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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#1
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099756/levofloxacin-effect-on-erlotinib-absorption-evaluation-of-the-interaction-in-undernutrition-situations-through-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-in-rats
#2
Alejandro Pérez Pitarch, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Amparo Nacher, Virginia Merino, Matilde Merino-Sanjuan
The main objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model in order to describe the intestinal absorption of erlotinib in rat and to quantify the interaction of levofloxacin on this process in well- and undernourished rats. Absorption studies were performed in male Wistar rats. Concentration-time profiles in proximal and distal intestine were analysed through non-linear mixed effect modelling using the NONMEM software version 7.3. Simulations were performed in order to explore the influence of covariates on apparent absorption rate constant...
January 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098206/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-signaling-is-required-for-dietary-prebiotic-induced-strengthening-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#3
Richard Y Wu, Majd Abdullah, Pekka Määttänen, Ana Victoria C Pilar, Erin Scruten, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Scott Napper, Catherine O'Brien, Nicola L Jones, Philip M Sherman
Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096258/regulation-of-glucose-uptake-and-enteroendocrine-function-by-the-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptor
#4
Siegfried Ussar, Max-Felix Haering, Shiho Fujisaka, Dominik Lutter, Kevin Y Lee, Ning Li, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091879/new-medical-therapies-on-the-horizon-oral-octreotide
#5
REVIEW
Nienke R Biermasz
Somatostatin analog treatment is first line medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. This drug is currently mainly administered by monthly depot preparations of octreotide and lanreotide. With the innovative transient permeability enhancer, a technology enabling the absorption of drug molecules via transient opening of the tight junctions of the gut epithelium, it is possible to achieve therapeutic octreotide levels after oral ingestion. The present review summarized the preclinical work and the recently reported phase I and III study on oral octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077488/id2-controls-specification-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cell-progenitors-during-gut-development
#6
Lira Nigmatullina, Maxim Norkin, Margarita M Dzama, Berith Messner, Sergi Sayols, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs), their hierarchies, mechanisms of maintenance and differentiation have been extensively studied. However, when and how ISCs are established during embryogenesis remains unknown. We show here that the transcription regulator Id2 controls the specification of embryonic Lgr5(+) progenitors in the developing murine small intestine. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that Lgr5(+) progenitors emerge at E13.5 in wild-type embryos and differ from the rest on the intestinal epithelium by a characteristic ISC signature...
January 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074039/cd34-mesenchymal-cells-are-a-major-component-of-the-intestinal-stem-cells-niche-at-homeostasis-and-after-injury
#7
Igor Stzepourginski, Giulia Nigro, Jean-Marie Jacob, Sophie Dulauroy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Gérard Eberl, Lucie Peduto
The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34(+) Gp38(+) αSMA(-) mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5(+) IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34(+) Gp38(+) cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5(+) IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1...
10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053090/functional-transcriptomics-in-diverse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-types-reveals-robust-microrna-sensitivity-in-intestinal-stem-cells-to-microbial-status
#8
Bailey C E Peck, Amanda T Mah, Wendy A Pitman, Shengli Ding, P Kay Lund, Praveen Sethupathy
Gut microbiota play an important role in regulating the development of the host immune system, metabolic rate, and at times, disease pathogenesis. The factors and mechanisms that mediate interactions between microbiota and the intestinal epithelium are not fully understood. We provide novel evidence that microbiota may control intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) proliferation in part through microRNAs (miRNAs). We demonstrate that miRNA profiles differ dramatically across functionally distinct cell types of the mouse jejunal intestinal epithelium and that miRNAs respond to microbiota in a highly cell-type specific manner...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049834/aquaporin-3-mediates-hydrogen-peroxide-dependent-responses-to-environmental-stress-in-colonic-epithelia
#9
Jay R Thiagarajah, Jeffrey Chang, Jeremy A Goettel, Alan S Verkman, Wayne I Lencer
The colonic epithelium provides an essential barrier against the environment that is critical for protecting the body and controlling inflammation. In response to injury or gut microbes, colonic epithelial cells produce extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which acts as a potent signaling molecule affecting barrier function and host defense. In humans, impaired regulation of H2O2 in the intestine has been associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Here, we show that signal transduction by H2O2 depends on entry into the cell by transit through aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a plasma membrane H2O2-conducting channel...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039160/%C3%A2-potential-roles-of-enteric-glia-in-bridging-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-gut
#10
Aaron K Chow, Brian David Gulbransen
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that controls ongoing gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Damage or injury to the ENS can lead to functional GI disorders. Current data support the conclusion that many functional GI disorders are caused by an imbalance between gut microbes and the immune system but how the ENS is involved in these interactions is less understood. Due to the proximity of the ENS to bacteria and other foreign antigens present in the GI tract, it is important to prevent the passage of these antigens through the GI epithelium...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038428/ghrelin-upregulates-pept1-activity-in-the-small-intestine-epithelium-of-rats-with-sepsis
#11
Jingquan Liu, Bin Shi, Kai Shi, Guoguang Ma, Hongze Zhang, Xiaoli Lou, Hongxiang Liu, Shengxia Wan, Dongyu Liang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis causes nutritional substrate malabsorption; hence, preventing gut barrier problems and improving the nutritional status in sepsis is a compelling issue. AIMS: We tested whether ghrelin administration affects peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) activity in the intestinal epithelium of rats with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, sepsis, and ghrelin-treated groups. The cecum of sham-operated rats was separated after laparotomy without ligation and perforation...
