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addiction substance abuse

Martin T Hall, Jordan Wilfong, Ruth A Huebner, Lynn Posze, Tina Willauer
Parents who use opioids and are involved in the child welfare system are less likely to retain custody of their children than parents who use other drugs. No previous studies have described medication-assisted treatment (MAT) utilization and child permanency outcomes for this population. The Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) model is a child welfare-based intervention focused on families with co-occurring substance use and child abuse / neglect issues. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of MAT utilization among parents in the START program with a history of opioid use, and compared child outcomes for families who received MAT services to those who did not...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Franziska Jeromin, Winfrief Rief, Antonia Barke
Background and aims People with substance abuse and pathological gamblers show an attentional bias. In a laboratory setting, we found an attentional bias using an addiction Stroop in adults with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed at investigating this effect using two web-based experiments. Methods Study 1: Gamers with IGD, casual gamers, and non-gamers (N = 81, 28.1 ± 7.8 years) completed a web-based addiction Stroop with a fully randomized word order. They saw computer-related and neutral words in four colors and indicated the word color via keypress...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Natalie J Loxton, Renée J Tipman
Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Nuria García Marchena, Pedro Araos, Francisco Javier Pavón, Guillermo Ponce, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Arias, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Suárez, Antoni Pastor, Rafael De la Torre, Marta Torrens, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Felix Inchausti, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Nancy V García-Poveda, Alejandro Ballesteros-Prados
BACKGROUND: The term metacognition reflects a spectrum of psychological activities that allows people to form and integrate representations about their own mental states and those of others. The main goal of this study was to examine whether people with substance abuse disorders (SUDs), and treated in therapeutic community regime, displayed specific patterns of metacognitive deficits on Self-reflectivity, Understanding others’ mind, Decentration, and Mastery, comparing their scores with two clinical groups of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and anxiety disorders...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Autumn Harnish, Patrick Corrigan, Thomas Byrne, Debra A Pinals, Stephanie Rodrigues, David Smelson
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined whether substance use or mental illness was more stigmatizing among individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems. METHODS: This study included 48 individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems enrolled in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services funded treatment program. Subjects received a baseline assessment that included addiction, mental health, and stigma measures. RESULTS: The sample consisted primarily of white males with an average age of 38 years...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Mariliis Vaht, Triin Kurrikoff, Kariina Laas, Toomas Veidebaum, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. METHODS: The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25...
September 25, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amy M Cohn, Amanda L Johnson, Jessica M Rath, Andrea C Villanti
BACKGROUND: Emerging tobacco product use is on the rise in young adults and has been linked to alcohol and marijuana use. Little is known about which patterns of alcohol, marijuana, and emerging tobacco product co-use are most popular in this age group. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence of a broad spectrum of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco co-use patterns across a variety of tobacco products in a national sample of young adults. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a sub-set of 18-24 year olds (unweighted n = 3,940) from five waves of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of 18-34 year olds...
October 5, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
William A Carlezon, Andrew D Krystal
Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Zoë M Trout, Evelyn M Hernandez, Evan M Kleiman, Richard T Liu
Although considerable empirical work has been devoted to identifying risk factors for suicide attempts, most longitudinal research has studied recurrent attempts rather than first lifetime attempts. The present study sought to examine prospective predictors of first lifetime suicide attempts among adults receiving treatment for substance use. Data were drawn from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a study of addiction treatment programs. Data were collected at treatment intake, treatment exit, and one year post-treatment...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Marcela Tiburcio, Ma Asunción Lara, Araceli Aguilar Abrego, Morise Fernández, Nora Martínez Vélez, Alejandro Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The development of Web-based interventions for substance abuse in Latin America is a new field of interest with great potential for expansion to other Spanish-speaking countries. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a project aimed to develop and evaluate the usability of the Web-based Help Program for Drug Abuse and Depression (Programa de Ayuda para Abuso de Drogas y Depresión, PAADD, in Spanish) and also to construct a systematic frame of reference for the development of future Web-based programs...
September 29, 2016: JMIR Mental Health
Elena Fiabane, Eleonora Ferraris, Paola Ranalletti, Debora Conti, Ines Giorgi, Marcella Ottonello, Piergiorgio Argentero
INTRODUCTION: Substance dependence problems are considered to be a relevant issue for a large proportion of the working population and represent a huge health and occupational cost. However, few studies have examined the return to work after addiction problems. AIMS: This exploratory follow-up study aims to evaluate the return to work, in terms of employment outcomes, perceived work environment and physical and mental health of patients who have completed an addiction rehabilitation program and an employment and social intervention...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
Giovanni Ottaviani, Roberto Cameriere, Marta Cippitelli, Rino Froldi, Giovanna Tassoni, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect drugs of abuse in a single sample of tooth. Pulverized samples of dental materials were subjected to acid hydrolysis to detect opiates, cocaine and their metabolites. The residual dental materials from these analyses were subjected to basic extraction to detect cannabis products (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol). The method showed a good linearity between 0.05 and 2 ng/mg for all substances...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Benedict Morris
With the recent introduction of the Psychoactive Substances Bill in the United Kingdom, it is a useful time to retrospectively review the patterns of prevalence of the psychoactive products known as 'Legal Highs'. There has been emerging research and rapidly expanding political, public and media attention and awareness, yet comparatively little scientific discourse on the psychological aspects driving their consumption, beyond simply their legal status. This paper focuses on their usage patterns in the particularly vulnerable, but often-neglected period of young adulthood between the ages of 16-24, focussing on their prevalence, trends in pharmacology and psychological aspects of their usage and propensity for addiction...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
G Dorard, C Bungener, O Phan, Y Edel, M Corcos, S Berthoz
BACKGROUND: The use of illicit substances, in particular cannabis, among French adolescents and young adults has become an important public health concern. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in pathological substance use is nowadays critical. Psychiatric comorbidities have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but are less documented in adolescents, especially regarding cannabis dependence. OBJECTIVES: We investigated mental health problems in adolescents and young adults, seeking treatment for their problematic cannabis use, comparatively to healthy controls, taking into account the participant's gender and age...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Thomas D'Aunno, Harold Pollack, Qixuan Chen, Peter D Friedmann
BACKGROUND: To meet their aims of providing comprehensive and coordinated care, patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) need to coordinate services for individuals with substance use disorders. Yet, the 14,000 addiction treatment (AT) organizations across the United States that provide services for more than 1 million individuals daily are generally ill-prepared to work with PCMHs (eg, AT organizations often lack electronic health records). OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which AT organizations have formal linkages through contracts with PCMHs; to identify key dimensions of linkages between PCMHs and AT organizations (eg, shared use of electronic health records); to identify characteristics of AT organizations and their environments associated with these linkages...
September 15, 2016: Medical Care
Martín Galvalisi, José Pedro Prieto, Marcela Martínez, Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Cecilia Scorza
Oral, intraperitoneal, or intravenous have been the common routes of administration used to study the behavioral and neurochemical pharmacology of caffeine, one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. We have reported that caffeine is an active adulterant frequently found in coca-paste (CP)-seized samples, a highly addictive form of smokable cocaine. The role of caffeine in the psychostimulant and neurochemical effects induced by CP remains under study. No preclinical animal studies have been performed so far to characterize the effects of caffeine when it is administered through the pulmonary inhalation route...
September 8, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
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