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clinical chemistry hematology

Carling D Gerlinsky, Martin Haulena, Andrew W Trites, David A S Rosen
Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Maija Määttänen, Vesa Kärjä, Katri Puukka, Jari Aho, Seppo Saarela, Petteri Nieminen
Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of striated muscle) is a novel form of mushroom poisoning in Europe and Asia indicated by increased circulating creatine kinase levels. Particular wild fungi have also been reported to induce elevated creatine kinase activities in mice. Flammulina velutipes (enokitake or winter mushroom) is one of the most actively cultivated mushroom species globally. As it is marketed as a medicinal mushroom and functional food, it is important to examine whether it could induce potentially harmful health effects similar to some previously studied edible fungi...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Urska Kamensek, Natasa Tesic, Gregor Sersa, Maja Cemazar
Plasmids, which are currently used in interleukin 12 (IL-12) gene electrotransfer (GET) clinical trials in the USA, contain antibiotic resistance genes and are thus, according to the safety recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), not suitable for clinical trials in the EU. In the current study, our aim was to prepare an IL-12 plasmid without an antibiotic resistance gene and test its functionality and toxicity after GET in a preclinical B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The antibiotic resistance-free plasmid encoding the human IL-12 fusion gene linked to the p21 promoter, i...
February 27, 2018: Cancers
Zixin Xie, Shiying Zou, Wentao Xu, Xu Liu, Kunlun Huang, Xiaoyun He
The genetically modified (GM) soybean FG72 contains two exogenous genes: p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) and double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mepsps), endowing the FG72 with the glyphosate and isoxaflutole herbicides resistant abilities for presence of the 2mEPSPS and HPPD W336 proteins. A food safety assessment of GM soybean FG72 was evaluated by a 90-days feeding study using three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15%, or 30% w/w) of the GM soybean or its corresponding non-GM cultivar Jack fed to Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Michael V Accardi, Oreola Donini, Adam Rumage, Alexis Ascah, Julius Haruna, Mylène Pouliot, Kim Bujold, Hai Haung, Wieslaw Wierzbicki, John Stamatopoulos, Houman Naraghi, Thomas Measey, Simon Authier
PURPOSE: Characterization of a novel partial body irradiation (PBI) shielding strategy in nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques), aimed at protecting the oral cavity, with respect to various gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) syndrome parameters as well as buccal ulceration development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHPs were irradiated using a Cobalt-60 gamma source, in a single uniform dose, ranging from 9-13 Gy and delivered at 0.60-0.80 Gy min -1 . Animals were either partially shielded via oral cavity shielding (PBI OS ) or underwent total body irradiation (TBI)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Li Hou, Chunguang Fan, Chenghu Liu, Qiujin Qu, Chunren Wang, Yanping Shi
Systemic toxicity caused by repeated exposure to both polar and nonpolar leachables of di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2-cyclohexane plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was evaluated with dual routes of parenteral administration method on rats in the study. Experimental group and control group were designed by researchers. Tail intravenous injection with 0.9% sodium chloride injection extracts and intraperitoneal injection with corn oil extracts were conducted to the experimental rats while tail intravenous injection with 0...
February 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Brian Smith, Yi-Hsin Hsu, Rene Flores, Mihai Gagea, Suzanne Craig, Mien-Chie Hung
c-MET inhibitor, crizotinib, and CDK 4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, have been evaluated in combination as cancer treatment in vitro. Because the toxicological data for the combination of these drugs is limited, we investigated the toxicity of the crizotinib and palbociclib combination in 80 ICR (CD-1) mice (average age = ~20 weeks). Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial and included sex (female vs. male), crizotinib (0 or 4 mg), and palbociclib (0 or 1 mg). Drugs were administered to mice by oral gavage 24 hours (n = 40) and 7 days (n = 40) prior to the collection of blood and tissue samples to determine serum chemistry, hematology, and histopathology...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
John M Lambert, Anna Berkenblit
The concept of exploiting the specific binding properties of monoclonal antibodies as a mechanism for selective delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells is an attractive solution to the challenge of increasing the therapeutic index of cell-killing agents for treating cancer. All three parts of an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC)-the antibody, the cytotoxic payload, and the linker chemistry that joins them together-as well as the biologic properties of the cell-surface target antigen are important in designing an effective anticancer agent...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Germán Lobos Andrade, Carolina Salas Palma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. METHOD: Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. RESULTS: The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD) were: 1...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Daehee Kim, Rit Bahadur Gurung, Wonmin Seo, Albert W Lee, Jinsuk Woo
The safety of 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3'-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3'-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities...
January 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Hyun-Jin Kim, Young-Chul Lee, Qi Jia
Patients with osteoarthritis experience debilitating pain and loss of joint function that requires chronic treatment. While nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been effective for temporary symptomatic relief, their long term usage has been limited by their associated side-effects. UP1306, a standardized novel composition from the extracts of root barks of Morus alba and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used in over the counter joint care dietary supplements as a safer alternative. These two medicinal plants have long track records of safe human consumption...
