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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783199/inhalational-exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-alters-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiome
#1
Ece A Mutlu, Işın Y Comba, Takugo Cho, Phillip A Engen, Cemal Yazıcı, Saul Soberanes, Robert B Hamanaka, Recep Niğdelioğlu, Angelo Y Meliton, Andrew J Ghio, G R Scott Budinger, Gökhan M Mutlu
Recent studies suggest an association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. In addition to direct deposition, PM can be indirectly deposited in oropharynx via mucociliary clearance and upon swallowing of saliva and mucus. Within the GI tract, PM may alter the GI epithelium and gut microbiome. Our goal was to determine the effect of PM on gut microbiota in a murine model of PM exposure via inhalation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed via inhalation to either concentrated ambient particles or filtered air for 8-h per day, 5-days a week, for a total of 3-weeks...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778504/solitary-chemosensory-cells-are-a-primary-epithelial-source-of-interleukin-25-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#2
Michael A Kohanski, Alan D Workman, Neil N Patel, Li-Yin Hung, Julie P Shtraks, Bei Chen, Mariel Blasetti, Laurel Doghramji, David W Kennedy, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: IL-25 can function as an early signal for the respiratory Type 2 response characteristic of allergic asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In the mouse gut, tuft cells are the epithelial source of IL-25. However, the source of human airway epithelial IL-25 has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to determine if the solitary chemosensory cell (SCC) is the predominant source of IL-25 in the sinonasal epithelium...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#3
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#4
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760082/a-cytokine-network-involving-il-36%C3%AE-il-23-and-il-22-promotes-antimicrobial-defense-and-recovery-from-intestinal-barrier-damage
#5
Vu L Ngo, Hirohito Abo, Estera Maxim, Akihito Harusato, Duke Geem, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Asma Nusrat, Timothy L Denning
The gut epithelium acts to separate host immune cells from unrestricted interactions with the microbiota and other environmental stimuli. In response to epithelial damage or dysfunction, immune cells are activated to produce interleukin (IL)-22, which is involved in repair and protection of barrier surfaces. However, the specific pathways leading to IL-22 and associated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production in response to intestinal tissue damage remain incompletely understood. Here, we define a critical IL-36/IL-23/IL-22 cytokine network that is instrumental for AMP production and host defense...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#6
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746173/induction-of-gut-proteasome-activity-in-hemorrhagic-shock-and-its-recovery-by-treatment-with-diphenyldihaloketones-clefma-and-ef24
#7
Geeta Rao, Hailey Houson, Gregory Nkepang, Hooman Yari, Chengwen Teng, Vibhudutta Awasthi
BACKGROUND: Multi-organ failure in hemorrhagic shock is triggered by gut barrier dysfunction and consequent systemic infiltration of proinflammatory factors. Our previous study has shown that diphenyldihaloketone drugs CLEFMA and EF24 restore gut barrier dysfunction and reduce systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock. AIMS: We investigated the effect of hemorrhagic shock on proteasome activity of intestinal epithelium and how CLEFMA and EF24 treatments modulate proteasome function in hemorrhagic shock...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740541/anti-biofilm-properties-of-the-fecal-probiotic-lactobacilli-against-vibrio-spp
#8
Sumanpreet Kaur, Preeti Sharma, Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sukhraj Kaur
Diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in developing countries including India and is associated with high rate of mortality especially in children. V. cholerae is known to form biofilms on the gut epithelium, and the biofilms once formed are resistant to the action of antibiotics. Therefore agents that prevent the biofilm formation and disperse the preformed biofilms are associated with therapeutic benefits. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera is associated with side effects such as gut dysbiosis due to depletion of gut microflora, and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735417/salmonella-typhi-colonization-provokes-extensive-transcriptional-changes-aimed-at-evading-host-mucosal-immune-defense-during-early-infection-of-human-intestinal-tissue
#9
K P Nickerson, S Senger, Y Zhang, R Lima, S Patel, L Ingano, W A Flavahan, D K V Kumar, C M Fraser, C S Faherty, M B Sztein, M Fiorentino, A Fasano
Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and "mini-guts," organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens...
April 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731832/costus-root-granules-improve-ulcerative-colitis-through-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-mediation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#10
Xiaohong Wang, Dan Li, Yong Zhang, Shuang Wu, Fang Tang
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease that occurs in the colon and rectum. Costus root is a type of traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits antibacterial properties and serves an inhibitory role in the regeneration of gut bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Costus root-mediated improvements in ulcerative colitis remain unclear. A complex formula of Costus root granules was created and investigated in the present study for its therapeutic effects in a rat model of ulcerative colitis...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726683/deciphering-the-mechanical-properties-of-type-iii-secretion-system-espa-protein-by-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#11
Hila Nadler, Lihi Shaulov, Yossi Blitsman, Moran Mordechai, Jurgen Jopp, Neta Sal-Man, Ronen Berkovich
Bacterial type III secretion systems inject virulence factors by bacterial pathogens into host-cells during bacterial infection. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, this system contains an external filament, formed by a self-oligomerizing protein called E. coli secreted protein A (EspA). The EspA filament penetrates the thick viscous mucus layer to facilitate the attachment of the bacteria to the gut-epithelium. To do that, the EspA filament requires noteworthy mechanical endurance considering the mechanical shear stresses found within the intestinal tract...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725324/role-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-in-human-health-and-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Qinghui Mu, Vincent J Tavella, Xin M Luo
Lactobacillus reuteri ( L. reuteri ) is a well-studied probiotic bacterium that can colonize a large number of mammals. In humans, L. reuteri is found in different body sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, skin, and breast milk. The abundance of L. reuteri varies among different individuals. Several beneficial effects of L. reuteri have been noted. First, L. reuteri can produce antimicrobial molecules, such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin. Due to its antimicrobial activity, L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716915/psmd5-inactivation-promotes-26s-proteasome-assembly-during-colorectal-tumor-progression
#13
Avi Levin, Adi Minis, Gadi Lalazar, Jose Rodriguez, Hermann Steller
Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is central to protein homeostasis and cell survival. The active 26S proteasome is a large protease complex consisting of a catalytic 20S subunit and 19S regulatory particles. Cancer cells are exposed to considerable protein overload due to high metabolic rates, reprogrammed energy metabolism and aneuploidy. Here we report a mechanism that facilitates the assembly of active 26S proteasomes in malignant cells. Upon tumorigenic transformation of the gut epithelium, 26S proteasome assembly was significantly enhanced, but levels of individual subunits were not changed...
