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Rebekah M Dedrick, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Carlos A Guerrero Bustamante, Rebecca A Garlena, Travis N Mavrich, Welkin H Pope, Juan C Cervantes Reyes, Daniel A Russell, Tamarah Adair, Richard Alvey, J Alfred Bonilla, Jerald S Bricker, Bryony R Brown, Deanna Byrnes, Steven G Cresawn, William B Davis, Leon A Dickson, Nicholas P Edgington, Ann M Findley, Urszula Golebiewska, Julianne H Grose, Cory F Hayes, Lee E Hughes, Keith W Hutchison, Sharon Isern, Allison A Johnson, Margaret A Kenna, Karen K Klyczek, Catherine M Mageeney, Scott F Michael, Sally D Molloy, Matthew T Montgomery, James Neitzel, Shallee T Page, Marie C Pizzorno, Marianne K Poxleitner, Claire A Rinehart, Courtney J Robinson, Michael R Rubin, Joseph N Teyim, Edwin Vazquez, Vassie C Ware, Jacqueline Washington, Graham F Hatfull
Temperate phages are common, and prophages are abundant residents of sequenced bacterial genomes. Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, encompass substantial genetic diversity and are commonly temperate. Characterization of ten Cluster N temperate mycobacteriophages revealed at least five distinct prophage-expressed viral defence systems that interfere with the infection of lytic and temperate phages that are either closely related (homotypic defence) or unrelated (heterotypic defence) to the prophage...
January 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Xiu-Li Cao, Xing Zhang, Yu-Fei Zhang, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Chang-Geng Song, Fan Liu, Yi-Yang Hu, Min-Hua Zheng, Hua Han
Ttyh1 is a murine homolog of the Drosophila Tweety and is predicted as a five-pass transmembrane protein. The Ttyh1 mRNA is expressed in mouse brain tissues with a restricted pattern and in human glioma cells. Ttyh1 protein may function as a large-conductance chloride channel, however, the role of Ttyh1 in normal neural development and tumorigenesis has been largely unknown, at least partially due to the lack of effective antibodies. Here we report the expression in E. coli and purification of two recombinant Ttyh1 protein fragments corresponding to one of the predicted extracellular domains and the carboxyl terminus of the mouse Ttyh1...
September 25, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Andrew D Halleran, Morgan Sehdev, Brian A Rabe, Ryan W Huyck, Cheyenne C Williams, Margaret S Saha
The tweety family of genes encodes large-conductance chloride channels and has been implicated in a wide array of cellular processes including cell division, cell adhesion, regulation of calcium activity, and tumorigenesis, particularly in neuronal cells. However, their expression patterns during early development remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal patterning of ttyh1, ttyh2, and ttyh3 in Xenopus laevis during early embryonic development. Ttyh1 and ttyh3 are initially expressed at the late neurula stage are and primarily localized to the developing nervous system; however ttyh1 and ttyh3 both show transient expression in the somites...
January 2015: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Amal Said Darweesh, Manal Louis Louka, Maha Hana, Shaymaa Rashad, Mohamed El-Shinawi, Ahmed Sharaf-Eldin, Samar Kamal Kassim
A previously reported microarray data analysis by RISS algorithm on breast cancer showed over-expression of the growth factor receptor (Grb7) and it also highlighted Tweety (TTYH1) gene to be under expressed in breast cancer for the first time. Our aim was to validate the results obtained from the microarray analysis with respect to these genes. Also, the relationship between their expression and the different prognostic indicators was addressed. RNA was extracted from the breast tissue of 30 patients with primary malignant breast cancer...
October 2014: Medical Oncology
Madeleine Pritchard, Naomi Cocks, Lucy Dipper
Although there is a substantive body of research about the language used by individuals with aphasia, relatively little is known about their spontaneous iconic gesture. A single case study of LT, an individual with conduction aphasia indicated qualitative differences between the spontaneous iconic gestures produced alongside fluent speech and in tip of the tongue states. The current study examined the iconic gestures produced by another individual with conduction aphasia, WT, and a group of 11 control participants...
October 2013: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Marzena Stefaniuk, Lukasz Swiech, Joanna Dzwonek, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
We have previously shown that Ttyh1 mRNA is expressed in neurons and its expression is up-regulated in the brain during epileptogenesis and epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of Ttyh1 in neurons. We found widespread expression of Ttyh1 protein in neurons in vivo and in vitro. Ttyh1 immunoreactivity in vitro was frequently found in invaginations of dendritic spines; however, Ttyh1, seldom co-localized with synaptic markers in vivo. Silencing Ttyh1 expression with siRNA in hippocampal cultures resulted in alterations of MAP2 distribution along neurites causing it to appear in the form of chains of beads...
