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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#1
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334816/dynamic-changes-in-chromatin-states-during-specification-and-differentiation-of-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#2
Juri Kazakevych, Sergi Sayols, Berith Messner, Christina Krienke, Natalia Soshnikova
Epigenetic mechanisms, including chromatin structure, chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play an important role for maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell specification and differentiation. Here, we used intestinal stem cells (ISCs) as a model system to reveal the epigenetic changes coordinating gene expression programs during these processes. We found that two distinct epigenetic mechanisms participate in establishing the transcriptional program promoting ISC specification from embryonic progenitors...
March 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322932/disruption-of-the-epithelial-barrier-during-intestinal-inflammation-quest-for-new-molecules-and-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Susana Lechuga, Andrei I Ivanov
The intestinal epithelium forms a key protective barrier that separates internal organs from the harmful environment of the gut lumen. Increased permeability of the gut barrier is a common manifestation of different inflammatory disorders contributing to the severity of disease. Barrier permeability is controlled by epithelial adherens junctions and tight junctions. Junctional assembly and integrity depend on fundamental homeostatic processes such as cell differentiation, rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, and vesicle trafficking...
March 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316967/the-role-of-mucosal-immunity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#4
REVIEW
Zerina Hodzic, Alexa M Bolock, Misty Good
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity. Although the precise cause is not well understood, the main risk factors thought to contribute to NEC include prematurity, formula feeding, and bacterial colonization. Recent evidence suggests that NEC develops as a consequence of intestinal hyper-responsiveness to microbial ligands upon bacterial colonization in the preterm infant, initiating a cascade of aberrant signaling events, and a robust pro-inflammatory mucosal immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300642/distribution-and-phylogeny-of-brachyspira-spp-in-human-intestinal-spirochetosis-revealed-by-fish-and-16s-rrna-gene-analysis
#5
Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
During six years as National Reference Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp...
March 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300181/damage-induced-cell-regeneration-in-the-midgut-of-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes
#6
Maria Janeh, Dani Osman, Zakaria Kambris
Mosquito-transmitted diseases cause over one million deaths every year. A better characterization of the vector's physiology and immunity should provide valuable knowledge for the elaboration of control strategies. Mosquitoes depend on their innate immunity to defend themselves against pathogens. These pathogens are acquired mainly through the oral route, which places the insects' gut at the front line of the battle. Indeed, the epithelium of the mosquito gut plays important roles against invading pathogens acting as a physical barrier, activating local defenses and triggering the systemic immune response...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296893/hnrnp-i-regulates-neonatal-immune-adaptation-and-prevents-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Zhigang Jin, Feng Liang, Jing Yang, Wenyan Mei
The intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host-microbe homeostasis by sensing gut microbes and subsequently initiating proper immune responses. During the neonatal stage, the intestinal epithelium is under immune repression, allowing the transition for newborns from a relatively sterile intra-uterine environment to one that is rich in foreign antigens. The mechanism underlying such immune repression remains largely unclear, but involves downregulation of IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase), an essential component of toll-like receptor-mediated NF-κB signaling...
March 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292848/intestinal-epithelial-organoids-fuse-to-form-self-organizing-tubes-in-floating-collagen-gels
#8
Norman Sachs, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Pekka Kujala, Peter J Peters, Hans Clevers
Multiple recent examples highlight how stem cells can self-organize in vitro to establish organoids that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts. Single Lgr5(+) mouse intestinal stem cells can be cultured under defined conditions forming ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain cell polarization, cell type diversity and anatomical organization of the in vivo epithelium. Although exhibiting a remarkable level of self-organization, the so called 'mini-guts' have a closed cystic structure of microscopic size...
March 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290735/quantitative-biokinetics-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-after-intratracheal-instillation-in-rats-part-3
#9
Wolfgang G Kreyling, Uwe Holzwarth, Nadine Haberl, Jan Kozempel, Alexander Wenk, Stephanie Hirn, Carsten Schleh, Martin Schäffler, Jens Lipka, Manuela Semmler-Behnke, Neil Gibson
The biokinetics of a size-selected fraction (70nm median size) of commercially available and (48)V-radiolabeled [(48)V]TiO2 nanoparticles has been investigated in healthy adult female Wistar-Kyoto rats at retention time-points of 1h, 4h, 24h, 7d and 28d after intratracheal instillation of a single dose of an aqueous [(48)V]TiO2-nanoparticle suspension. A completely balanced quantitative biodistribution in all organs and tissues was obtained by applying typical [(48)V]TiO2-nanoparticle doses in the range of 40-240 μg·kg(-1) bodyweight and making use of the high sensitivity of the radiotracer technique...