January 30, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Sabrina Buoro, Giorgio Da Rin, Alessandra Fanelli, Giuseppe Lippi
The goal of harmonizing laboratory testing is contributing to improving the quality of patient care and ultimately ameliorating patient outcome. The complete blood and leukocyte differential counts are among the most frequently requested clinical laboratory tests. The morphological assessment of peripheral blood cells (PB) through microscopic examination of properly stained blood smears is still considered a hallmark of laboratory hematology. Nevertheless, a variable inter-observer experience and the different terminology used for characterizing cellular abnormalities both contribute to the current lack of harmonization in blood smear revision...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Marilyn B Nourse, Kate Engel, Samartha G Anekal, Jocelyn A Bailey, Pradeep Bhatta, Devayani P Bhave, Shekar Chandrasekaran, Yutao Chen, Steven Chow, Ushati Das, Erez Galil, Xinwei Gong, Steven F Gessert, Kevin D Ha, Ran Hu, Laura Hyland, Arvind Jammalamadaka, Karthik Jayasurya, Timothy M Kemp, Andrew N Kim, Lucie S Lee, Yang Lily Liu, Alphonso Nguyen, Jared O'Leary, Chinmay H Pangarkar, Paul J Patel, Ken Quon, Pradeep L Ramachandran, Amy R Rappaport, Joy Roy, Jerald F Sapida, Nikolay V Sergeev, Chandan Shee, Renuka Shenoy, Sharada Sivaraman, Bernardo Sosa-Padilla, Lorraine Tran, Amanda Trent, Thomas C Waggoner, Dariusz Wodziak, Amy Yuan, Peter Zhao, Daniel L Young, Channing R Robertson, Elizabeth A Holmes
The ability to perform laboratory testing near the patient and with smaller blood volumes would benefit patients and physicians alike. We describe our design of a miniaturized clinical laboratory system with three components: a hardware platform (ie, the miniLab) that performs preanalytical and analytical processing steps using miniaturized sample manipulation and detection modules, an assay-configurable cartridge that provides consumable materials and assay reagents, and a server that communicates bidirectionally with the miniLab to manage assay-specific protocols and analyze, store, and report results (i...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
Claudia Schwarz, Slaven Stekovic, Miranka Wirth, Gloria Benson, Philipp Royer, Stephan J Sigrist, Thomas Pieber, Christopher Dammbrueck, Christoph Magnes, Tobias Eisenberg, Tobias Pendl, Jens Bohlken, Theresa Köbe, Frank Madeo, Agnes Flöel
Supplementation of spermidine, an autophagy-inducing agent, has been shown to protect against neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in aged animal models. The present translational study aimed to determine safety and tolerability of a wheat germ extract containing enhanced spermidine concentrations. In a preclinical toxicity study, supplementation of spermidine using this extract did not result in morbidities or changes in behavior in BALBc/Rj mice during the 28-days repeated-dose tolerance study. Post mortem examination of the mice organs showed no increase in tumorigenic and fibrotic events...
January 8, 2018: Aging
Abdishakur Abdulle, Abdullah Alnaeemi, Abdullah Aljunaibi, Abdulrahman Al Ali, Khaled Al Saedi, Eiman Al Zaabi, Naima Oumeziane, Marina Al Bastaki, Mohammed Al-Houqani, Fatma Al Maskari, Ayesha Al Dhaheri, Syed M Shah, Tom Loney, Mohamed El-Sadig, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Leila Abdel Wareth, Wael Al Mahmeed, Habiba Alsafar, Benjamin Hirsch, Fatme Al Anouti, Jamila Yaaqoub, Claire K Inman, Aisha Al Hamiz, Ayesha Al Hosani, Muna Haji, Teeb Alsharid, Thekra Al Zaabi, Fatima Al Maisary, Divya Galani, Tim Sprosen, Omar El Shahawy, Jiyoung Ahn, Tomas Kirchhoff, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Richard Hayes, Scott Sherman, Raghib Ali
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events...
January 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lina Wu, Xiaofei Wen, Xiance Wang, Chunan Wang, Xilin Sun, Kai Wang, Huiying Zhang, Todd Williams, Allen J Stacy, Junjie Chen, Anne H Schmieder, Gregory M Lanza, Baozhong Shen
Eighty percent of lung cancers originate as subtle premalignant changes in the airway mucosal epithelial layer of bronchi and alveoli, which evolve and penetrate deeper into the parenchyma. Liquid-ventilation, with perfluorocarbons (PFC) was first demonstrated in rodents in 1966 then subsequently applied as lipid-encapsulated PFC emulsions to improve pulmonary function in neonatal infants suffering with respiratory distress syndrome in 1996. Subsequently, PFC nanoparticles (NP) were extensively studied as intravenous (IV) vascular-constrained nanotechnologies for diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery applications...
2018: Theranostics
S N Chen, C S Chang, S Chen, Madhu Soni
Antrodia cinnamomea is one of the most highly valued mushrooms utilized in traditional Taiwanese therapeutic practices. Its neutral monosaccharides (mannose, glucose and xylose) linked by a β-D-glucan chain have been claimed to be responsible for its health benefits. The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of β-glucan (∼65% pure) from A. cinnamomea in subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were followed Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) application, and were administered (gavage) Antrodia mushroom β-glucan preparation at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days...
December 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Darshan Singh, Christian P Müller, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Bonnie Avery, Nelson Jeng Yeou Chear, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mads Nybo, Merete E Lund, Kjell Titlestad, Christian U Maegaard
BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation of blood samples, existing literature on the subject was systematically assessed. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses (PRISMA) Statement guidelines to gather studies investigating the impact of PTS on analyses in blood samples...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
Pietro Celi, Scot Williams, Mark Engstrom, Joseph McGrath, James La Marta
The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of 25-OH-D3 addition to the diet of bovine calves. The investigation was conducted as a feeding experiment for 90 days. 40 calves were allotted to four groups: T1 - control group which received 30 IU vitamin D3 /kg feed, and three experimental groups, which received 25-OH-D3 in increasing dosages: T2 - 25-OH-D3 at 1.7 μg/kg, T3 - 25-OH-D3 at 5.1 μg/kg and T4 - 25-OH-D3 at 8.5 μg/kg. All calves in the four groups gained weight continually: no growth depression was observed...
January 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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