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addiction substance abuse

Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T S Sathyanarayana Rao, Shreemit Maheshwari, Manju George, Suhas Chandran, Shivanand Manohar, Suman S Rao
Substance abuse and addictive disorders are very common in the community. Patients with addictive disorders frequently experience sexual dysfunctions and chronic use of substances tends to adversely affect all stages of sexual response, in both male and female abusers. An important aspect in the management of sexual dysfunction is psychosocial intervention. In addictive disorders, sexual dysfunction is of high clinical relevance, as it often leads to treatment non adherence and sexual or marital disharmony...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Prabha S Chandra, Lakshmi Shiva, Madhuri H Nanjundaswamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India has experienced rapid urbanization in the last few decades. This review focuses on recent research related to the effects of urbanization on mental health with a specific focus on various population groups in urban India. RECENT FINDINGS: With a specific focus on recent research undertaken amongst special populations such as youth, women and the elderly, the findings demonstrate increasing rates of substance use and technology addiction among youth; high self-harm rates in various groups such as adolescents and women; the effects of violence and abuse on the mental health of women; psychological distress among the elderly in modern urban India...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Nadia K Bisch, Taís de C Moreira, Mariana C Benchaya, Dan R Pozza, Larissa C N de Freitas, Michelle S Farias, Maristela Ferigolo, Helena M T Barros
AIM: To describe the users' drug abuse characteristics, problematic behaviors associated with addiction, the motivation of teenagers and young adults to quit cocaine and/or crack abuse, and then compare these characteristics. METHODS: A cross-section study was conducted with 2390 cocaine/crack users (teenagers from 14 to 19 years of age, and young adults from 20 to 24 years of age); 1471 were young adults and 919 were teenagers who had called a phone counseling service between January 2006 and December 2013...
March 8, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Alfredo Ortiz-Frágola
The author analyzes certain aspects of the psychopathology of addictions in adolescence, from a psychoanalytical and neurobiological point of view. Within the feld of present psychopathology we frequently fnd problems related with use and abuse of substances, particularly in adolescent therapy. Impulsivity, violence, marginalization, and primitive phantasies appear in the setting along with the functioning of the "addictive brain". Several aspects of vulnerability in adolescence, like depressive symptoms or narcissistic unbalance are connected with two basic principles in addiction: 1) drugs as a mean of obtaining pleasure, and 2) drugs as self regulators...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Ana Marques, Franck Durif, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Impulse control disorders (ICD) are frequent side effects of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) used in Parkinson's disease (PD) with devastating consequences on the patients and caregivers. ICD are behavioural addictions including compulsive gambling, shopping, sexual behaviour, and binge eating that are mainly associated with dopamine D2/D3 agonists. Their management is a real clinical challenge due to the lack of therapeutic alternative. Clinical studies have identified demographic and clinical risk factors for ICD such as younger age at disease onset, male gender, prior history of depression or substance abuse, REM sleep behaviour disorders and higher rate of dyskinesia...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
David E Moorman
The hypocretin/orexin (ORX) system has been repeatedly demonstrated to regulate motivation for drugs of abuse, including alcohol. In particular, ORX seems to be critically involved in highly motivated behaviors, as is observed in high-seeking individuals in a population, in the seeking of highly palatable substances, and in models of dependence. It seems logical that this system could be considered as a potential target for treatment for addiction, particularly alcohol addiction, as ORX pharmacological manipulations significantly reduce drinking...
