Read by QxMD icon Read

gut epithelium

Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
R Onnainty, E M Schenfeld, J P Petiti, M R Longhi, A Torres, M A Quevedo, G E Granero
Here, a novel drug delivery system was developed for the hydrochlorothiazide (HCT):ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) inclusion complex loaded into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs)[CS/HCT:ßCD NPs]. It was found, for the first time, that exposure of the intestinal mucosa to free HCT resulted in an increased and abnormal intestinal permeability associated with several injuries to the intestinal epithelium. Nevertheless, the HCT delivery system obtained ameliorated the damage of the intestinal epithelium induced by HCT...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Steffen Jørgensen, Mehmet Coskun, Keld Mikkelsen Homburg, Ole B V Pedersen, Jesper T Troelsen
The mammalian Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) plays a key role in the homeobox regulatory network and is essential in regulating the expression of several homeobox (HOX) genes during embryonic development, particularly in the gut. Genome-wide CDX2 chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and expression data from Caco2 cells also suggests a role for CDX2 in the regulation of HOXB4 gene expression in the intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HOXB4 gene expression is regulated by CDX2 in the intestinal epithelium...
2016: PloS One
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kazuaki Nakata, Hikari Narabayashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
Immune responses against gut microbiota should be minimized to avoid unnecessary inflammation at mucosal surface. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), an inhibitor of TLRs and IL-1 family cytokine-related intracellular signaling, in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Comparable mRNA expression was observed in murine small and large IECs (S-IECs and L-IECs). However, Tollip protein was only detected in L-IECs, but not in S-IECs. Similar results were obtained in germ-free mice, indicating that L-IEC-specific TOLLIP expression does not depend on bacterial colonization...
2016: PloS One
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jose Luis Muñoz-Bravo, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Griselda Herrero-Martin, Sapna Puri, Makoto Mark Taketo, Anabel Rojas, Matthias Hebrok, David A Cano
Organ formation is achieved through the complex interplay between signaling pathways and transcriptional cascades. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays multiple roles during embryonic development including patterning, proliferation and differentiation in distinct tissues. Previous studies have established the importance of this pathway at multiple stages of pancreas formation as well as in postnatal organ function and homeostasis. In mice, gain-of-function experiments have demonstrated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway results in pancreatic hypoplasia, a phenomenon whose underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated...
2016: PloS One
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Björn Weström, Stefan G Pierzynowski, Olena Prykhodko
BACKGROUND: The intestinal barrier is immature in newborn mammals allowing for transfer of bioactive macromolecules, e.g. protecting antibodies, from mother's milk to the blood circulation and in neonatal rodents lasts until weaning. This passage involves the neonatal-Fc-receptor (FcRn) binding IgG in the proximal and highly endocytic vacuolated enterocytes in the distal immature small intestine (SI). Recent studies have suggested an involvement of the transcription factor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation-protein-1 (Blimp-1) in the regulation of SI maturation in mice...
2016: PloS One
Yan Xu, Jie Chen, Lan Xiao, Hee Kyoung Chung, Yuan Zhang, Joseph C Robinson, Jaladanki N Rao, Jian-Ying Wang
The RNA-binding protein HuR is crucial for normal intestinal mucosal regeneration by modulating the stability and translation of target mRNAs, but the exact mechanism underlying HuR trafficking between the cytoplasm and nucleus remains largely unknown. Here we report a novel function of transcription factor JunD in the regulation of HuR subcellular localization through the control of importin-α1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Ectopically expressed JunD specifically inhibited importin-α1 at the transcription level, and this repression is mediated via interaction with CREB-binding site that was located at the proximal region of importin-α1 promoter...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ilaria Spadoni, Alessandro Pietrelli, Graziano Pesole, Maria Rescigno
It has been widely demonstrated that tolerance against gut microbiota is compartmentalized to mucosal sites where microbes mostly reside. How the commensal bacteria are excluded from the entrance into the blood stream via intestinal capillaries that are located beneath the gut epithelium was not clear. We recently described the existence of a new anatomical structure, the 'gut vascular barrier' (GVB), both in murine and human intestines that plays a fundamental role in avoiding indiscriminate trafficking of bacteria from the gut into the blood circulation...
