pérez Pitarch, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Amparo Nacher, Virginia Merino, Matilde Merino-Sanjuan
The main objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model in order to describe the intestinal absorption of erlotinib in rat and to quantify the interaction of levofloxacin on this process in well- and undernourished rats. Absorption studies were performed in male Wistar rats. Concentration-time profiles in proximal and distal intestine were analysed through non-linear mixed effect modelling using the NONMEM software version 7.3. Simulations were performed in order to explore the influence of covariates on apparent absorption rate constant...
January 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098206/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-signaling-is-required-for-dietary-prebiotic-induced-strengthening-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#16
Richard Y Wu, Majd Abdullah, Pekka Määttänen, Ana Victoria C Pilar, Erin Scruten, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Scott Napper, Catherine O'Brien, Nicola L Jones, Philip M Sherman
Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096258/regulation-of-glucose-uptake-and-enteroendocrine-function-by-the-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptor
#17
Siegfried Ussar, Max-Felix Haering, Shiho Fujisaka, Dominik Lutter, Kevin Y Lee, Ning Li, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091879/new-medical-therapies-on-the-horizon-oral-octreotide
#18
REVIEW
Nienke R Biermasz
Somatostatin analog treatment is first line medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. This drug is currently mainly administered by monthly depot preparations of octreotide and lanreotide. With the innovative transient permeability enhancer, a technology enabling the absorption of drug molecules via transient opening of the tight junctions of the gut epithelium, it is possible to achieve therapeutic octreotide levels after oral ingestion. The present review summarized the preclinical work and the recently reported phase I and III study on oral octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077488/id2-controls-specification-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cell-progenitors-during-gut-development
#19
Lira Nigmatullina, Maxim Norkin, Margarita M Dzama, Berith Messner, Sergi Sayols, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs), their hierarchies, mechanisms of maintenance and differentiation have been extensively studied. However, when and how ISCs are established during embryogenesis remains unknown. We show here that the transcription regulator Id2 controls the specification of embryonic Lgr5(+) progenitors in the developing murine small intestine. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that Lgr5(+) progenitors emerge at E13.5 in wild-type embryos and differ from the rest on the intestinal epithelium by a characteristic ISC signature...
January 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074039/cd34-mesenchymal-cells-are-a-major-component-of-the-intestinal-stem-cells-niche-at-homeostasis-and-after-injury
#20
Igor Stzepourginski, Giulia Nigro, Jean-Marie Jacob, Sophie Dulauroy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Gérard Eberl, Lucie Peduto
The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34(+) Gp38(+) αSMA(-) mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5(+) IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34(+) Gp38(+) cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5(+) IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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