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clinical chemistry hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764242/morbidity-and-mortality-resulting-from-acute-inhalation-exposures-to-hydrogen-fluoride-and-carbonyl-fluoride-in-rats
#1
Adolph J Januszkiewicz, Matthew A Bazar, Lee C B Crouse, Michael A Chapman, Steven E Hodges, Steven J McCormick, Arthur J O'Neill
OBJECTIVE: Experiments were undertaken to compare morbidity and mortality from brief inhalation exposures to high levels of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and carbonyl fluoride (COF2 ). METHODS: Rats from both sexes were exposed for durations of 5 and 10 min to nominal concentrations of 10,000 to 57,000 ppm HF or 500 to 10,000 ppm COF2 . Respiration was monitored before, during, and after exposure. Animals were observed up to 6 days post-exposure. Terminal blood samples were collected for routine clinical chemistry and hematology...
May 15, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763631/safety-evaluation-of-genetically-modified-das-40278-9-maize-in-a-subchronic-rodent-feeding-study
#2
Shiying Zou, Tianqi Lang, Xu Liu, Kunlun Huang, Xiaoyun He
Genetically modified (GM) maize, DAS-40278-9, expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein, which confers tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides. The aad-1 gene, which expresses the AAD-1 protein, was derived from Gram-negative soil bacterium, Sphingobium herbicidovorans. A 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted on rats as a component of the safety evaluation of DAS-40278-9 maize. Rats were given formulated diets containing maize grain from DAS-40278-9 or a non-GM near isogenic control comparator at an incorporation rate of 12...
May 12, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717985/-calcitriol-induced-hypercalcemia-in-a-hunting-dog-with-a-disseminated-paecilomyces-variotii-infection
#3
C Weingart, J Raila, A Lübke-Becker, O Kershaw, M Brunnberg, B Kohn
A 5-year old hunting dog was presented with reduced appetite, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. Hematology and clinical chemistry revealed anemia, leukocytosis, increased liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia and hypercalcemia. The cytological, pathohistological and microbiological examination identified a disseminated infection with the saprophytic mould fungus Paecilomyces variotii in the biopsies of the spleen and a lymph node. Determination of vitamin D metabolites confirmed a calcitriol induced hypercalcemia...
May 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704448/establishment-of-new-complete-blood-count-reference-values-for-healthy-thai-adults
#4
P Wongkrajang, W Chinswangwatanakul, C Mokkhamakkun, N Chuangsuwanich, B Wesarachkitti, B Thaowto, S Laiwejpithaya, O Komkhum
INTRODUCTION: Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693474/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#5
De-Yuan Zhi, Jin Lin, Hai-Zhou Zhuang, Lei Dong, Xiao-Jun Ji, Dong-Cheng Guo, Xiao-Wei Yang, Shuai Liu, Zu Yue, Shu-Jing Yu, Mei-Li Duan
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine the clinical profile of critically ill patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to investigate clinical characteristics associated with the outcome of patients. METHODS: Data from 582 critically ill patients were collected and retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: without AKI development and with AKI development. Baseline characteristics, laboratory, and other clinical data were compared between these two groups, and correlations between the characteristics and AKI development were examined...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683797/uncertainty-evaluation-in-clinical-chemistry-immunoassay-hematology-and-coagulation-analytes-using-only-external-quality-assessment-data
#6
Yanyan Qin, Rui Zhou, Wei Wang, Hongyi Yin, Yanmin Yang, Yuhong Yue, Qing Tong, Lu Liu, Yali Jin, Yankun Shi, Shunli Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Rui Zhang, Chang Zuo, Tingting Jia, Ning Wang, Qingtao Wang
BACKGROUND: Measurement uncertainty (MU) is a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes its dispersion. We report results for estimating MU following the application of a top-down procedure using only proficiency test data to establish uncertainty levels for various analytes. METHODS: Data were obtained from 142 laboratories participating in the Beijing Center for Clinical Laboratory (BCCL) proficiency testing/external quality assessment (PT/EQA) schemes...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672266/indirect-methods-for-reference-interval-determination-review-and-recommendations
#7
Graham R D Jones, Rainer Haeckel, Tze Ping Loh, Ken Sikaris, Thomas Streichert, Alex Katayev, Julian H Barth, Yesim Ozarda
Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554821/renal-and-hematologic-comparative-effects-of-dissociated-agonist-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-prednisone-in-dogs-with-and-without-food-restriction
#8
Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel, Timothy LaBranche, Joseph A Dybowski, Marjorie A Peraza, Susan S Portugal, Daniel J Lettiere