October 10, 2016: Gut Microbes
Alana M Chin, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Stacy R Finkbeiner, Melinda S Nagy, Emily M Walker, Nicole J Ethen, Bart O Williams, Michele A Battle, Jason R Spence
Much of our understanding about how intestinal stem and progenitor cells are regulated comes from studying the late fetal stages of development and the adult intestine. In this light, little is known about intestine development prior to the formation of stereotypical villus structures with columnar epithelium, a stage when the epithelium is pseudostratified and appears to be a relatively uniform population of progenitor cells with high proliferative capacity. Here, we investigated a role for WNT/β-CATENIN signaling during the pseudostratified stages of development (E13...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
J J Castro, A Gomez, B A White, H J Mangian, J R Loften, J K Drackley
Digestive disorders are common during the first few weeks of life of newborn calves. Prebiotics are nondigestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that modulate growth and activity of beneficial microbial populations, which can result in enhanced gut health and function. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) have demonstrated such prebiotic potential. In this study, the effect of GOS supplementation on intestinal bacterial community composition and fermentation profiles; intestinal health, development, and function; and growth was evaluated in dairy calves fed for high rates of growth...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
Insect-borne propagative plant viruses of agricultural importance are transmitted by sap-sucking insects. Although the infection routes of these viruses within the bodies of insect vectors are well established, cellular receptors on the microvilli, intercellular junctions, and basal lamina for mediating viral entry or spread in insect gut epithelium have not been well identified or characterized. Recent trends in the field are opening questions on how viruses exploit actin-based tubule motility to overcome insect gut epithelium barriers after viral entry in epithelium...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
D Roggenbuck, D Reinhold, D C Baumgart, P Schierack, K Conrad, M W Laass
Inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been linked to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens suggesting the existence of autoantibodies in specific disease phenotypes. However, the lack of clearly defined autoantigenic targets has slowed down research. Genome-wide association studies have identified an impressive number of immune-related susceptibility loci for IBD with no clearly discernible pattern among them. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune responses to a low-diversity and impaired gut microbiota may be of key importance in initiating and perpetuating chronic inflammation in IBD...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Yaroslav O Kamenev, Igor Y Dolmatov
The regeneration of the anterior portion of the body after fission was studied in the holothurian Cladolabes schmeltzii using electron microscopy methods. Following fission, the posterior portion of the digestive tube, cloaca, and respiratory trees remain in the posterior fragment of the body. The regeneration comprises five stages. In the first stage, connective-tissue thickening (an anlage of the aquapharyngeal bulb) occurs on the anterior end between the torn-off ends of the ambulacra. Most of the lost anterior organs developed in the second and third stages...
October 7, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Eva Martini, Evelyn Schneider, Clemens Neufert, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker
As an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member, Survivin is known for its role during regulation of apoptosis. More recently its function as a cell cycle regulator has become evident. Survivin was shown to play a pivotal role during embryonic development and is highly expressed in regenerative tissue as well as in many cancer types. We examined the function of Survivin during mouse intestinal organogenesis and in gut pathophysiology. We found high expression of Survivin in experimentally induced colon cancer in mice but also in colon tumors of humans...
October 7, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jiri Volf, Ondrej Polansky, Karolina Varmuzova, Lenka Gerzova, Zuzana Sekelova, Marcela Faldynova, Vladimir Babak, Matej Medvecky, Adrian L Smith, Bernd Kaspers, Philippe Velge, Ivan Rychlik
In this study we determined protein and gene expression in the caeca of newly hatched chickens inoculated with cecal contents sourced from hens of different ages. Over 250 proteins exhibited modified expression levels in response to microbiota inoculation. The most significant inductions were observed for ISG12-2, OASL, ES1, LYG2, DMBT1-L, CDD, ANGPTL6, B2M, CUZD1, IgM and Ig lambda chain. Of these, ISG12-2, ES1 and both immunoglobulins were expressed at lower levels in germ-free chickens compared to conventional chickens...
2016: PloS One
Hyun Jung Kim, Jaewon Lee, Jin-Ha Choi, Anthony Bahinski, Donald E Ingber
Here, we describe a protocol to perform long-term co-culture of multi-species human gut microbiome with microengineered intestinal villi in a human gut-on-a-chip microphysiological device. We recapitulate the intestinal lumen-capillary tissue interface in a microfluidic device, where physiological mechanical deformations and fluid shear flow are constantly applied to mimic peristalsis. In the lumen microchannel, human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells are cultured to form a 'germ-free' villus epithelium and regenerate small intestinal villi...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ming Xin Li, Jun Feng Liu, Jian Da Lu, Ying Zhu, Ding Wei Kuang, Jian Bing Xiang, Peng Sun, Wei Wang, Jun Xue, Yong Gu, Chuan Ming Hao
BACKGROUND: The object of this study is to explore whether the plasmadiafiltration (PDF) is more effective in improving the intestinal mucosal barrier function by removing more key large molecular inflammatory mediators and then prolonging the survival time. METHODS: Totally, 24 porcine sepsis models induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation were randomly divided into three groups: PDF group, high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) group, and control group, and received 8 h treatment, respectively...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Lintao Wang, Qian Chen, Haixia Qi, Chunming Wang, Cheng Wang, Junfeng Zhang, Lei Dong
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used for cancer treatment, but it causes systemic inflammation and serious multi-organ side effects in many patients. In this study, we report that upregulation of the pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor TLR4 in macrophages by DOX is an important step in generating its toxic side effects. In patient serum, DOX treatment resulted in leakage of endotoxin (ET) and inflammatory cytokines into circulation. In mice, DOX damaged the intestinal epithelium, which also resulted in leakage of ET from the gut flora into circulation...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Research
Thérèse Sergent, Karine Croizet, Yves-Jacques Schneider
SCOPE: Silicon is one of the most abundant trace elements in the body. Although pharmacokinetics data described its absorption from the diet and its body excretion, the mechanisms involved in the uptake and transport of silicon across the gut wall have not been established. METHODS AND RESULTS: Caco-2 cells were used as a well-accepted in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium to investigate the transport, across the intestinal barrier in both the absorption and excretion directions, of silicon supplied as orthosilicic acid stabilized by vanillin (OSA-VC)...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"