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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929087/interactions-of-intestinal-bacteria-with-components-of-the-intestinal-mucus
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Félix Sicard, Guillaume Le Bihan, Philippe Vogeleer, Mario Jacques, Josée Harel
The human gut is colonized by a variety of large amounts of microbes that are collectively called intestinal microbiota. Most of these microbial residents will grow within the mucus layer that overlies the gut epithelium and will act as the first line of defense against both commensal and invading microbes. This mucus is essentially formed by mucins, a family of highly glycosylated protein that are secreted by specialize cells in the gut. In this Review, we examine how commensal members of the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria use mucus to their advantage to promote their growth, develop biofilms and colonize the intestine...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928675/larval-mid-gut-responses-to-sub-lethal-dose-of-cry-toxin-in-lepidopteran-pest-achaea-janata
#2
Vinod K Chauhan, Narender K Dhania, R K Chaitanya, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Aparna Dutta-Gupta
The lack of homogeneity in field application of Bacillus thuringiensis formulation often results in ingestion of sub-lethal doses of the biopesticide by a fraction of pest population and there by promotes the toxin tolerance and resistance in long term. Gut regeneration seems to be one of the possible mechanism by which this is accomplished. However, the existing information is primarily derived from in vitro studies using mid-gut cell cultures. Present study illustrates cellular and molecular changes in mid-gut epithelium of a Bt-susceptible polyphagous insect pest castor semilooper, Achaea janata in response to a Cry toxin formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#3
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912798/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-reveals-a-broad-distribution-of-metabolic-pathways-for-the-degradation-of-host-synthetized-mucin-glycans-and-utilization-of-mucin-derived-monosaccharides
#4
Dmitry A Ravcheev, Ines Thiele
The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#5
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898875/enteroendocrine-cells-metabolic-relays-between-microbes-and-their-host
#6
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Gut bacteria exert a variety of metabolic functions unavailable to the host and are increasingly seen as a virtual organ located inside our gastrointestinal tract. Scattered in our intestinal epithelium, enteroendocrine cells (EECs) regulate several aspects of the host's physiology and translate signals coming from the gut microbiota through their hormonal secretions. In this chapter, we will assess the interplay between the gut microbiota and EEC and its consequences for the physiology of the host. We will first describe alterations of different populations of EEC in germ-free animals...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893912/the-gene-tia-harboured-by-the-se-pai-is-involved-in-the-ability-of-lee-negative-stec-strains-to-invade-monolayers-of-epithelial-cells
#7
Roslen Bondì, Paola Chiani, Valeria Michelacci, Fabio Minelli, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
LEE-negative Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) are human pathogens that lack the LEE locus, a pathogenicity island (PAI) involved in the intimate adhesion of LEE-positive strains to the host gut epithelium. The mechanism used by LEE-negative STEC to colonize the host intestinal mucosa is still not clear. The cell invasion determinant tia, previously described in ETEC strains, has been identified in LEE-negative STEC that possess the Subtilase-encoding pathogenicity island (SE-PAI). We evaluated the role of the gene tia present in these LEE-negative STEC in the invasion of monolayers of cultured cells...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893557/transcription-factor-cux1-is-required-for-intestinal-epithelial-wound-healing-and-targets-the-vav2-rac1-signalling-complex
#8
Roxanne Latreille, Raphaëlle Servant, Mathieu Darsigny, Sébastien Marcoux, Christine Jones, Nathalie Perreault, François Boudreau
Intestinal epithelial cells form a protective barrier in limiting gut luminal content potentially harmful to the host. Upon gut epithelium injury, several signals instruct epithelial cells to undergo a rapid healing process. Defects in this process induce inflammatory responses and can further evolve into chronic gut inflammatory diseases. We previously identified the transcription factor CUX1 as crucial for protecting against experimental colitis in mice. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which CUX1 intervenes during this biological process are unknown...
