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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912059/microbiota-diurnal-rhythmicity-programs-host-transcriptome-oscillations
#1
Christoph A Thaiss, Maayan Levy, Tal Korem, Lenka Dohnalová, Hagit Shapiro, Diego A Jaitin, Eyal David, Deborah R Winter, Meital Gury-BenAri, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Niv Zmora, David Zeevi, Mally Dori-Bachash, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Elena Kartvelishvily, Alexander Brandis, Alon Harmelin, Oren Shibolet, Zamir Halpern, Kenya Honda, Ido Amit, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
The intestinal microbiota undergoes diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that affect metabolic homeostasis, but the mechanisms by which the rhythmic microbiota influences host circadian activity remain elusive. Using integrated multi-omics and imaging approaches, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota features oscillating biogeographical localization and metabolome patterns that determine the rhythmic exposure of the intestinal epithelium to different bacterial species and their metabolites over the course of a day...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911839/identifying-species-of-symbiont-bacteria-from-the-human-gut-that-alone-can-induce-intestinal-th17-cells-in-mice
#2
Tze Guan Tan, Esen Sefik, Naama Geva-Zatorsky, Lindsay Kua, Debdut Naskar, Fei Teng, Lesley Pasman, Adriana Ortiz-Lopez, Ray Jupp, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu, Dennis L Kasper, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Th17 cells accrue in the intestine in response to particular microbes. In rodents, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) induce intestinal Th17 cells, but analogously functioning microbes in humans remain undefined. Here, we identified human symbiont bacterial species, in particular Bifidobacterium adolescentis, that could, alone, induce Th17 cells in the murine intestine. Similar to SFB, B. adolescentis was closely associated with the gut epithelium and engendered cognate Th17 cells without attendant inflammation...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902414/modulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-to-ameliorate-salmonella-infection-in-mice-by-oral-administration-of-fermented-milks-produced-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-mtcc-5690-a-probiotic-strain-of-indian-gut-origin
#3
Namita Rokana, Rajbir Singh, Rashmi Hogarehalli Mallappa, Virender Kumar Batish, Sunita Grover
Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 -a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin as such and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this sudy as biotherapeutics by evauating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of intestine. The mice fed with probiotic Dahi (PD), Fermented Probiotic Drink (FD) and Sweetened fermented probiotic drink (SFD) maintained the health and integrity of intestinal epithelium in the infected mice as compared to those fed with phosphate buffered saline, milk, unfermented probiotic milk and Dahi...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891580/acute-infection-with-the-intestinal-parasite-trichuris-muris-has-long-term-consequences-on-mucosal-mast-cell-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity
#4
Daniel Sorobetea, Jacob Bak Holm, Henrietta Henningsson, Karsten Kristiansen, Marcus Svensson-Frej
A hallmark of parasite infection is the accumulation of innate immune cells, notably granulocytes and mast cells, at the site of infection. While this is typically viewed as a transient response, with the tissue returning to steady state once the infection is cleared, we found that mast cells accumulated in the large-intestinal epithelium following infection with the nematode Trichuris muris and persisted at this site for several months after worm expulsion. Mast cell accumulation in the epithelium was associated with the induction of type-2 immunity and appeared to be driven by increased maturation of local progenitors in the intestinal lamina propria...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889464/enterocyte-purge-and-rapid-recovery-is-a-resilience-reaction-of-the-gut-epithelium-to-pore-forming-toxin-attack
#5
Kwang-Zin Lee, Matthieu Lestradet, Catherine Socha, Stefanie Schirmeier, Antonin Schmitz, Caroline Spenlé, Olivier Lefebvre, Céline Keime, Wennida M Yamba, Richard Bou Aoun, Samuel Liegeois, Yannick Schwab, Patricia Simon-Assmann, Frédéric Dalle, Dominique Ferrandon
Besides digesting nutrients, the gut protects the host against invasion by pathogens. Enterocytes may be subjected to damage by both microbial and host defensive responses, causing their death. Here, we report a rapid epithelial response that alleviates infection stress and protects the enterocytes from the action of microbial virulence factors. Intestinal epithelia exposed to hemolysin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by Serratia marcescens, undergo an evolutionarily conserved process of thinning followed by the recovery of their initial thickness within a few hours...