Glomerulopathy and body weight gain were noted after chronic oral administration of a novel nonsteroidal dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor compound, fosdagrocorat, to beagle dogs fed an ad libitum diet. To further investigate the role of diet and treatment with either fosdagrocorat or the glucocorticoid comparator, prednisone, on renal safety, a 13-week investigative study was conducted in beagle dogs. Renal histopathology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), body weight, heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and hematology were investigated in restricted- and ad libitum-fed dogs administered prednisone (2...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517439/reference-ranges-and-age-related-and-diving-exercise-effects-on-hematology-and-serum-chemistry-of-female-steller-sea-lions-eumetopias-jubatus
#9
Carling D Gerlinsky, Martin Haulena, Andrew W Trites, David A S Rosen
Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495884/myo-and-cardiotoxic-effects-of-the-wild-winter-mushroom-flammulina-velutipes-on-mice
#10
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Maija Määttänen, Vesa Kärjä, Katri Puukka, Jari Aho, Seppo Saarela, Petteri Nieminen
Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of striated muscle) is a novel form of mushroom poisoning in Europe and Asia indicated by increased circulating creatine kinase levels. Particular wild fungi have also been reported to induce elevated creatine kinase activities in mice. Flammulina velutipes (enokitake or winter mushroom) is one of the most actively cultivated mushroom species globally. As it is marketed as a medicinal mushroom and functional food, it is important to examine whether it could induce potentially harmful health effects similar to some previously studied edible fungi...
April 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495490/clinically-usable-interleukin-12-plasmid-without-an-antibiotic-resistance-gene-functionality-and-toxicity-study-in-murine-melanoma-model
#11
Urska Kamensek, Natasa Tesic, Gregor Sersa, Maja Cemazar
Plasmids, which are currently used in interleukin 12 (IL-12) gene electrotransfer (GET) clinical trials in the USA, contain antibiotic resistance genes and are thus, according to the safety recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), not suitable for clinical trials in the EU. In the current study, our aim was to prepare an IL-12 plasmid without an antibiotic resistance gene and test its functionality and toxicity after GET in a preclinical B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The antibiotic resistance-free plasmid encoding the human IL-12 fusion gene linked to the p21 promoter, i...
February 27, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462651/no-subchronic-toxicity-of-multiple-herbicide-resistant-soybean-fg72-in-sprague-dawley-rats-by-90-days-feeding-study
#12
Zixin Xie, Shiying Zou, Wentao Xu, Xu Liu, Kunlun Huang, Xiaoyun He
The genetically modified (GM) soybean FG72 contains two exogenous genes: p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) and double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mepsps), endowing the FG72 with the glyphosate and isoxaflutole herbicides resistant abilities for presence of the 2mEPSPS and HPPD W336 proteins. A food safety assessment of GM soybean FG72 was evaluated by a 90-days feeding study using three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15%, or 30% w/w) of the GM soybean or its corresponding non-GM cultivar Jack fed to Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447591/characterization-of-a-partial-body-irradiation-model-with-oral-cavity-shielding-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Michael V Accardi, Oreola Donini, Adam Rumage, Alexis Ascah, Julius Haruna, Mylène Pouliot, Kim Bujold, Hai Huang, Wieslaw Wierzbicki, John Stamatopoulos, Houman Naraghi, Thomas Measey, Simon Authier
PURPOSE: Characterization of a novel partial-body irradiation (PBI) shielding strategy in nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques), aimed at protecting the oral cavity, with respect to various gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS) syndrome parameters as well as buccal ulceration development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHPs were irradiated using a Cobalt-60 gamma source, in a single uniform dose, ranging from 9-13 Gy and delivered at 0.60-0.80 Gy min-1 ...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423263/evaluation-of-repeated-exposure-systemic-toxicity-test-of-pvc-with-new-plasticizer-on-rats-via-dual-parenteral-routes
#14
Li Hou, Chunguang Fan, Chenghu Liu, Qiujin Qu, Chunren Wang, Yanping Shi
Systemic toxicity caused by repeated exposure to both polar and nonpolar leachables of di(2-ethylhexyl)-1,2-cyclohexane plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was evaluated with dual routes of parenteral administration method on rats in the study. Experimental group and control group were designed by researchers. Tail intravenous injection with 0.9% sodium chloride injection extracts and intraperitoneal injection with corn oil extracts were conducted to the experimental rats while tail intravenous injection with 0...