March 14, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285904/mex3a-marks-a-slowly-dividing-subpopulation-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#10
Francisco M Barriga, Elisa Montagni, Miyeko Mana, Maria Mendez-Lago, Xavier Hernando-Momblona, Marta Sevillano, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Gustavo Rodriguez-Esteban, Simon J A Buczacki, Marta Gut, Holger Heyn, Douglas J Winton, Omer H Yilmaz, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Ivo Gut, Eduard Batlle
Highly proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells maintain the intestinal epithelium and are thought to be largely homogeneous. Although quiescent intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations have been described, the identity and features of such a population remain controversial. Here we report unanticipated heterogeneity within the Lgr5+ ISC pool. We found that expression of the RNA-binding protein Mex3a labels a slowly cycling subpopulation of Lgr5+ ISCs that contribute to all intestinal lineages with distinct kinetics. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed that Lgr5+ cells adopt two discrete states, one of which is defined by a Mex3a expression program and relatively low levels of proliferation genes...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285659/candida-albicans-infection-and-intestinal-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Yiqing Tong, Jianguo Tang
Fungal infections cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in intensive care and immunocompromised patients, and can represent a life-threatening disease. As a microorganism commonly found in the intestine, Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade the gut epithelium barrier via microfold cells and enter the bloodstream. The defensive potential of the intestinal barrier against invasive C. albicans is dependent on innate and adaptive immune responses which enable the host to eliminate pathogenic fungi. The lamina propria layer of the intestine contains numerous immune cells capable of inducing an innate cellular immune response against invasive fungi...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275681/gastrointestinal-organoids-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-host-microbe-interface
#12
REVIEW
David R Hill, Jason R Spence
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the concept that microorganisms play an integral role in human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite this, the molecular basis of host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions in the human intestine remains poorly understood owing to the limited availability of human tissue, and the biological complexity of host-microbe interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled long-term culture of organotypic intestinal tissue derived from human subjects and from human pluripotent stem cells, and these in vitro culture systems already have shown the potential to inform our understanding significantly of host-microbe interactions...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272447/eggshell-membrane-powder-ameliorates-intestinal-inflammation-by-facilitating-the-restitution-of-epithelial-injury-and-alleviating-microbial-dysbiosis
#13
Huijuan Jia, Manaka Hanate, Wanping Aw, Hideomi Itoh, Kenji Saito, Shoko Kobayashi, Satoshi Hachimura, Shinji Fukuda, Masaru Tomita, Yukio Hasebe, Hisanori Kato
Gut microbiota is an essential factor in the shaping of intestinal immune system development and driving inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We report the effects and microbe-host interactions underlying an intervention using fine powder of eggshell membrane (ESM) against IBD. ESM attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production and promoted the Caco-2 cell proliferation by up-regulating growth factors in vitro. In a murine model of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, ESM significantly suppressed the disease activity index and colon shortening...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271031/enteroendocrine-derived-glucagon-like-peptide-2-controls-intestinal-amino-acid-transport
#14
Jennifer Lee, Jacqueline Koehler, Bernardo Yusta, Jasmine Bahrami, Dianne Matthews, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is co-secreted with GLP-1 from gut endocrine cells, and both peptides act as growth factors to expand the surface area of the mucosal epithelium. Notably, GLP-2 also enhances glucose and lipid transport in enterocytes; however, its actions on control of amino acid (AA) transport remain unclear. Here we examined the mechanisms linking gain and loss of GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) signaling to control of intestinal amino acid absorption in mice. METHODS: Absorption, transport, and clearance of essential AAs, specifically lysine, were measured in vivo by Liquid Chromatography triple quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and ex vivo with Ussing chambers using intestinal preparations from Glp2r(+/+) and Glp2r(-/-) mice...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#15
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266623/commensal-gut-bacteria-modulate-phosphorylation-dependent-ppar%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Malgorzata Nepelska, Tomas de Wouters, Elsa Jacouton, Fabienne Béguet-Crespel, Nicolas Lapaque, Joël Doré, Velmurugesan Arulampalam, Hervé M Blottière
In healthy subjects, the intestinal microbiota interacts with the host's epithelium, regulating gene expression to the benefit of both, host and microbiota. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, however. Although many gut bacteria are not yet cultured, constantly growing culture collections have been established. We selected 57 representative commensal bacterial strains to study bacteria-host interactions, focusing on PPARγ, a key nuclear receptor in colonocytes linking metabolism and inflammation to the microbiota...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264486/do-plant-bound-masked-mycotoxins-contribute-to-toxicity
#17
REVIEW
Silvia W Gratz
Masked mycotoxins are plant metabolites of mycotoxins which co-contaminate common cereal crops. Since their discovery, the question has arisen if they contribute to toxicity either directly or indirectly through the release of the parent mycotoxins. Research in this field is rapidly emerging and the aim of this review is to summarize the latest knowledge on the fate of masked mycotoxins upon ingestion. Fusarium mycotoxins are the most prevalent masked mycotoxins and evidence is mounting that DON3Glc and possibly other masked trichothecenes are stable in conditions prevailing in the upper gut and are not absorbed intact...
February 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257936/signalling-in-the-gut-endocrine-axis
#18
REVIEW
Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Enteroendocrine cells are sensory cells located in the intestinal epithelium that produce a variety of hormonal regulators of gastrointestinal physiology, metabolism and food intake. They detect the absorption of a wide range of ingested nutrients via pathways that include transporter-mediated uptake, G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels. This review will describe mechanisms by which the L-cells that produce Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) respond to different components of ingested food, and the importance of these pathways not only for understanding physiology, but also for developing new treatments for type 2 diabetes and obesity...
February 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251965/-amphioxus-ortholog-of-ecsit-an-evolutionarily-conserved-adaptor-in-the-toll-and-bmp-signaling-pathways
#19
Y H Lin, W Zhang, J W Li, H W Zhang, D Y Chen
In vertebrates, evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in the Toll pathway (ECSIT) interacts with the TNF-receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to regulate the processing of MEKK1, activate NF-κB, and also control BMP target genes. However, the role of ECSIT in invertebrates remains largely unexplored. We performed comparative investigations of the expression, gene structure, and phylogeny of ECSIT, Toll-like receptor (TLR), and Smad4 in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, in amphioxus, ECSIT, TLR, and Smad4 form independent clusters at the base of Chordate   clusters...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248833/pathophysiology-of-the-gut-and-the-microbiome-in-the-host-response
#20
John D Lyons, Craig M Coopersmith
OBJECTIVE: To describe and summarize the data supporting the gut as the motor driving critical illness and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development MODS Workshop (March 26-27, 2015). DATA SOURCES: Summary of workshop keynote presentation. STUDY SELECTION: Not applicable. DATA EXTRACTION: Presented by an expert in the field, the data assessing the role of gastrointestinal dysfunction driving critical illness were described with a focus on identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities...
March 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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