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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771745/national-institute-on-drug-abuse-international-program-improving-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-through-international-research-training
#1
Steven W Gust, Judy McCormally
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD)...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768070/web-based-intervention-to-reduce-substance-abuse-and-depression-a-three-arm-randomized-trial-in-mexico
#2
Marcela Tiburcio, Ma Asunción Lara, Nora Martínez, Morise Fernández, Araceli Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Web-based cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce substance use can be a useful low-cost treatment for a large number of people, and an attractive option in countries where a greater availability of treatment is needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for the reduction of substance use and depression compared with treatment as usual, with and without a printed self-help manual...
May 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766293/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-pure-opioid-and-multi-drug-abusers-a-post-mortem-study
#3
Hamidreza Daneshparvar, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Monir Fekri, Solmaz Khalifeh, Ali Ziaie, Nasrin Esfahanizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder and is one of the most important issues in the world. Changing the level of neurotransmitters and the activities of their receptors, play a major role in the pathophysiology of substance abuse disorders. It is well-established that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a significant role in the molecular basis of addiction. NMDAR has two obligatory GluN1 and two regionally localized GluN2 subunits. This study investigated changes in the protein level of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B in the prefrontal cortex of drug abusers...
May 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760674/validation-of-a-spanish-questionnaire-on-mobile-phone-abuse
#4
María A Olivencia-Carrión, Isabel Ramírez-Uclés, Pablo Holgado-Tello, Francisca López-Torrecillas
Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#5
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754278/behavioral-and-noradrenergic-sensitizations-in-vulnerable-traumatized-rats-suggest-common-bases-with-substance-use-disorders
#6
Claire Le Dorze, Jean-Pol Tassin, Fréderic Chauveau, Pascale Gisquet-Verrier
The aim of the present study was to strengthen our hypothesis of a common physiological basis for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. This paper investigates the possibility that rats exposed to a PTSD model exhibit noradrenergic and behavioral sensitization, as observed following repeated drugs of abuse injections. First, rats received a single prolonged stress (SPS), combining three consecutive stressors. They were then tested, 2 weeks after the trauma for PTSD-like symptoms to discriminate between vulnerable and resilient rats...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#7
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749316/the-effectiveness-of-group-spiritual-intervention-on-self-esteem-and-happiness-among-men-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#8
Mahmoud Rahmati, Amir Jalali, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan, Nader Salari, Mahvash Kashkouli Behrouzi
BACKGROUND: Drug dependence or substance use disorder not only affects a person's life but also brings a lot of challenges for families and communities and imposes heavy burdens on them. There are various therapies in the domain of addiction whose main purposes are to reduce or to cut down substance abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of group spiritual intervention on self-esteem and happiness among male clients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment...
May 10, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728824/-using-social-network-analysis-to-examine-care-for-older-drug-users-in-three-major-cities-in-germany-results-of-a-pilot-study
#9
U Kuhn, L Hofmann, T Hoff, N Färber
BACKGROUND: Compared with the general population, chronic drug addicts already start showing typical aging problems by the age of 40 years. The increasing number of older drug addicts leads to questions of what an adequate health and social care should look like. This discussion particularly takes place in the context of a sufficient integration of different care systems. A sufficient integration requires an improvement in the networking of substance treatment, nursing care and medical care services...
May 4, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721729/the-untreated-addiction-going-tobacco-free-in-a-va-substance-abuse-residential-rehabilitation-treatment-program-sarrtp
#10
Megan Conrad, Teri Bolte, Leigh Gaines, Zackery Avery, Linda Bodie
Despite negative effects of tobacco on the human body and the high prevalence of smoking among those who enter treatment for substance use, few residential programs endorse a tobacco-free policy. Conventional wisdom suggests that it is overwhelming to quit more than one substance at a time, and as a result, many clinicians believe that a shift to a tobacco-free treatment environment is unfeasible. However, the most recent scientific literature suggests the opposite: targeting tobacco use during substance use treatment can increase abstinence rates from both smoking and substances of choice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719347/chn2-promoter-methylation-change-may-be-associated-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#11
Liu Hao, Tao Luo, Huixi Dong, Aiguo Tang, Wei Hao
Background: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is becoming increasingly serious in China. The mechanism of MA dependence remains unclear. CHN2 gene encodes chimeric protein-2 that regulate axonal pruning via the Rac-GTPase system and play a pivotal role in the formation of nervous circuits. Genetic studies suggest that the polymorphism of the CHN2 gene was related to substance dependence. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the methylation of CHN2 gene promoter with MA dependence...