February 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416931/single-oral-dose-acute-and-subacute-toxicity-of-a-c-met-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-and-cdk-4-6-inhibitor-combination-drug-therapy
#15
Brian Smith, Yi-Hsin Hsu, Rene Flores, Mihai Gagea, Suzanne Craig, Mien-Chie Hung
c-MET inhibitor, crizotinib, and CDK 4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, have been evaluated in combination as cancer treatment in vitro. Because the toxicological data for the combination of these drugs is limited, we investigated the toxicity of the crizotinib and palbociclib combination in 80 ICR (CD-1) mice (average age = ~20 weeks). Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial and included sex (female vs. male), crizotinib (0 or 4 mg), and palbociclib (0 or 1 mg). Drugs were administered to mice by oral gavage 24 hours (n = 40) and 7 days (n = 40) prior to the collection of blood and tissue samples to determine serum chemistry, hematology, and histopathology...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414262/antibody-drug-conjugates-for-cancer-treatment
#16
John M Lambert, Anna Berkenblit
The concept of exploiting the specific binding properties of monoclonal antibodies as a mechanism for selective delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells is an attractive solution to the challenge of increasing the therapeutic index of cell-killing agents for treating cancer. All three parts of an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC)-the antibody, the cytotoxic payload, and the linker chemistry that joins them together-as well as the biologic properties of the cell-surface target antigen are important in designing an effective anticancer agent...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412295/costs-of-examinations-performed-in-a-hospital-laboratory-in-chile
#17
Germán Lobos Andrade, Carolina Salas Palma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. METHOD: Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. RESULTS: The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD) were: 1...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407203/toxicological-evaluation-of-3-sialyllactose-sodium-salt
#18
Daehee Kim, Rit Bahadur Gurung, Wonmin Seo, Albert W Lee, Jinsuk Woo
The safety of 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3'-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50 ) of 3'-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities...
April 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407201/repeated-dose-28-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-a-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-and-acacia-catechu-in-rats
#19
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Hyun-Jin Kim, Young-Chul Lee, Qi Jia
Patients with osteoarthritis experience debilitating pain and loss of joint function that requires chronic treatment. While nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been effective for temporary symptomatic relief, their long term usage has been limited by their associated side-effects. UP1306, a standardized novel composition from the extracts of root barks of Morus alba and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used in over the counter joint care dietary supplements as a safer alternative. These two medicinal plants have long track records of safe human consumption...
April 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389663/harmonization-of-interpretative-comments-in-laboratory-hematology-reporting-the-recommendations-of-working-group-on-diagnostic-hematology-of-the-italian-society-of-clinical-chemistry-and-clinical-molecular-biology-wgdh-sibioc
#20
Sabrina Buoro, Giorgio Da Rin, Alessandra Fanelli, Giuseppe Lippi
The goal of harmonizing laboratory testing is contributing to improving the quality of patient care and ultimately ameliorating patient outcome. The complete blood and leukocyte differential counts are among the most frequently requested clinical laboratory tests. The morphological assessment of peripheral blood cells (PB) through microscopic examination of properly stained blood smears is still considered a hallmark of laboratory hematology. Nevertheless, a variable inter-observer experience and the different terminology used for characterizing cellular abnormalities both contribute to the current lack of harmonization in blood smear revision...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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