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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810899/chronic-pain-and-opioid-misuse-a-review-of-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Pauline Voon, Mohammad Karamouzian, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVE: The crisis of prescription opioid (PO) related harms has focused attention toward identifying and treating high-risk populations. This review aims to synthesize systematic reviews on the epidemiology and clinical management of comorbid chronic pain and PO or other substance misuse. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted to identify systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible studies were systematic reviews related to chronic non-cancer pain and PO or other substance misuse...
August 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807487/exploring-how-prison-based-drug-rehabilitation-programming-shapes-racial-disparities-in-substance-use-disorder-recovery
#2
Erin M Kerrison
Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative...
August 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806640/the-importance-of-nutrition-in-aiding-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Kendall D Jeynes, E Leigh Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a prerequisite for health; yet, there is no special nutritional assessment or guidance for drug and alcohol dependent individuals, despite the fact that their food consumption is often very limited, risking malnutrition. Further, the premise is examined that malnutrition may promote drug seeking and impede recovery from substance use disorders (SUD). METHOD: A narrative review addressed the relationship between substance use disorders and nutrition, including evidence for malnutrition, as well as their impact on metabolism and appetite regulation...
August 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801372/multi-variant-genetic-panel-for-genetic-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#4
Keri Donaldson, Laurence Demers, Kirk Taylor, Joe Lopez, Sherman Chang
Over 116 million people worldwide have chronic pain and prescription dependence. In the US, opioids account for the majority of overdose deaths, and in 2014, almost 2 million Americans abused or were dependent on prescription opioids. Genetic factors may play a key role in opioid prescription addiction. Herein, we describe genetic variations between opioid addicted and non-addicted populations and derive a predictive model determining risk of opioid addiction. This case cohort study compares the frequency of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the brain reward pathways in patients with and without opioid addiction...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#5
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777674/dsm-5-tobacco-use-disorder-and-sleep-disturbance-findings-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii-nesarc-iii
#6
Amie C Hayley, Con Stough, Luke A Downey
INTRODUCTION: The DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder diagnosis incorporates tobacco misuse, addictive behaviors and withdrawal symptomology. Tobacco use is bidirectionally associated with sleep pathology; however, no epidemiological studies have yet evaluated the associations between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and self-reported sleep disturbance. The current study aimed to evaluate health, medical and sleep-related factors among individuals within this diagnostic stratum. METHOD: A total of N = 36,177 adults who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were included for analyses...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777672/the-physiological-and-ergogenic-effects-of-khat-catha-edulis-forsk-extract
#7
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Anwar M Hossain, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance which contains two main addictive substances; Cathine and Cathinone. Khat is widely used in east Africa and southern Arabian Peninsula. Khat chewers believe that it improves work capacity and increases energy level and alertness. That is why we aimed in this study to investigate the physiological and ergogenic effects of khat extract. METHODS: This study is an experimental study conducted at the Substance Abuse Research Centre in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759776/fatal-poisoning-by-butane-sniffing-a-forensic-analysis-and-immunohistochemical-detection-of-myocardial-hypoxic-damage
#8
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Maria Celeste Landolfa, Massimo Gallo, Andrea Gianelli Castiglione, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco De Stefano
Although less widespread than twenty years ago, inhalant abuse remains an on-going problem, whose incidence among U.S. teenagers and young adults ranges from 10 to 15%. Death due to the inhalation of vapor from halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-known phenomenon, yet few cases of fatal butane-gas poisoning have been described. Many cases of volatile substance abuse in prison populations have been reported: drug-addicted inmates often resort to this alternative practice when unable to get their habitual drugs of abuse...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748984/deaths-from-acute-drug-reactions-in-galician-spain-prisons-2001-2010
#9
D Miguel-Arias, C Pereiro-Gómez, A M Bermejo-Barrera, C Vázquez-Ventoso, T Rodríguez-Barca
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: drug use is associated with multiple complications with an increase in morbidity, with death by acute drugs reactions (ADR) being the most serious. A large percentage of the prison population has problems associated with drug additions, and substance abuse is also a common internal problem of penal institutions, despite their control measures. The goal of this study is to analyse the prevalence of ADR in penitentiaries, deceased sociodemographic characteristics as well as the circumstances in which they are produced...