November 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886401/not-all-that-glitters-is-gold-electron-microscopy-study-on-uptake-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-daphnia-magna-and-related-artefacts
#6
Louise Helene Søgaard Jensen, Lars Michael Skjolding, Amalie Thit, Sara Nørgaard Sørensen, Carsten Købler, Kristian Mølhave, Anders Baun
Increasing use of engineered nanoparticles has led to extensive research into their potential hazards to the environment and human health. Cellular uptake from the gut is sparsely investigated and microscopy techniques applied for uptake studies can result in misinterpretations. Various microscopy techniques are used to investigate internalization of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna gut lumen and gut epithelial cells upon 24h exposure and outline potential artefacts, i.e. high contract precipitates from sample preparation related to these techniques...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880935/evolutionary-biologic-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-an-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence-mouse-colorectal-cancer-model-induced-by-1-2-dimethylhydrazine
#7
Teng Sun, Shanglong Liu, Yanbing Zhou, Zengwu Yao, Dongfeng Zhang, Shougen Cao, Zhiliang Wei, Bin Tan, Yi Li, Zheng Lian, Song Wang
The molecular biological mechanisms underlying the evolutionary biologic changes leading to carcinogenesis remain unclear. The main objective of our study was to explore the evolution of the microbiota community and molecules related with CRC in the dynamic transition from normal colon epithelium to premalignant adenoma with the aid of an 'adenoma-carcinoma sequence' mouse CRC model induced by DMH. We generated a modified mouse CRC model induced by DMH for DNA sequences, and characterized the molecular networks...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873089/gut-hormone-regulation-and-secretion-via-ffa1-and-ffa4
#8
Fiona M Gribble, Eleftheria Diakogiannaki, Frank Reimann
The digestion, absorption and utilisation of dietary triglycerides are controlled by gut hormones, released from enteroendocrine cells along the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Major players in the detection of ingested lipids are the free fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, which are highly expressed on enteroendocrine cells. These receptors are activated when free fatty acids (FFA) are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium, and provide a dynamic hormonal signal indicating that lipids are arriving in the bloodstream from the gut...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849596/genome-wide-screen-identifies-host-colonization-determinants-in-a-bacterial-gut-symbiont
#9
J Elijah Powell, Sean P Leonard, Waldan K Kwong, Philipp Engel, Nancy A Moran
Animal guts are often colonized by host-specialized bacterial species to the exclusion of other transient microorganisms, but the genetic basis of colonization ability is largely unknown. The bacterium Snodgrassella alvi is a dominant gut symbiont in honey bees, specialized in colonizing the hindgut epithelium. We developed methods for transposon-based mutagenesis in S. alvi and, using high-throughput DNA sequencing, screened genome-wide transposon insertion (Tn-seq) and transcriptome (RNA-seq) libraries to characterize both the essential genome and the genes facilitating host colonization...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837255/th9-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Benno Weigmann, Markus F Neurath
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic, relapsing, immunologically mediated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Emerging evidence suggests a critical functional role of transcription factors and T cell-related cytokines in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Gut-residing T cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease produce high amounts of IL-9. Experimental models of colitis highlighted that IL-9-producing T cells critically interfered with an intact barrier function of the intestinal epithelium by impacting cellular proliferation and tight junction molecules...
November 11, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834807/use-of-atomic-force-microscopy-to-study-the-multi-modular-interaction-of-bacterial-adhesins-to-mucins
#11
A Patrick Gunning, Devon Kavanaugh, Elizabeth Thursby, Sabrina Etzold, Donald A MacKenzie, Nathalie Juge
The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is critical in selecting and maintaining homeostatic interactions with our gut bacteria. However, the molecular details of these interactions are not well understood. Here, we provide mechanistic insights into the adhesion properties of the canonical mucus-binding protein (MUB), a large multi-repeat cell-surface adhesin found in Lactobacillus inhabiting the GI tract. We used atomic force microscopy to unravel the mechanism driving MUB-mediated adhesion to mucins...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827449/gata4-is-critical-to-maintain-gut-barrier-function-and-mucosal-integrity-following-epithelial-injury
#12
David Lepage, Élise Bélanger, Christine Jones, Sarah Tremblay, Joannie M Allaire, Joannie Bruneau, Claude Asselin, Nathalie Perreault, Alfredo Menendez, Fernand-Pierre Gendron, Francois Boudreau
The intestinal epithelial barrier is critical to limit potential harmful consequences from exposure to deleterious luminal contents on the organism. Although this barrier is functionally important along the entire gut, specific regional regulatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this barrier are poorly defined. Herein, we identified Gata4 as a crucial regulator of barrier integrity in the mouse proximal intestinal epithelium. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the intestine led to a drastic increase in claudin-2 expression that was associated with an important increase of gut barrier permeability without causing overt spontaneous inflammation...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824274/in-vitro-colonisation-of-the-distal-colon-by-akkermansia-muciniphila-is-largely-mucin-and-ph-dependent
#13
F Van Herreweghen, P Van den Abbeele, T De Mulder, R De Weirdt, A Geirnaert, E Hernandez-Sanabria, R Vilchez-Vargas, R Jauregui, D H Pieper, C Belzer, W M De Vos, T Van de Wiele
Host mucin is the main constituent of the mucus layer that covers the gut epithelium of the host, and an important source of glycans for the bacteria colonising the intestine. Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin-degrading bacterium, abundant in the human gut, that is able to produce acetate and propionate during this degradation process. A. muciniphila has been correlated with human health in previous studies, but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. In this study, the main site of colonisation was characterised alongside additional conditions, such as differences in colon pH, prebiotic supplementation and variable mucin supply...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824216/glucose-mediated-cytoprotection-in-the-gut-epithelium-under-ischemic-and-hypoxic-stress
#14
REVIEW
Chung-Yen Huang, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Single-layered intestinal epithelia play key roles in the maintenance of gut homeostasis and barrier integrity. Various types of epithelial cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis, have been detected in ischemic and hypoxic stress conditions, thus resulting in bacterial translocation and gut-derived septic complications. Cytoprotective strategies, such as enteral glucose uptake, rescue intestinal epithelium from cell death after ischemic and hypoxic injury. Although glucose metabolism and energy production are generally considered to be the key factors in cytoprotection, the precise modes and sites of action have not been clarified...