December 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713559/substance-use-criminal-recidivism-and-mortality-in-criminal-justice-clients-a-comparison-between-men-and-women
#12
Caroline Mannerfelt, Anders Håkansson
Background. This study aimed to map differences between male and female offenders with substance abuse, with respect to descriptive characteristics and risk factors for mortality and criminal recidivism. Methods. Criminal justice clients with substance abuse problems ( n = 7085) were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index. Mortality and data on return to criminal justice were retrieved from national registers. Results. Female offenders reported heavier substance use patterns, more psychiatric symptoms, and more often a partner with substance abuse, but had lower mortality (2% versus 4%) and criminal recidivism (62% versus 71%) during follow-up...
2018: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708863/addressing-the-growing-opioid-and-heroin-abuse-epidemic-a-call-for-medical-school-curricula
#13
Madison C Ratycz, Thomas J Papadimos, Allison A Vanderbilt
Substance abuse is a growing public health concern in the USA (US), especially now that the US faces a national drug overdose epidemic. Over the past decade, the number of drug overdose deaths has rapidly grown, largely driven by increases in prescription opioid-related overdoses. In recent years, increased heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl overdoses have substantially contributed to the rise of overdose deaths. Given the role of physicians in interacting with patients who are at risk for or currently abusing opioids and heroin, it is essential that physicians are aware of this issue and know how to respond...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682383/polysubstance-and-behavioral-addictions-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-role-of-lifetime-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#15
Liliana Dell'Osso, Ciro Conversano, Martina Corsi, Carlo A Bertelloni, Ivan M Cremone, Barbara Carpita, Manuel G Carbone, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi
This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and β -2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680426/willis-ekbom-disease-restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-with-opioid-withdrawal
#16
Ravi Gupta, Ramjan Ali, Rajat Ray
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with opioid use disorder report symptoms similar to restless legs syndrome (RLS) during withdrawal. However, whether these symptoms are true RLS, their predictors and effect of treatment with pregabalin are still unknown. METHOD: A total of 19 consecutive patients with opioid use disorder who were admitted for detoxification were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. Information regarding addiction was noted, and they were screened for RLS every morning and evening...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679360/mental-health-of-the-male-adolescent-and-young-man-the-copenhagen-statement
#17
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671582/dark-side-of-amphetamine-and-analogues-pharmacology-syndromic-manifestation-and-management-of-amphetamine-addiction
#18
Abdul Mannan Baig
The threat imposed by the use of psychoactive, illicit drugs on human health and the cost of rehabilitation of the affected individuals is nothing less than billions of dollars per year. Of the psychoactive substance abuse drugs are amphetamine and its analogues like methamphetamine. This Viewpoint intends to draw the attention of readers toward the neurological basis of "falling a prey" to methamphetamine. Attention has been paid toward a rapid desensitizing attribute that develops shortly after the repetitive use of drugs belonging to sympathomimetic agents of this group...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668645/coverage-of-medications-that-treat-opioid-use-disorder-and-opioids-for-pain-management-in-marketplace-plans-2017
#20
Haiden A Huskamp, Lauren E Riedel, Colleen L Barry, Alisa B Busch
BACKGROUND: Efficacious medications to treat opioid use disorders (OUDs) have been slow to diffuse into practice, and insurance coverage limits may be one important barrier. OBJECTIVES: To compare coverage for medications used to treat OUDs and opioids commonly prescribed for pain management in plans offered on the 2017 Health Insurance Marketplace exchanges. RESEARCH DESIGN: We identified a sample of 100 plans offered in urban and in rural counties on the 2017 Marketplaces, weighting by population...
April 17, 2018: Medical Care
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