December 2010: Journal of Neurochemistry
Marzena Stefaniuk, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The goal of this study was to clone and sequence selected expressed sequence tags (ESTs) which mRNA is upregulated in a rat model of epilepsy based on our previous work [17] and to determine the localization of their mRNA expression in the normal brain. Six ESTs that had not been assigned to any gene at the time of the inception of our experiments were chosen for analysis. Radioactive in situ hybridization revealed that the expression of four transcripts (AA955087, AA875438, AA899079, AA819660) was clearly localized to hippocampal neurons and was also detected in the cortex...
October 4, 2010: Neuroscience Letters
Tomohiro Kumada, Yasunari Yamanaka, Ayumi Kitano, Minoru Shibata, Tomonari Awaya, Takeo Kato, Katsuya Okawa, Takaya Abe, Naoko Oshima, Tatsutoshi Nakahata, Toshio Heike
Using comprehensive genetic studies on neuronal stem/progenitors cells through genome-wide screening with oligonucleotide arrays, we identified an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -resident protein, Tweety homologue 1 (ttyh1). Ttyh1 encodes a glycosylated protein composed of five predicted transmembrane segments and a C-terminus that is enriched in negatively charged residues capable of Ca(2+) binding. Ttyh1-containing membranes changed to segmented tubuloreticular structures during mitosis, suggesting that the ER-containing Ttyh1 could be responsible for Ca(2+) sequestration and Ca(2+) concentration regulation during mitosis...
August 2010: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Marine Henry, Orla O'Sullivan, Roy D Sleator, Aidan Coffey, R Paul Ross, Olivia McAuliffe, Jim M O'Mahony
Ardmore is a novel mycobacteriophage isolated from a soil sample collected in County Waterford, Ireland. The genome of this phage has been fully sequenced and is composed of 52,141 bp of linear double stranded DNA with a GC content of 61.49%. 88 ORFs were identified of which 34 were assigned predicted functions based on their homology to previously characterised proteins, their location in the genome, computer-predicted structural characteristics or presence of conserved motifs in their sequence. The Ardmore genome appears highly similar to mycobacteriophages Fruitloop and Tweety with BLASTn analysis showing 87% and 80% identity respectively...
March 15, 2010: Gene
Mathieu Boudes, Chamroeun Sar, Aurélie Menigoz, Cécile Hilaire, Marie O Péquignot, Alexei Kozlenkov, Alan Marmorstein, Patrick Carroll, Jean Valmier, Frédérique Scamps
We investigated the molecular determinants of Ca(2+)-activated chloride current (CaCC) expressed in adult sensory neurons after a nerve injury. Dorsal root ganglia express the transcripts of three gene families known to induce CaCCs in heterologous systems: bestrophin, tweety, and TMEM16. We found with quantitative transcriptional analysis and in situ hybridization that nerve injury induced upregulation of solely bestrophin-1 transcripts in sensory neurons. Gene screening with RNA interference in single neurons demonstrated that mouse Best1 is required for the expression of CaCC in injured sensory neurons...
August 12, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marco Morciano, Tobias Beckhaus, Michael Karas, Herbert Zimmermann, Walter Volknandt
The presynaptic proteome controls neurotransmitter release and the short and long term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. Using a monoclonal antibody against synaptic vesicle protein 2 we immunopurified a presynaptic compartment containing the active zone with synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane as well as elements of the presynaptic cytomatrix. Individual protein bands separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were subjected to nanoscale-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
February 2009: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yaowu He, Deanne H Hryciw, Melanie L Carroll, Stephen A Myers, Astrid K Whitbread, Sharad Kumar, Philip Poronnik, John D Hooper
The Tweety proteins comprise a family of chloride ion channels with three members identified in humans (TTYH1-3) and orthologues in fly and murine species. In humans, increased TTYH2 expression is associated with cancer progression, whereas fly Tweety is associated with developmental processes. Structurally, Tweety proteins are characterized by five membrane-spanning domains and N-glycan modifications important for trafficking to the plasma membrane, where these proteins are oriented with the amino terminus located extracellularly and the carboxyl terminus cytoplasmically...
