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cardiac arrythmias

John H Boyd, Demetrios Sirounis, Julien Maizel, Michel Slama
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients at risk for organ failure, the administration of intravenous fluids has equal chances of resulting in benefit or harm. While the intent of intravenous fluid is to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery, unwelcome results in those patients who do not increase their cardiac output are tissue edema, hypoxemia, and excess mortality. Here we briefly review bedside methods to assess fluid responsiveness, focusing upon the strengths and pitfalls of echocardiography in spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patients as a means to guide fluid management...
September 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Abhilasha Thanvi, Udita Naithani, Sneha Arun Betkekar, Devendra Verma, Basant Kumar Dindor
Acute hypocalcaemia is a medical emergency that can have catastrophic implications like tetany, seizures, cardiac arrythmias or laryngospasm if left untreated. We are presenting a case of a 30-year-old female patient undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoopherectomy under spinal anaesthesia. She developed unexpected bilateral carpal spasm intraoperatively which was promptly diagnosed and successfully managed with intravenous calcium administration. We conclude that the anaesthetist should be aware of the clinical presentation of acute hypocalcaemia, its causes and emergency management in the perioperative period to prevent any adverse outcomes...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Silje Hugin, Egil Johnson, Hans-Olaf Johannessen, Bjørn Hofstad, Kjell Olafsen, Harald Mellem
INTRODUCTION: Myotonic dystrophies are inherited multisystemic diseases characterized by musculopathy, cardiac arrythmias and cognitive disorders. These patients are at increased risk for fatal post-surgical complications from pulmonary hypoventilation. We present a case with myotonic dystrophy and esophageal cancer who had a minimally invasive esophagectomy complicated with gastrobronchial fistulisation. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 44-year-old male with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and esophageal cancer had a minimally invasive esophagectomy performed instead of open surgery in order to reduce the risk for pulmonary complications...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Kanako Noritake, Toshihiko Aki, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
Direct exposure of cardiomyocytes to ethanol causes cardiac damage such as cardiac arrythmias and apoptotic cell death. Cardiomyocytes are connected to each other through intercalated disks (ID), which are composed of a gap junction (GJ), adherens junction, and desmosome. Changes in the content as well as the subcellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43), the main component of the cardiac GJ, are reportedly involved in cardiac arrythmias and subsequent damage. Recently, the hippo-YAP signaling pathway, which links cellular physical status to cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, has been implicated in cardiac homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions...
2015: PloS One
Mishal Shah, Sanjeev Patni, Rajeev Bagarahatta
Central venous access devices are routinely used in oncology for delivering chemotherapy of which implantable chemoports are the most common. Spontaneous breakage and migration of the catheters is a very rare but known complication of the procedure. Patients will usually present with cardiac manifestations in form of chest pain or arrythmias. Herein we report a case of spontaneous breakage and cardiac migration in which the patient was asymptomatic. Patient was successfully managed by an interventional cardiologist...
December 2014: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Kenneth P Chen, Joon Lee, Roger G Mark, Mengling Feng, Leo A Celi, Brian E Malley, John Danziger
Hypomagnesemia can lead to cardiac arrythmias. Recently, observational data have linked chronic proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure to hypomagnesemia. Whether PPI exposure increases the risk for arrhythmias has not been well studied. Using a large, single-center inception cohort of critically ill patients, we examined whether PPI exposure was associated with admission electrocardiogram readings of a cardiac arrhythmia in more than 8000 patients. There were 25.4% PPI users, whereas 6% were taking a histamine 2 antagonist...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Stefania Scarsoglio, Andrea Guala, Carlo Camporeale, Luca Ridolfi
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting millions of people in the Western countries and, due to the widespread impact on the population and its medical relevance, is largely investigated in both clinical and bioengineering sciences. However, some important feedback mechanisms are still not clearly established. The present study aims at understanding the global response of the cardiovascular system during paroxysmal AF through a lumped-parameter approach, which is here performed paying particular attention to the stochastic modeling of the irregular heartbeats and the reduced contractility of the heart...
November 2014: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
E Kurtzwald-Josefson, E Hochauser, S Khun, A Shainberg, D Aravot, M Eldar, M Arad
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventriculartachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal human arrhythmia provoked by exercise or emotional stress. It is mediated by abnormal calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through "leaky" ryanodine channels. Beta-adrenergic blockers are the therapy of choice for human CPVT but they fail to achieve complete arrhythmia control in some of the cases. Gene therapy is a potential treatment for genetic and other diseases associated with inadequate expression of a key protein.We established a new gene-delivery system to target CASQ2 knock-out mice suffering from CPVT2...
July 15, 2014: Cardiovascular Research
Katrzyna Ciuraszkiewicz, Janusz Sielski, Agnieszka Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka Stern, Joanna Zychowicz, Karol Kaziród-Wolski, Marian Paluchowski
Infection with influenza type A virus may cause serious cardiovascular complications, such as myocarditis, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction. Also infection with influenza type AH1N1 may contribute to aggravation of cardiac disorders, i.e. acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, severe ventricular arrythmias. One of the most fatal complication of influenza is pneumonia leading to acute respiratory insufficiency requiring artifitial ventilation. Symptoms of respiratory tract infections durnig influenza epidemy should always be treated with a high index of suspicion...