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746733/mothers-with-substance-addictions-show-reduced-reward-responses-when-viewing-their-own-infant-s-face
#10
Sohye Kim, Udita Iyengar, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena J V Rutherford, Lane Strathearn
Maternal addiction constitutes a major public health problem affecting children, with high rates of abuse, neglect, and foster care placement. However, little is known about the ways in which substance addiction alters brain function related to maternal behavior. Prior studies have shown that infant face cues activate similar dopamine-associated brain reward regions to substances of abuse. Here, we report on a functional MRI study documenting that mothers with addictions demonstrate reduced activation of reward regions when shown reward-related cues of their own infants...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741398/effects-of-role-playing-scenarios-on-the-self-efficacy-of-students-in-resisting-against-substance-addiction-a-pilot-study
#11
Gülnaz Karatay, Nazan Gürarslan Baş
During the first phases of adolescent development, young people have little self-efficacy and resistance against substance use. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of role-playing scenarios on the self-efficacy of students in resisting substance use. A pre test and post test study design was used with a single group. The study was carried out with 245 secondary school students. The scenario-based training, developed by the researchers, was presented by the school counselors once a week for 4 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#12
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718998/disconnected-lives-women-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-conflict-with-the-law
#13
Kathryn Ann Levine, Jocelyn Proulx, Karen Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Women with intellectual/developmental disabilities in conflict with the law experience childhood trauma, substance abuse and intimate partner violence but continue to have difficulty accessing appropriate therapeutic services, both within correctional settings and upon discharge. The aim of this study is to explore women's service needs and to critically assess whether the available services are meeting their identified needs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women with intellectual/developmental disabilities who were in the Special Needs Unit of a women's correctional centre from December 2014 to March 2015...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713877/the-impact-of-limited-housing-opportunities-on-formerly-incarcerated-people-in-the-context-of-addiction-recovery
#14
Dina Chavira, Leonard Jason
BACKGROUND: Formerly incarcerated individuals with substance use disorders encounter numerous obstacles following incarceration that threaten their sobriety. Obtaining safe and stable housing is a notoriously difficult task resulting in precarious housing that can increase the likelihood of relapse. The current study examined the relationship between substance use and 11 housing settings in a sample of 211 formerly incarcerated individuals with a history of substance abuse to identify the housing characteristics with the highest risk of use...
2017: J Addict Behav Ther
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705298/methamphetamine-related-disorders
#16
Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Roland Härtel-Petri, Willem Hamdorf, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Stephan Mühlig, Norbert Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine is considered more dangerous than other stimulants because of its acute complications, long-term neurotoxicity, and potential for drug dependence. Until now, there have been no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders, either in Germany or abroad. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed on the treatment of methamphetamine-related disorders. Based on this literature review, a multidisciplinary expert panel developed recommendations using the nominal group technique...
June 30, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678934/-clinical-and-social-vulnerabilities-in-crack-users-according-to-housing-status-a-multicenter-study-in-six-brazilian-state-capitals
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Silvia Chwartzmann Halpern, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Vinicius Roglio, Sibele Faller, Anne Sordi, Felipe Ornell, Carla Dalbosco, Flavio Pechansky, Félix Kessler, Lísia von Diemen
The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678632/russian-criminal-culture-among-drug-addicted-former-soviet-union-immigrants-in-israel
#18
Yakhnich Liat
This article explores the cultural context of substance abuse among drug-addicted Former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants in Israel. Using a qualitative approach, it focuses on immigrant users' affiliation with the Russian criminal culture. The data analysis elicited a number of themes, including the key components of this culture, its attitude toward drug consumption, and its role in the users' lives and rehabilitation. It is argued that drug-addicted immigrants suffer multiple marginalization. Their affiliation with the ethnic criminal subculture serves as a defense reaction that protects their identities and grants them a sense of mastery not afforded in the wider society...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672787/the-efficacy-of-dog-assisted-therapy-in-detained-drug-users-a-pilot-study-in-an-italian-attenuated-custody-institute
#19
Laura Contalbrigo, Marta De Santis, Marica Toson, Maria Montanaro, Luca Farina, Aldo Costa, Felice Alfonso Nava
Drug addiction is a major care and safety challenge in prison context. Nowadays, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are suggested to improve health and well-being of inmates during their detention time and to reduce substance abuse relapse after release from prison. Among these programs, several studies reported the benefits for inmates coming from animal assisted interventions. In this pilot controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a dog assisted therapy program addressed to 22 drug addicted male inmates housed in an attenuated custody institute in Italy...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666811/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-subunit-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-exert-opposing-actions-on-rapid-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-rats-with-high-versus-low-response-to-novelty
#20
Cody A Siciliano, J Michael McIntosh, Sara R Jones, Mark J Ferris
Determining neurobiological factors that contribute to individual variance in drug addiction vulnerability allows for identification of at-risk populations, use of preventative measures and personalized medicine in the treatment of substance use disorders. Rodents that exhibit high locomotor activity when exploring an inescapable novel environment (high-responder; HR) are more susceptible to the reinforcing effects of many abused compounds, including nicotine, as compared to animals that exhibit low locomotor activity (low-responder; LR)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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