December 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034836/the-ciona-intestinalis-immune-related-galectin-genes-cilgals-a-and-cilgals-b-are-expressed-by-the-gastric-epithelium
#12
Daniela Parrinello, Maria Antonietta Sanfratello, Aiti Vizzini, Lelia Testasecca, Nicolò Parrinello, Matteo Cammarata
The transcription of two Ciona intestinalis galectin genes (CiLgals-a and CiLgals-b) is uparegulated by LPS in the pharynxis (hemocytes, vessel epithelium, endostilar zones) which is retained the main organ of the immunity. In this ascidian, for the first time we show, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods, that these two immune-related genes are expressed in the gastric epithelium of naïve ascidians, whereas the galectins appear to be only contained in the intestine columnar epithelium...
December 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034757/vancomycin-pre-treatment-impairs-tissue-healing-in-experimental-colitis-importance-of-innate-lymphoid-cells
#13
Di Zhao, Chenwen Cai, Qing Zheng, Shuang Jin, Dongjuan Song, Jun Shen, Zhihua Ran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage...
December 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031329/hur-enhances-early-restitution-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-increasing-cdc42-translation
#14
Lan Liu, Ran Zhuang, Lan Xiao, Hee Kyoung Chung, Jason Luo, Douglas J Turner, Jaladanki N Rao, Myriam Gorospe, Jian-Ying Wang
The mammalian intestinal mucosa exhibits a spectrum of responses after acute injury and repairs itself rapidly to restore the epithelial integrity. The RNA-binding protein HuR regulates the stability and translation of target mRNAs and is involved in many aspects of gut epithelium homeostasis, but its exact role in the regulation of mucosal repair after injury remains unknown. Here we show that HuR is essential for early intestinal epithelial restitution by increasing the expression of cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) at the posttranscriptional level...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026958/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-self-assembly-prevents-adhesion-and-suppresses-virulence-traits-of-candida-albicans
#15
Phoom Chairatana, I-Ling Chiang, Elizabeth M Nolan
HD6 is a host-defense peptide that contributes to intestinal innate immunity and mediates homeostasis at mucosal surfaces by forming non-covalent oligomers that capture bacteria and prevent bacterial invasion into the epithelium. Our present work illustrates a new role of HD6 in defending the host epithelium against pathogenic microorganisms. We report that HD6 blocks Candida albicans adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses two C. albicans virulence traits, namely invasion into human epithelial cells and biofilm formation...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008839/-microbiota-intestinal-stem-cells-dialog-a-key-element-for-intestinal-regeneration
#16
Aline Stedman, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
The most abundant and well-studied microbiota on the human body resides in the intestinal tract. Its impact extends the limits of the mucosal interface as it plays an essential role in systemic functions such as development of the immune system. At the level of the intestine, commensal microbes play important metabolic functions and promote the integrity of the mucosal barrier. Moreover, a large number of studies points to a role of the microbiota in intestinal regeneration both under homeostatic conditions and after epithelial damage...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008836/-gut-microbiota-and-development-of-the-immune-system
#17
Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
During their long co-evolution, bacteria and their animal host have developed mutualistic interactions that are regulated by the immune system of the host. A dialogue between bacteria and the host immune system is initiated at birth during microbial colonization. This colonization induces the recruitment of multiple immune cell types that cooperate with the intestinal epithelium to construct a barrier capable of confining the microbes within the intestinal lumen. Regulatory mechanisms avoid deleterious inflammatory reactions that would harm both the host and its microbiota...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007554/further-assessment-of-the-protozoal-contribution-to-the-nutrition-of-the-ruminant-animal
#18
Sarah E Hook, James France, Jan Dijkstra
The flow of protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is lower than expected, due to ability of protozoa to prevent washout through sequestration on feed particles and the rumen epithelium. In order to estimate the distribution of protozoa within the reticulo-rumen and passage to the omasum, Czerkawski (1987) developed a model containing pools for the rumen liquid phase, rumen solid phase, and the omasum. This model was used to estimate loss of protozoa in the omasum as well as the amount of protozoal protein available to the animal in the lower gut...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003582/the-broad-distribution-of-gp2-in-mucous-glands-and-secretory-products
#19
Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Ayuko Kishimoto, Toshihiko Iwanaga
GP2, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein that is a useful marker for M cells of Peyer's patches, is functionally related to the uptake of pathogenic bacteria in the gut lumen. Our immunostaining throughout the whole body of mice detected a broader localization than previously found of GP2 in various mucous glands and secretory cells. In the oral cavity, the palatine gland and lingual gland intensely expressed GP2 with immunolabeling along the basolateral membrane of acini and in luminal secretions of ducts. Secretory portions of the duodenal gland as well as the pancreas were immunoreactive for GP2 in the digestive tract...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999668/development-of-a-vivo-rabbit-ligated-intestinal-loop-model-for-hcmv-infection
#20
Jin Tang, Qiaoxing Wu, Xinming Tang, Ruihan Shi, Jingxia Suo, Guangping Huang, Junqing An, Jingyuan Wang, Jinling Yang, Wenzhuo Hao, Ruiping She, Xun Suo
BACKGROUND: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. RESULTS: The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and Western-blot...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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