November 8, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824139/rna-seq-analyses-of-the-midgut-from-blood-and-serum-fed-ixodes-ricinus-ticks
#15
Jan Perner, Jan Provazník, Jana Schrenková, Veronika Urbanová, José M C Ribeiro, Petr Kopáček
Adult females of the genus Ixodes imbibe blood meals exceeding about 100 times their own weight within 7‒9 days. During this period, ticks internalise components of host blood by endocytic digest cells that line the tick midgut epithelium. Using RNA-seq, we aimed to characterise the midgut transcriptome composition in adult Ixodes ricinus females during early and late phase of engorgement. To address specific adaptations to the haemoglobin-rich diet, we compared the midgut transcriptomes of genetically homogenous female siblings fed either bovine blood or haemoglobin-depleted serum...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820704/gastrointestinal-hormones-and-the-gut-connectome
#16
Lihua Ye, Rodger A Liddle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provision of adequate nutrients by the gut is essential for survival and essential behaviors are linked to the proper ingestion and digestion of food. Recently, a new neural connection has been reported between sensory cells of the gut epithelium and the nervous system that mediates signals from the gut to the brain. RECENT FINDINGS: This review describes how the gut senses its environment, relays those signals to the brain, and how the brain influences the gut...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818343/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-toll-like-receptor-2-in-gut-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-fed-with-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#17
E R Lauriano, S Pergolizzi, G Capillo, M Kuciel, A Alesci, C Faggio
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern recognition molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity. The structural conservation of the archaic TLR system suggests that the regulation of the immune response might be similar in fish and mammals. Several TLRs (TLR-1, -2, and -4) are expressed by activated macrophages, "foam cells" in human atherosclerotic lesions. To date, 20 different TLRs were identified in more than a dozen different fish species. In this study we found that feeding goldfish, Carrassius auratus, a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) resulted macrophage foam cell formation in the intestinal tissues...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805617/oral-administration-of-a-recombinant-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-promotes-mucosal-healing-in-the-colon
#18
K J Baldauf, J M Royal, J C Kouokam, B Haribabu, V R Jala, K Yaddanapudi, K T Hamorsky, G W Dryden, N Matoba
Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium...
November 2, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802136/a-yy1-dependent-increase-in-aerobic-metabolism-is-indispensable-for-intestinal-organogenesis
#19
Namit Kumar, Manasa Srivillibhuthur, Shilpy Joshi, Katherine D Walton, Anbo Zhou, William J Faller, Ansu O Perekatt, Owen J Sansom, Deborah L Gumucio, Jinchuan Xing, Edward M Bonder, Nan Gao, Eileen White, Michael P Verzi
During late gestation, villi extend into the intestinal lumen to dramatically increase the surface area of the intestinal epithelium, preparing the gut for the neonatal diet. Incomplete development of the intestine is the most common gastrointestinal complication in neonates, but the causes are unclear. We provide evidence in mice that Yin Yang 1 (Yy1) is crucial for intestinal villus development. YY1 loss in the developing endoderm had no apparent consequences until late gestation, after which the intestine differentiated poorly and exhibited severely stunted villi...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801835/dietary-gluten-induced-gut-dysbiosis-is-accompanied-by-selective-upregulation-of-micrornas-with-intestinal-tight-junction-and-bacteria-binding-motifs-in-rhesus-macaque-model-of-celiac-disease
#20
Mahesh Mohan, Cheryl-Emiliane T Chow, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Jason Dufour, Pyone P Aye, James Blanchard, Charles P Moehs, Karol Sestak
The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS) captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD), gluten-free diet (GFD), barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI) and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB)...
October 28, 2016: Nutrients
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