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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328384/the-surgeon-general-s-facing-addiction-report-an-historic-document-for-healthcare
#1
Sharon Levy, J Paul Seale, Victoria A Osborne, Kevin L Kraemer, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Baxter, Deborah S Finnell, Hillary Kunins, Alexander Y Walley, David C Lewis, Doreen MacLane-Baeder, Adam J Gordon
The publication of Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health presents an historic moment not only for the field of addiction medicine, but also for the United States as a nation. The Board of Directors of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA), on behalf of our organization, would like to express our appreciation of the efforts of Dr. Vivek Murthy and the Surgeon General's Office to publish the first surgeon general's report covering substance misuse and substance use disorders...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328314/from-education-to-practice-addressing-opioid-misuse-through-healthcare-provider-training-a-special-issue-of-saj
#2
Adam J Gordon, John Daniel Harding
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324807/parenting-self-efficacy-and-empowerment-among-expectant-mothers-with-substance-use-disorders
#3
Debra H Zand, Jessica L Chou, Kathy J Pierce, Lara B Pennington, Rosalie R Dickens, Jerri Michael, Donna McNamara, Taryn White
OBJECTIVE: to describe parenting self-efficacy and family empowerment among expectant mothers with substance use disorders. DESIGN: the study employed a quantitative cross-sectional design. PARTICIPANTS: participants were 71 pregnant women with substance use disorders entering a gender-specific, substance use disorder, residential treatment facility. MEASUREMENTS: measurement tools included: the demographic data form, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, the Addiction Severity Index, and the Family Empowerment Scale...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321455/comorbid-psychopathology-and-everyday-functioning-in-a-brief-intervention-study-to-reduce-khat-use-among-somalis-living-in-kenya-description-of-baseline-multimorbidity-its-effects-of-intervention-and-its-moderation-effects-on-substance-use
#4
Marina Widmann, Bernice Apondi, Abednego Musau, Abdulkadir Hussein Warsame, Maimuna Isse, Victoria Mutiso, Clemens Veltrup, David Ndetei, Michael Odenwald
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Migration and khat use were found to correlate with high rates of psychopathology. In this paper we aimed for assessing baseline multimorbidity and its interactions with a Brief Intervention. METHODS: In the RCT, 330 male Somali khat users were assigned to treatment conditions (khat use is a predominantly male habit). The ASSIST-linked BI for khat users was administered. Using the TLFB Calendar, the PHQ-9, a Somali short version of the PDS and parts from the CIDI, khat use and comorbidity was assessed...
March 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315549/substance-abuse-and-addiction-implications-for-pain-management-in-patients-with-cancer%C3%A2
#5
Yu-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are chronic diseases that may complicate the nursing care of patients with cancer, affecting their ability to adhere to treatment protocols, responses to cancer pain, and use of opioids for analgesia. OBJECTIVES: This article explores how the presence of an SUD may affect oncology nursing care and pain management. METHODS: The PubMed and CINAHL® databases were searched for articles from 1980-2016 using the keywords cancer, cancer pain, addiction, substance abuse, and alcoholism...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315272/sigma-receptors-and-substance-use-disorders
#6
Valentina Sabino, Callum Hicks, Pietro Cottone
Thanks to advances in neuroscience, addiction is now recognized as a chronic brain disease with genetic, developmental, and cultural components. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, are able to produce significant neuroplastic changes responsible for the profound disturbances shown by drug addicted individuals. The current lack of efficacious pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders has encouraged the search for novel and more effective pharmacotherapies. Growing evidence strongly suggests that Sigma Receptors are involved in the addictive and neurotoxic properties of abused drugs, including cocaine , methamphetamine , and alcohol...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314553/is-alexithymia-related-to-cannabis-use-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-outpatient-adolescent-cannabis-abusers
#7
Géraldine Dorard, Catherine Bungener, Olivier Phan, Yves Edel, Maurice Corcos, Sylvie Berthoz
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. METHODS: 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#8
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304357/clinical-prediction-of-suicide-and-undetermined-death-a-pseudo-prospective-clinical-and-medico-legal-study-of-substance-abusers
#9
Louise Brådvik, Mats Berglund, Arne Frank, Peter Löwenhielm
This study examines aspects of prediction of suicide and death of undetermined intent. We investigated all consecutive, autopsied patients between 1993 and 1997 who had been in contact with the Addiction Centre in Malmö from 1968 onwards. The staff was asked, shortly after autopsy but before they knew of the manner of death, if they thought the patient had committed suicide. The case records were blindly evaluated, and toxicological autopsy findings for alcohol in blood samples investigated. The specificity of prediction was 83% and significantly more often correct than the sensitivity, which was only 45% for suicide and for suicide/death of undetermined intent (93% versus 39%)...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296627/predictors-of-early-relapse-among-adolescent-crack-users
#11
Ronaldo Lopes-Rosa, Félix P Kessler, Thiago G Pianca, Luciano Guimarães, Pedro Ferronato, Esequiel Pagnussat, Helena Moura, Flavio Pechansky, Lisia von Diemen