March 2014: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hasan Kocoglu, Kazim Karaaslan, Ersoz Gonca, Omer Bozdogan, Nebahat Gulcu
BACKGROUND: Preconditioning might protect the myocardium against ischemia/ reperfusion injury by reducing infarct size and preventing arrhythmias. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2-agonist used for sedoanalgesia in daily anesthetic practice. The cardioprotective effects of DEX on infarct size and on the incidence of arrhythmias observed after regional ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether DEX exhibits a preconditioning effect and reduces infarct size and the incidence and duration of arrhythmias in a regional cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model in rats...
April 2008: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Hubert Cochet, Rémi Dubois, Frédéric Sacher, Nicolas Derval, Maxime Sermesant, Mélèze Hocini, Michel Montaudon, Michel Haïssaguerre, François Laurent, Pierre Jaïs
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of comprehensive assessment of cardiac arrhythmias by combining body surface electrocardiographic (ECG) mapping (BSM) and imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all patients gave written informed consent. Twenty-seven patients referred for electrophysiologic procedures in the context of ventricular tachycardia (VT) (n = 9), Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome (n = 2), atrial fibrillation (AF) (n = 13), or scar-related ventricular fibrillation (VF) (n = 3) were examined...
April 2014: Radiology
S K M Gardezi, R M Chalmers, N C Pegge
BACKGROUND: The relationship between seizure activity and arrhythmias is not well established. Sinus tachycardia is commonly seen post seizure. Bradyarrythmias leading to seizure activity is rarely reported in the literature thus far. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old lady presented with nocturnal seizures and was subsequently started on oral anti-convulsant with no relief of her symptoms. Further investigations led to outpatient ambulatory ECGs which showed marked sinus bradycardia prior to seizure activity and post seizure atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular rate...
February 2014: Scottish Medical Journal
Yasunori Iida, Tsutomu Ito, Hiroto Kitahara, Motojiro Takebe, Atsushi Nemoto, Reiko Shimokawa, Akihiro Yoshitake, Takahiko Misumi
Cardiac hemangiomas are extremely rare benign tumors. These tumors are usually asymptomatic but they can present symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, and arrythmia. We report the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with an abnormal shadow on chest computed tomography during follow-up for lung metastatic tumor after resection of his rectal cancer. A cardiac tumor was detected, and surgical resection and right ventricular plasty were successfully performed with the patient under cardiopulmonary bypass...
October 2013: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Abimbola Olufunke Adewumi, Laura Grace Tucker
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a type of cardiac arrhythmia that occurs in people with a structurally normal heart. Stress or anxiety-induced release of endogenous catecholamines causes a dysfunction in the myocytic calcium-ion channel, leading to ventricular arrhythmias that can cause dizziness, syncope, or sudden cardiac death. Since dental procedures can be anxiety-provoking, the main purpose of this paper is to report the dental management of a young patient with dental fear and CPVT...
May 2013: Journal of Dentistry for Children
Oscar H Del Brutto
Snake and spider bites, as well as scorpion sting envenoming, are neglected diseases affecting millions of people all over the world. Neurological complications vary according to the offending animal, and are often directly related to toxic effects of the venom, affecting the central nervous system, the neuromuscular transmission, the cardiovascular system, or the coagulation cascade. Snake bite envenoming may result in stroke or muscle paralysis. Metalloproteinases and other substances (common in vipers and colubrids) have anticoagulant or procoagulant activity, and may induce ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Auda Fares
THIS PAPER REVIEW SEASONAL PATTERNS ACROSS TWELVE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries...
April 2013: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Blazej Meczekalski, Agnieszka Podfigurna-Stopa, Krzysztof Katulski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism...
July 2013: Maturitas
Carlos Munoz, Tatsiana Pakladok, Ahmad Almilaji, Bernat Elvira, Guiscard Seebohm, Jakob Voelkl, Michael Föller, Ekaterina Shumilina, Florian Lang
Klotho, a hormone and enzyme, is a powerful regulator of ageing and life span. Klotho deficiency leads to cardiac arrythmia and sudden cardiac death. We thus explored whether klotho modifies cardiac K(+)-channel hERG. Current was determined utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and hERG protein abundance utilizing immunohistochemistry and chemiluminescence in Xenopus oocytes expressing hERG with or without klotho. Coexpression of klotho increased cell membrane hERG-protein abundance and hERG current at any given voltage without significantly modifying the voltage required to activate the channel...
June 5, 2013: FEBS Letters
J Sztajzel
For most patients, sexual activity represents a low risk of triggering cardiac arrhythmias. However, particularly in patients with an underlying heart disease, sexual activity may cause cardiac arrhythmias which may be sometimes serious. From a physiological point of view, sexual activity produces increased sympathetic activity and thereby probably reduced vagal tone which at different degrees may induce cardiac arrythmias. Several presently available autopsy-studies have shown that this happens very rarely and that it mostly affects men...
March 20, 2013: Revue Médicale Suisse
Ersan Tatli, Güray Alicik, Ali Buturak, Mustafa Yilmaztepe, Meryem Aktoz
OBJECTIVE: The most important step in the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction is to sustain myocardial blood supply as soon as possible. The two main treatment methods used today to provide myocardial reperfusion are thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention. In our study, reperfusion arrhythmias were investigated as if they are indicators of coronary artery patency or ongoing ischemia after revascularization. METHODS: 151 patients with a diagnosis of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were investigated...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
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