September 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892253/host-microbe-interaction-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
Aimée Parker, Melissa Lawson, Laura Vaux, Carmen Pin
The gastrointestinal tract is a highly complex organ in which multiple dynamic physiological processes are tightly coordinated while interacting with a dense and extremely diverse microbial population. From establishment in early life, through to host-microbe symbiosis in adulthood, the gut microbiota plays a vital role in our development and health. The effect of the microbiota on gut development and physiology is highlighted by anatomical and functional changes in germ-free mice, affecting the gut epithelium, immune system, and enteric nervous system...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891224/smv1-an-extremely-stable-thermophilic-virus-platform-for-nanoparticle-trafficking-in-the-mammalian-gi-tract
#10
Kristine B Uldahl, Seth T Walk, Stephen C Olshefsky, Mark J Young, Xu Peng
AIMS: analysis of the stability and safety of Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) during passage through the mammalian GI tract. METHODS AND RESULTS: A major challenge of using nano-vectors to target gut microbiome is their survival during passage through the extremely acidic and proteolytic environment of the mammalian GI tract. Here we investigated the thermo-acidophilic archaeal virus SMV1 as a candidate therapeutic nano-vector for the distal mammalian GI tract microbiome...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878277/increased-tcr-signal-strength-in-dn-thymocytes-promotes-development-of-gut-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#11
Capucine L Grandjean, Nital Sumaria, Stefania Martin, Daniel J Pennington
CD4((+))CD8((+)) "double positive" (DP) thymocytes differentiate into diverse αβ T cell sub-types using mechanistically distinct programs. For example, conventional αβ T cells develop from DP cells after partial-agonist T cell receptor (TCR) interactions with self-peptide/MHC, whereas unconventional αβ T cells, such as TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), require full-agonist TCR interactions. Despite this, DP cells appear homogeneous, and it remains unclear how distinct TCR signalling instructs distinct developmental outcomes...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877470/strong-clonal-relatedness-between-serum-and-gut-iga-despite-different-plasma-cell-origins
#12
Rasmus Iversen, Omri Snir, Maria Stensland, José E Kroll, Øyvind Steinsbø, Ilma R Korponay-Szabó, Knut E A Lundin, Gustavo A de Souza, Ludvig M Sollid
Mucosal antigens induce generation of lamina propria plasma cells (PCs) that secrete dimeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) destined for transport across the epithelium. In addition, blood contains monomeric IgA. To study the relationship between mucosal and systemic antibody responses, we took advantage of celiac disease patient samples for isolation of gut PCs as well as serum IgA and IgG reactive with a gluten-derived peptide or the autoantigen transglutaminase 2. Proteomic analysis of serum IgA revealed antigen-specific V-gene preferences, which matched those found in gut PCs...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876395/oral-insulin-improves-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#13
Leandro C Lipinski, Louise B Kmetiuk, Paulo C F Mathias, Ananda Malta, Giovani M Favero, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Alceu Toledo, Mario R Montemor Netto, Marcos R S Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION/AIM: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875375/germ-cell-line-during-the-seasonal-sexual-rest-of-clams-finding-niches-of-cells-for-gonad-renewal
#14
Liliana Milani, Andrea Pecci, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti, Maurizio Lazzari, Valeria Franceschini, Maria Gabriella Maurizii
Reconstitution and renewal of tissues are key topics in developmental biology. In this brief work, we analyzed the wintry spent phase of the reproductive cycle in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia, Veneridae) in order to study the gonad rebuilding that in this species occurs at the beginning of the warmer months. We labeled VASA homolog protein-a germ cell marker-and compared the histological observations of the spent phase with those of the previously analyzed gametogenic phase. In R. philippinarum, during the reproductive season, most of the body mass is represented by sack-like structures (acini) full of developing gametes...