Relapse is associated with a poor prognosis among drug users. Crack cocaine users are more prone to severe dependence because of the intensity of use. Additionally, initiating drug use during adolescence worsens users' prognosis due to the increased rates of impulsivity and other risk behaviors. This study aimed to identify the predictors of early relapse among adolescent crack users discharged from inpatient treatment. A cohort study was conducted with 89 psychiatric inpatients aged 12-17 years from two different hospitals in southern Brazil who met the criteria for crack abuse or dependence...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296623/medicalizing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-u-s-in-the-era-of-health-care-reform
#12
David E Smith
The medicalization of the current opioid epidemic in the era of health care reform and parity, and its possible dismantling, poses many challenges. Between 2002 and 2013, drug overdose rates quadrupled. Parallel to an increase in prescription opioid overdose, heroin overdose deaths are increasing as patients shift to cheaper and more accessible heroin from the prescription opioids which physicians are prescribing less often due to increasing regulatory restrictions, as well as enhanced education and awareness...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291977/five-factor-model-personality-profiles-the-differences-between-alcohol-and-opiate-addiction-among-females
#13
Diana Raketic, Jasmina V Barisic, Snezana M Svetozarevic, Tatjana Gazibara, Darija Kisic Tepavcevic, Srdjan D Milovanovic
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. AIM: The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291777/adolescent-but-not-adult-ethanol-binge-drinking-modulates-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-mice
#14
Juan Carlos Ledesma, Maria A Aguilar, Pablo Giménez-Gómez, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
BACKGROUND: Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285325/mglu1-receptor-as-a-drug-target-for-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-time-to-gather-stones-together
#15
REVIEW
Olga A Dravolina, Edwin Zvartau, Wojciech Danysz, Anton Y Bespalov
Modulation of the mGlu1 receptor was repeatedly shown to inhibit various phenomena associated with exposure to abused drugs. Efficacy in preclinical models was observed with both positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) using essentially non-overlapping sets of experimental methods. Taken together, these data indicate that the mGlu1 receptor certainly plays a significant role in the plasticity triggered by the exposure to abused drugs and is involved in the maintenance of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors...
March 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268256/cannabidiol-regulation-of-emotion-and-emotional-memory-processing-relevance-for-treating-anxiety-related-and-substance-abuse-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Francisco S Guimarães, Carl W Stevenson
Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261068/gabrb1-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-associated-with-altered-brain-responses-but-not-performance-during-measures-of-impulsivity-and-reward-sensitivity-in-human-adolescents
#17
Theodora Duka, Kyriaki Nikolaou, Sarah L King, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Christian Büchel, Fabiana M Carvalho, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Tianye Jia, Penny Gowland, Jean-Luc Martinot, Tomáš Paus, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael Smolka, Gunter Schumann, David N Stephens
Variations in genes encoding several GABAA receptors have been associated with human drug and alcohol abuse. Among these, a number of human studies have suggested an association between GABRB1, the gene encoding GABAA receptor β1 subunits, with Alcohol dependence (AD), both on its own and comorbid with other substance dependence and psychiatric illnesses. In the present study, we hypothesized that the GABRB1 genetically-associated increased risk for developing alcoholism may be associated with impaired behavioral control and altered sensitivity to reward, as a consequence of altered brain function...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257514/analysis-of-print-news-media-framing-of-ketamine-treatment-in-the-united-states-and-canada-from-2000-to-2015
#18
Melvyn W B Zhang, Ying X Hong, Syeda F Husain, Keith M Harris, Roger C M Ho
OBJECTIVES: There are multifaceted views on the use of ketamine, a potentially addictive substance, to treat mental health problems. The past 15 years have seen growing media coverage of ketamine for medical and other purposes. This study examined the print news media coverage of medical and other uses of ketamine in North America to determine orientations and trends over time. METHODS: Print newspaper coverage of ketamine from 2000 to 2015 was reviewed, resulting in 43 print news articles from 28 North American newspapers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254070/computer-tool-to-evaluate-the-cue-reactivity-of-chemically-dependent-individuals
#19
Meire Luci da Silva, Annie France Frère, Henrique Jesus Quintino de Oliveira, Helio Martucci Neto, Terigi Augusto Scardovelli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anxiety is one of the major influences on the dropout of relapse and treatment of substance abuse treatment. Chemically dependent individuals need (CDI) to be aware of their emotional state in situations of risk during their treatment. Many patients do not agree with the diagnosis of the therapist when considering them vulnerable to environmental stimuli related to drugs. This research presents a cue reactivity detection tool based on a device acquiring physiological signals connected to personal computer...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251590/towards-precision-addiction-treatment-new-findings-in-co-morbid-substance-use-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sean X Luo, Frances R Levin
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) may have common etiologies. ADHD is more prevalent in patients with substance use disorders, and this pattern is consistent across different substances of abuse. Individuals with SUDs and ADHD exhibit significant variations in their clinical presentations. The developmental trajectory of ADHD to SUDs is complex: ADHD symptoms appear first in some patients but not in others. Many patients present with a heterogeneous collection of psychiatric and substance use co-morbidities, and these symptoms change over time...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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