March 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Linda Zhang, Monica Norena, Anne Gadermann, Anita Hubley, Lara Russell, Tim Aubry, Matthew J To, Susan Farrell, Stephen Hwang, Anita Palepu
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who are homeless or vulnerably housed have a higher prevalence of concurrent disorder, defined as having a mental health diagnosis and problematic substance use, compared to the general housed population. The study objective was to investigate the effect of having a concurrent disorder on health care utilization among homeless or vulnerably housed individuals, using longitudinal data from the Health and Housing in Transition Study. METHODS: In 2009, 1190 homeless or vulnerably housed adults were recruited in Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver, Canada...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Nuria García-Marchena, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, María Pedraz, Pedro Fernando Araos, Gabriel Rubio, Juan Jesús Ruiz, Francisco Javier Pavón, Antonia Serrano, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Luis J Santín, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Aims: Despite alcohol being the most often used addictive substance among addicted patients, use of other substances such as cocaine has increased over recent years, and the combination of both drugs aggravates health impairment and complicates clinical assessment. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize heterogeneous subgroups of cocaine- and alcohol-addicted patients with common characteristics based on substance use disorders, psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity. Methods: A total of 214 subjects with cocaine and/or alcohol use disorders were recruited from outpatient treatment programs and clinically assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hanna Dauber, Barbara Braun, Tim Pfeiffer-Gerschel, Ludwig Kraus, Oliver Pogarell
Aim of this study was to investigate the current health care situation for patients with co-occurring mental disorders in addiction treatment. Therefore, data from the German Substance Abuse Treatment System ( N  = 194,406) was analysed with regard to the prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, treatment characteristics and outcomes of patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnosis. In outpatient setting, the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses was considerably lower (4.6%) than in inpatient setting (50.7%), but mood and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent additional diagnoses in both settings...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Sean J Belouin, Jack E Henningfield
The purpose of this commentary is to provide an introduction to this special issue of Neuropharmacology with a historical perspective of psychedelic drug research, their use in psychiatric disorders, research-restricting regulatory controls, and their recent emergence as potential breakthrough therapies for several brain-related disorders. It begins with the discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its promising development as a treatment for several types of mental illnesses during the 1940s. This was followed by its abuse and stigmatization in the 1960s that ultimately led to the placement of LSD and other psychedelic drugs into the most restrictively regulated drug schedule of the United States Controlled Substances Act (Schedule I) in 1970 and its international counterparts...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ethan O Bryson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a substantial increase in prescription and illicit opioid abuse in the general population observed over the last two decades. Initially fueled by an influx of prescription opioid medications, the opioid epidemic now includes increasingly potent heroin and illicit fentanyl. Younger anesthesiologists, those currently in training or recent graduates, have come of age in a society where opioid abuse is much more prevalent. RECENT FINDINGS: The current prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) in the physician population is slightly higher than in the general population and appears to be increasing...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Sara Jafari, Sana Khajehpour, Emran Mohammad Razzaghi, Kazem Heidari, Mehdi Soleimani, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction who are in opioid detoxifying process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. The present trial aimed at comparing the effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification (n = 32). Method: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients), who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure and met the inclusion criteria entered this 4- week study...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Ana Filošević, Sabina Al-Samarai, Rozi Andretić Waldowski
Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Brian J Piper, Michael J Suarez, John P Piserchio, Dipam T Shah, Olapeju M Simoyan, Kenneth L McCall, Clare E Desrosiers, Stephanie D Nichols
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is rapidly evolving and new tools are needed to combat drug abuse. The Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) is an informational resource that facilitates communication about drug arrests between the criminal justice and healthcare fields. The objectives of this report were to: (1) describe the illegal and prescription pharmaceuticals reported to the DAP; (2) determine if the drugs implicated in arrests changed from the first to latter half of 2016; (3) identify the demographic and other characteristics of arrestees; and (4) outline the strengths and limitations of the DAP for other areas considering implementing similar programs...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
A Neven, A van Wamel, W van den Brink
BACKGROUND: Although there is a great need for staging and profiling in psychiatry, no-one has so far devised a staging and profiling model to aid diagnosis and treatment. AIM: To devise a basic staging and profiling strategy that can be used to treat patients suffering from both substance abuse disorder and a psychiatric disorder. METHOD: On the basis of existing staging model for addiction, we explore how staging could also be useful for the treatment of comorbidity in psychiatry...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Amanda J Roberts, Linzy Casal, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Trey Thompson, Lisa M Tarantino
RATIONALE: Initial sensitivity to drugs of abuse often predicts subsequent use and abuse, but this relationship is not always observed in human studies. Moreover, studies examining the relationship between initial locomotor sensitivity and the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs in animal models have also been equivocal. Understanding the relationship between initial drug effects and propensity to continue use, potentially resulting in the development of a substance use disorder, may help to identify key targets for prevention and treatment...
January 29, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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