September 5, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872688/liposomal-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-is-taken-up-by-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-and-stimulates-local-and-systemic-immune-responses
#15
Kan Kaneko, Arlene McDowell, Yasuyuki Ishii, Sarah Hook
OBJECTIVES: α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid that exhibits potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can be used to treat conditions such as atopy, cancer, infection and autoimmunity. Administration of therapeutics through the oral route has advantages such as patient convenience, safety and reduced cost; however, there has been little research to investigate whether oral delivery of α-GalCer is possible. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether α-GalCer formulated in either DMSO/Tween 80 or in liposomes, could access lymphoid tissue and stimulate immune activation following oral administration...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862703/fine-tuning-and-autoregulation-of-the-intestinal-determinant-and-tumor-suppressor-homeobox-gene-cdx2-by-alternative-splicing
#16
Camille Balbinot, Marie Vanier, Olivier Armant, Asmaa Nair, Julien Penichon, Christine Soret, Elisabeth Martin, Thoueiba Saandi, Jean-Marie Reimund, Jacqueline Deschamps, Felix Beck, Claire Domon-Dell, Isabelle Gross, Isabelle Duluc, Jean-Noël Freund
On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, we uncovered a variant of the CDX2 homeobox gene, a major regulator of the development and homeostasis of the gut epithelium, also involved in cancer. This variant, miniCDX2, is generated by alternative splicing coupled to alternative translation initiation, and contains the DNA-binding homeodomain but is devoid of transactivation domain. It is predominantly expressed in crypt cells, whereas the CDX2 protein is present in crypt cells but also in differentiated villous cells...
September 1, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859865/ischemic-stroke-damages-the-intestinal-mucosa-and-induces-alteration-of-the-intestinal-lymphocytes-and-ccl19-mrna-in-rats
#17
Yaning Liu, Shijian Luo, Li Kou, Chaogang Tang, Ruxun Huang, Zhong Pei, Zhendong Li
The immunoreaction has a pivotal effect on ischemic stroke. It has been demonstrated that intestinal lymphocytes infiltrate into the brain and aggravate tissue injury after stroke. However, less attention has been paid to the influence on the intestinal immunology as well as morphology. Here, we utilized a rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to investigate the influences on intestinal mucosa, lymphocytes of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and the intestinal expression of CCL25 mRNA and CCL19 mRNA of stroke...
August 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859498/influence-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-adherence-of-bifidobacteria-and-clostridia-to-cell-lines
#18
Sarka Musilova, Nikol Modrackova, Ivo Doskocil, Roman Svejstil, Vojtech Rada
Adhesion of gut bacteria to the intestinal epithelium is the first step in their colonization of the neonatal immature gut. Bacterial colonization of the infant gut is influenced by several factors, of which the most important are the mode of delivery and breast-feeding. Breast-fed infants ingest several grams of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) per day, which can become receptor decoys for intestinal bacteria. The most abundant intestinal bacteria in vaginally delivered infants are bifidobacteria, whereas infants born by cesarean section are colonized by clostridia...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855873/molecular-characterization-of-barrier-properties-in-follicle-associated-epithelium-of-porcine-peyer-s-patches-reveals-major-sealing-function-of-claudin-4
#19
Judith Radloff, Evgeny L Falchuk, Alexander G Markov, Salah Amasheh
The pig represents a preferred model for the analysis of intestinal immunology. However, the barrier of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering porcine Peyer's patches (PP) has not yet been characterized in detail. This study aimed to perform this characterization in order to pave the way toward an understanding of the functional contribution of epithelial barrier properties in gut immunology. Porcine tissue specimens were taken from the distal small intestine in order to obtain electrophysiological data of PP FAE and neighboring villous epithelium (VE), employing the Ussing chamber technique...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855375/shear-stress-induces-non-canonical-autophagic-flux-in-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#20
Sun Wook Kim, Jonathan Ehrman, Mok-Ryeon Ahn, Jumpei Kondo, Andrea A Mancheno Lopez, Yun Sik Oh, Hanjune X Kim, Scott W Crawley, James R Goldenring, Matthew J Tyska, Erin C Rericha, Ken S Lau
Flow of fluids through the gut, such as milk from a neonatal diet, generates a shear stress on the unilaminar epithelium lining the lumen.  We report that exposure to physiological levels of fluid shear stress leads to the formation of large vacuoles, containing extracellular content, within polarizing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.  These observations lead to two questions: how can cells lacking primary cilia transduce shear stress, and what molecular pathways support the formation of vacuoles that can exceed 80% of the cell volume...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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