May 1, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716793/the-intestinal-epithelium-central-coordinator-of-mucosal-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Joannie M Allaire, Shauna M Crowley, Hong T Law, Sun-Young Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Bruce A Vallance
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents a unique challenge to the mammalian immune system. It must tolerate the presence of the luminal microbiota and thus not respond to their products, but still protect the intestinal mucosa from potentially harmful dietary antigens and invading pathogens. The intestinal epithelium, composed of a single layer of cells, is crucial for preserving gut homeostasis and acts both as a physical barrier and as a coordinating hub for immune defense and crosstalk between bacteria and immune cells...
April 28, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704325/transcytosis-of-junonia-coenia-densovirus-vp4-across-the-gut-epithelium-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#15
Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony Bonning
The Junonia coenia densovirus rapidly traverses the gut epithelium of the host lepidopteran without replicating in the gut cells. The ability of this virus to transcytose across the gut epithelium is of interest for the potential use of virus structural proteins as delivery vehicles for insecticidal peptides that act within the insect hemocoel, rather than in the gut. In this study, we used fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to examine the binding of the virus to brush border membrane vesicle proteins by two-dimensional ligand blot analysis...
April 27, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697763/pathogenicity-of-in-vivo-generated-intestinal-th17-lymphocytes-is-ifn%C3%AE-dependent
#16
Giulia Nizzoli, Claudia Burrello, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Giulia Lovati, Giulia Ercoli, Fiorenzo Botti, Elena Trombetta, Laura Porretti, Katia Todoerti, Antonino Neri, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Jens Geginat, Maurizio Vecchi, Maria Rescigno, Moira Paroni, Flavio Caprioli, Federica Facciotti
Background and aims: Th17 cells are crucially involved in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Nevertheless, pharmacological blockade of IL17A, the Th17 signature cytokine, yielded negative results in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and attempts to elucidate the determinants of Th17 cells pathogenicity in the gut have so far proved unsuccessful. Here, we aimed to identify and functionally validate the pathogenic determinants of intestinal IL-17-producing T cells...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692778/new-players-in-immunity-to-tuberculosis-the-host-microbiome-lung-epithelium-and-innate-immune-cells
#17
REVIEW
Nancy Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Babita Agrawal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689727/vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-the-gut-microbiota
#18
Sinian Li, Yiming Shao, Kanglan Li, Changmei HuangFu, Wenjie Wang, Zhou Liu, Zhiyou Cai, Bin Zhao
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), the second most common cause of dementia in elderly people, is a term that refers to all forms of cognitive disorders that can be attributed to cerebrovascular disease such as manifestations of discrete infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and white matter lesions. The gut microbiota (GM) has emerged recently as an essential player in the development of VCI. The GM may affect the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions through the brain-gut axis via neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688587/galt-carcinoma-three-case-reports-with-glycoprotein-2-immunohistochemistry-and-electron-microscopic-observations
#19
Hiroko Hayashi, Masashi Ohtani, Yuki Sada, Keisuke Iwasaki, Isao Shimokawa
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) carcinoma is a rare colorectal tumor that arises in the epithelium covering GALT. GALT carcinoma is a differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with dense lymphoid tissue with a characteristically well-demarcated margin. To date, twenty-six cases of GALT carcinoma, including the three cases discussed here, have been reported. Most of them (24/26) were discovered at early stages and none of the cases have documented any metastases. This suggests that GALT carcinoma may have a favorable prognosis...
April 24, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681543/the-pou-oct-transcription-factor-nubbin-controls-the-balance-of-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance-and-differentiation-by-isoform-specific-regulation
#20
Xiongzhuo Tang, Yunpo Zhao, Nicolas Buchon, Ylva Engström
Drosophila POU/Oct transcription factors are required for many developmental processes, but their putative regulation of adult stem cell activity has not been investigated. Here, we show that Nubbin (Nub)/Pdm1, homologous to mammalian OCT1/POU2F1 and related to OCT4/POU5F1, is expressed in gut epithelium progenitor cells. We demonstrate that the nub-encoded protein isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, play opposite roles in the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation. Depletion of Nub-PB in progenitor cells increased ISC proliferation by derepression of escargot expression...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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