August 29, 2008: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yaowu He, Andrew J Ramsay, Melanie L Hunt, Astrid K Whitbread, Stephen A Myers, John D Hooper
The Tweety proteins are a family of recently identified putative Cl(-) channels predicted to be modified by N-glycosylation and, controversially, to contain five or six membrane-spanning domains, leading to the contentious proposal that members of this family do not share the same topology at the plasma membrane. In humans, three family members have been identified, designated TTYH1 (Tweety homologue 1), TTYH2 and TTYH3. To gain greater insight into the arrangement of membrane-spanning domains and cellular processing of Tweety proteins, in the present study we have examined the sequence homology, hydrophobicity and N-glycan content of members of this family and performed N-glycosylation site-mutagenesis studies on TTYH2 and TTYH3...
May 15, 2008: Biochemical Journal
Mohammed Al-Jumaily, Alexei Kozlenkov, Ilana Mechaly, Agnes Fichard, Valerie Matha, Frederique Scamps, Jean Valmier, Patrick Carroll
Objective A calcium-activated chloride current (IClCa) has been observed in medium-sized sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Axotomy of the sciatic nerve induces a similar current in the majority of medium and large diameter neurons. Our aim is to identify the molecule(s) underlying this current. Methods Using conventional and quantitative RT-PCR, we examined the expression in DRG of members of three families of genes, which have been shown to have IClCa current inducing properties. Results We showed the detection of transcripts representing several members of these families, i...
September 2007: Neuroscience Bulletin
Thuy T Pham, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Marisa L Pedulla, Roger W Hendrix, Graham F Hatfull
Mycobacteriophage Tweety is a newly isolated phage of Mycobacterium smegmatis. It has a viral morphology with an isometric head and a long flexible tail, and forms turbid plaques from which stable lysogens can be isolated. The Tweety genome is 58 692 bp in length, contains 109 protein-coding genes, and shows significant but interrupted nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously described mycobacteriophages Llij, PMC and Che8. However, overall the genome possesses mosaic architecture, with gene products being related to other mycobacteriophages such as Che9d, Omega and Corndog...
August 2007: Microbiology
Yuji Toiyama, Akira Mizoguchi, Kazushi Kimura, Junichirou Hiro, Yasuhiro Inoue, Tomonari Tutumi, Chikao Miki, Masato Kusunoki
AIM: To investigate the expression patterns of TTYH2 in the human colon cancer and colon cancer cell lines and to evaluate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of TTYH2 in colon cancer cell lines. METHODS: We investigated the expression patterns of TTYH2 in colon cancer, adjacent non-tumorous colon mucosa, and cancer cell lines (DLD-1, caco-2, and Lovo) by RT-PCR. Furthermore, a siRNA plasmid expression vector against TTYH2 was constructed and transfected into DLD-1 and Caco-2 with Lipofectamine 2000...
May 21, 2007: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Deb Gauldin
In this column, a childbirth educator humorously reflects on teen tattoos.
2004: Journal of Perinatal Education
Iain A Greenwood, Normand Leblanc
Research into Ca2+-activated Cl- channels is hampered by the inability to decipher their molecular identity and the fact that all extant Cl- channel blockers have effects on other ion channels. Most notably, Cl- channel blockers such as the fenamates (e.g. niflumic acid and flufenamic acid) activate Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, although other pharmacological overlaps have been discovered. In this article, we highlight the complex pharmacology of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels and the caveats associated with using these blockers--a necessary requirement because many researchers use Cl- channel blockers as probes for Cl- channel activity...
January 2007: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Clayton A Matthews, John E Shaw, Jane A Hooper, Ian G Young, Michael F Crouch, Hugh D Campbell
Homologues of the Drosophila melanogaster tweety (tty) gene are present in mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans. The encoded proteins have five predicted membrane-spanning regions and recent findings suggest that some family members may be chloride channels. Phylogenetic analysis of the tty family including novel members from slime mould Entamoeba and plants has revealed the occurrence of independent gene duplication events in different lineages. expressed sequence tag data indicate that expression of the mammalian Ttyh1 gene is restricted mainly to neural tissue and is up-regulated in astrocytoma, glioma and several other cancers...
February 2007: Journal of Neurochemistry
M Suzuki, T Morita, T Iwamoto
Cl(-) channels are widely found anion pores that are regulated by a variety of signals and that play various roles. On the basis of molecular biologic findings, ligand-gated Cl(-) channels in synapses, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductors (CFTRs) and ClC channel types have been established, followed by bestrophin and possibly by tweety, which encode Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. The ClC family has been shown to possess a variety of functions, including stabilization of membrane potential, excitation, cell-volume regulation, fluid transport, protein degradation in endosomal vesicles and possibly cell growth...
January 2006: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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